Sense of Smell in Poems of Alfred Lord Tennyson



Sense of Smell in Poems of Alfred Lord Tennyson

Sense of Smell

 Alexanderschlacht


Sense of Smell

Romance and History of Perfume

Fragrance by Leon Frederic

Romance and History of Perfume(click here for article)

Osmanthus/Mokusei-Lafcadio Hern

Osmanthus fragrans var. thunbergii

The air was pure and refreshing, as it often is in autumn, with that feeling of exhilaration and buoyancy ; the rays of the sun shone on the figure oi the lady; and she looked like a pure white flower set in a vase which enhanced her beauty.
The ground is everywhere hidden by a fine thick moss of so warm a color, that the brightest foliage of the varied shrubbery above it looks sombre by contrast; and the bases of walls, the pedestals of monuments, the stonework of the bell-tower, the masonry of the ancient well, are muffled with the same luminous growth. Maples and pines and cryptomerias screen the facade of the temple; and, if your visit be in autumn, you may find the whole court filled with the sweet heavy perfume of the mokusei blossom. After having looked at the strange temple, you would find it worth while to enter the cemetery, by the black gate on the west side of the court.
Exotics and retrospectives
By Lafcadio Hearn

Lady Burton's edition of her husband's Arabian nights: translated literally ... edited by Lady Isabel Burton, Justin Huntly McCarthy




 Arabian Nights

Lady Burton's edition of her husband's Arabian nights: translated literally ...
edited by Lady Isabel Burton, Justin Huntly McCarthy


perfume


incense

fragrant

fragrance

incense

smell

Tea Its History and Mystery by Joseph Walsh


 Men Laden With Tea, Sichuan Sheng, China 1908


Tea Its History and Mystery by Joseph Walsh

Odors of Plants



Some-i no uekiya (Gardens of Some-i)





Odors of Plants

The Joy of Gardens by Julius Norregard



The Joy of Gardens by Julius Norregard

Fragrant Quote for September 30th, 2012-A FOREST WALK by Alfred Billings Street

A Lovely sky, a cloudless sun,
A wind that breathes of leaves and
flowers,
O'er hill, through dale, my steps have
run 
To the cool forest's shadowy
bowers;
One of the paths all round that wind.

Traced by the browsing herds, I
choose, 
And sights and sounds of human kind
In Nature's lone recesses lose: 
The beech displays its marbled bark, 
The spruce its green tent stretches
wide, 
While scowls the hemlock grim and
dark,
The maple's scalloped dome beside. 
 All weave on high a verdant roof 
That keeps the very sun aloof. Making a twilight soft and green 
Within the columned, vaulted scene.

Sweet forest-odors have their birth
From the clothed boughs and teem-
ing earth:
Where pine-cones dropped, leaves
piled and dead 
Long tufts of grass, and stars of
fern, 
With many a wild flower's fairy
inn,
A thick, elastic carpet spread:
Here, with its mossy pall, the trunk, 
Resolving into soil, is sunk; 
There, wrenched but lately from its
throne 
By some fierce whirlwind circling
past, 
Its huge roots massed with earth and
stone, 
One of the woodland kings is cast.

Above, the forest-tips are bright 
With the broad blaze of sunny light; 
But now a fitful air-gust parts
The screening branches, and aglow
 Of dazzling, startling radiance darts
Down the dark stems, and breaks
below:
The mingled shadows off are rolled. 
The sylvan floor is bathed in gold;
Low sprouts and herbs, before unseen 
Display their shades of brown and
green:
Tints brighten o'er the velvet moss, 
Gleams twinkle on the laurel's gloss; 
The robin, brooding in her nest, 
Chirps as the quick ray strikes her
breast;
And, as my shadow prints the ground,
I see the rabbit upward bound,
With pointed ears an instant look,
Then scamper to the darkest nook,
Where, with crouched limb and star-
ing eye,
He watches while I saunter by.

A narrow vista, carpeted
With rich green grass, invites my
tread:
Here showers the light in golden dots,
There drops the shade in ebon spots,
So blended that the very air
Seems net-work as I enter there.
The partridge, whose deep-rolling
drum
Afar has sounded in my ear, 
Ceasing his beatings as I come. 
Whirs to the sheltering branches
near;
The little milk-snake glides away. 
The brindled marmot dives from day; 
And now, between the boughs, a
space
Of the blue, laughing sky, I trace: 
On each side shrinks the bowery
shade;
Before me spreads an emerald glade; 
The sunshine steeps its grass and
moss;
That couch my footsteps as I cross;
Merrily hums the tawny bee,
The glittering humming-bird I see;
Floats the bright butterfly along,
The insect choir is loud in song;
A spot of light and life, it seems. —
A fairy haunt for Fancy's dreams.

Here stretched, the pleasant turf I
press
In luxury of idleness;
Sun-streaks, and glancing wings, and
sky 
Spotted with cloud-shapes charm my
eye:
While murmuring grass and waving
trees —
Their leaf-harps sounding to the
breeze —
And water-tones that tinkle near. 
Blend their sweet music to my ear; 
And by the changing shades alone, 
The passage of the hours is known.

Scent of Gardenia/Tiare




 "Noa noa in Tahitian dialect means fragrant, and that is what the book undoubtedly is. It is as fragrant as the tiare, the gardenia of the South Seas. It is redolent of the primitive freshness of the island; luminous with colorful forests and long sea beaches under the sun. The liquid syllables of the Tahitian vahinas stream on its leisurely moving tide. Seeking the essence of color and line, Gauguin instinctively selected the last remaining corner of the world where it could be found."...
This was a friendly call. The natives taught Gauguin their secrets of living, and he came to the conclusion that he, after all, was the true "savage."
In ''Noa Noa" he presents this point of view with all his power as one of the truly great modern artists. These pages are at times realistic, at times saturated with a deeply religious mysticism. Here Paul Gauguin parts company with Mr. Maugham's boorish and brutal genius, especially in passages like this one, when the Frenchman wrote:
"Above all, they have taught me to know myself better; they have told me the deepest truth.
"Was this thy secret, thou mysterious world? O mysterious world of all light, thou hast made a light shine within me, and I have grown in admiration of thy antique beauty, which is the immemorial youth of nature. I have become better for having understood and having loved thy human soul—
a flower which has ceased to bloom and whose fragrance no one henceforth will breathe."
Current opinion, Volume 68
 edited by Edward Jewitt Wheeler, Frank Crane

I shall not forget the first time that Tahiti lifted before my hopeful yet doubting eyes! On the fourteenth day out from San Francisco I awoke with a feeling of buoyancy and expectancy that grew with the morning. I hoped to find soon in reality the ideal my fancy had created. In the afternoon,
while leaning over the cathead watching the flying-fish leaping in advance of the bow, there came to me a new and delicious odor. It seemed to steal from a secret garden under the sea. Sweeter and heavier it floated upon the light breeze—the fragrance of the hinano, the tiare, and the frangipani, Tahiti's famous flowers.
I strained my eyes to see land through the bright sunshine of the afternoon. Shortly after three o'clock vision became reality, marvelous, exquisite, a dim shadow in the offing, a dark speck in the lofty clouds, a mass of towering green upon blue water, the fast unfoldment of emerald, pale hills, and glittering reef. Nearer, the panorama was lovelier. The island rose in changing shape, here sheer and challenging, there sloping gently from mountain height to ocean sheen; different all about, altering with hiding sun and shifting view. I marked the volcanic make of it. Its loftiest peaks, cast up from the sea's bottom ages ago, peered from the long cloud streamers a mile and a half above my eyes. Its valleys were caverns of shadow, in which were secreted the wonders I had come so far to see.
The mentor-world traveler, Volume 10



Suppose it is Sunday, the fete-market of the week. By the wash-pool in the centre of the square are girls and women in their brightest and best, men from the mountains and lads from the country, fern and flower wreaths around their hats, with garlands of the Tahitian gardenia, " Tiare Tahiti" so sweet, pure, and white, and scenting for yards the balmy atmosphere.
The romance of the South Seas
By Clement Lindley Wragge

His house was toward the farther end of the main street, and set upon a spacious lawn a hundred feet from the street, which, by the same token, was also a lawn, for there was no sign of the unadorned earth. So little wheeled traffic was there that bare feet walked on a matting of grass and plants as soft as seaweed on the beach. The street was bordered with cocoanuts and pandanus, and the chief's dwelling had about it breadfruit, papayas, and cocoanuts. The grounds were divided from neighbors' parks by hedges of tiare Tahiti, gardenias, roses, and red and white oleanders. I drew in their perfume as Ori-a-Ori said, "la ora na!" and took and held my hand a moment, while his grave eyes studied my face in all kindliness.
Mystic isles of the South Seas
By Frederick O'Brien

Every evening at dusk I find her standing by the wicketgate of the hotel garden, in the shadow of the chestnut-tree. She has a little white scented flower for me, wrapped for shelter from the rude world in a sheath of coiled green leaf. It smells like jasmine, fresh and virginal; it is shaped like a lotus. It is the tiare maohi, or native single gardenia, the flower par Eminence of the island; but I had not yet learnt its name.
Tahiti
By George Calderon

The island also has its picturesque and historical sides. The roads are even more densely wooded than those of Tahiti, and the coast-line is a medley of little blue bays overhung with snaky palms and fringed with scarlet and yellow lines of hibiscus and gardenia bushes (tiare Tahiti).
The log of an island wanderer. Notes of travel in the eastern Pacific
By Edwin Pallander

The volcano we were desirous of seeing was thirty miles from the place of our landing, and we set out for it on the following day, attended by some of the natives, and also by the English settler, to act as interpreter. The commencement of our journey seemed auspicious, leading through a wood, where trees afforded a grateful shade from the heat of a tropical sun, while gorgeous birds fluttered among their boughs, or regaled us with the melody of their songs The fragrant gardenia, and other beautiful flowers, so highly prized in our own country as hot-house plants, profusely adomed our path.
Harper's magazine, Volume 3

The best way to travel about Tahiti is by automobile, and there is no trouble to hire one. In all directions you will find pictorial plenty. From the road leading west along the shore— an avenue of cocoanut-palms, mango and vanillatrees—there is many a charming glimpse of the neighboring island, Moorea, with its fascinating sky-line; and numerous side-tracks from the highway give access to exquisite vistas of river and mountain-scenery. Long stretches of the wayside are lined by crimson hibiscus, beautiful hedges of lantana, and white gardenias with their heavy fragrance; the scarlet chili-pod grows rampant; and orange-trees dangle their golden fruit.
Photo-era magazine, Volume 47

Scent of Orange Blossom by H. T. Williams

The Alhambra, Granada, Spain.
The Citrus aurantium or Golden-fruited Orange tree, under favorable circumstances, attains a height of 25 to 30 feet, its usual height however being from 15 to 20 feet, and is graceful in all its parts. The trunk is upright, and branches into a regular or symmetrical head. The leaves are moderately large, beautifully shaped, of a fine healthy green, and shining on the upper sides, while the under sides have a slight appearance of down. The flowers occur in little clusters on the sides of the branches are pleasing in their, form, of a delicate white in the sweet Oranges, and in the more acid varieties slightly tinged with pink. In some plants they have a more powerful odor, and are for the moment more rich, but in the Orange grove there is a fragrance in the aroma which never satiates or offends; and as the tree is at one and the same time in all stages of its bearing, in flower, in fruit just set, and in golden fruit inviting the hand to pull and the palate to taste, it is hardly possible to conceive or imagine any thing more delightful. The glorious beauty of such a scene is described by the "Naturalist in Bermuda" with these pleasurable emotions :

"Delicious beyond description is the perfume emitted from the expanded blossoms of these bearing trees, and more particularly of a calm evening, after a copious fall of rain, when the sun is re-appearing in subdued brightness and splendor, gilds each cedar-crowned hill and lowly cot with its falling beams, the powerful scent of the citron tribe mingled with that of the cedar, is exhaled in such copious quantity, as forcibly to impress the imaginative with a realization of those fairy lands of ancient fable, when gorgeous palaces, inhabited by rich and happy princes, were fanned each live-long day by balmy breezes, heavily laden with the odorous incense."

These sentiments are still further echoed by Trumbull, who says:

"Of all the new enjoyments of which the knowledge is acquired by a visit to the inter-tropical regions, those that reach us through a sense, which in the old world is productive of as many painful as pleasurable emotions, are, in my opinion, the most exquisite."

Without leaving Europe, a traveller may learn how delightful it is to take his early walk in an Orange grove, during the season when the trees are in bloom. The gardens of the Tuileries may give him a faint idea of it, just before the ancient denizens of the Orangerie have been despoiled of their crop of blossoms, that the distiller may convert them into' Orange-flower water. But the fragrance of the Tuileries is as inferior to that of the Moorish gardens of the Alcazar at Seville, as these last, with all the care bestowed on them, are excelled by some neglected Orange grove in Cuba or St. Domingo."

Nor is the rich fragrance of the Orange grove to be celebrated in the sentiments of prose writers alone, but is referred toby the Poets. Cowper thus says of

"The golden boast
Of Portugal and Western India, there
The ruddier Orange, and the paler Lime,
Peep through their polished foliage at the storm,
And seem to smile at what they need not fear."

Grainger, a poetic writer of the West Indies, among his numerous references, speaks of the places where

" the Lemon, Orange, and the Lime, Amid their verdant umbrage, countless giow With fragrant fruit of vegetable gold."

And in the many lines which are filled with homely advice to the planter of his native isle, he encourages the cultivation of this fruit in the fol. lowing words:

" With Limes, with Lemons, let thy fences glow,
Grateful to sense, now children of this clime.
And here and there let Oranges erect
.Their shapely beauties, and perfume the sky."

And again, in another part, he repeats the same advice, telling his readers to fence around their tracts:

" with hedges, or of Limes,
Or busy Citrons, or the shapely tree [Orange]
That glows at once with aromatic blooms
And golden fruit mature."

The fragrant blossoms are made the emblem of chastity, from the purity of their white petals. One of the principal beauties of the Orange tribe consists, as above expressed, in its bearing fruit and flowers at the same time, as is beautifully noticed by Pope:

"Here Orange trees with biossoms and pendants shine,
And vernal henors to their autumn join.
Exceed their promise In the ripened store,
Yet in the rising biossoms promise more."

An Orange tree, with fruit and flowers, has been chosen as the emblem to express Generosity, and therefore like that noble feeling, continually tending to the communication of benefits.

THE FLOWER FAIRY.

 Das Märchenbuch

THE FLOWER FAIRY.

Our Yard by Roy Rolfe Gilson

Fairy Rings and Toadstools
Our Yard by Roy Rolfe Gilson

A FAIRY STORY FOR GROWN-UPS

 The Fairy Ring; the Enchanted Piper;


A FAIRY STORY FOR GROWN-UPS

KATHERINE HARRINGTON. '18

Oh! to bed, mother? So soon? See, the tulips are still open and the dandelions are as bright as day. Let's sit here in the willow rocker by the window. Please! just until the tulips close—and I'll whispe'r you the biggest secret, you could never guess. Listen. Do you know, there's a fairy lives on our front porch, right here in the honey-suckle? I found her one morning before breakfast, looking for the song sparrow's nest. And she showed me another fairy, too, who lives in the locust tree that grows by the roadside, and blows perfume on the people as they pass by. Yes, it is the fairy who blows down perfume! The perfume could never get out of the flowers at all, if it weren't for the fairies to blow it.

And it's the fairies who are my little sisters, mother, and we play together sometimes. Don't you remember once we were playing out in my sand-pile and I said, "Here! you're playing in my sand!", and then you came out of your kitchen—remember?—and said, "Who are you talking to?", and I laughed at you, and the fairies laughed too, and turned somersaults at you and said you were a grown-up. Yes they did! And you are a grown-up, too, and you don't know that we have a house. But we have, and if you ask me where it is and what is in it, I'll say, "I won't tell!" because then you'd say "Wha-a-t?" and frown your face and squint your eyes at me—See! See! You're doing it now!

Oh, at night? Why! didn't the fairies ever tell you what happens at night? You're so funny, mother. Why, every night at twelve o'clock when everyone's in bed and the big gas light on the corner has gone out, the lilies of the valley ring their bells and the wind-harps play and all the flower fairies in our garden come out and dance in the starlight—all except one— Oh, I can't tell you about him; because, see, it makes big tears come in my eyes. He's a poor little lame fairy that lives in a violet, and when he was a baby his mother told him that he was a violet-fairy and that he must always sleep in violets. But one night he said he was tired of sleeping in violets, and so he cre-eped out re-a-1 still and went hippity-hop jist as c-a-re-ful over into the pasture and crawled into an empty dandelion and went fast to sleep. But oh dear, dear, dear! by and by a big, nasty cow came along, and because there wasn't any dandelion fairy to tell her not to, she lay right down on that dandelion with the violet-fairy in it. And that's how he's lame in one foot and can't dance. But the fairies never tell it to anyone, and we all dance together—and we have such fun! I tell them how to make mud-pies, and they show me how to suck the honey from nasturtiums and how they make the three-leaved clovers grow to four.

But here is the biggest secret of all! Last night after supper when you were washing the dishes, I slipped out on the porch to watch the fairy ,,-hut up the honey-suckles. And as I was watching, she smiled at me and whispered: "Would you like to be a sweet-perfume flower?" And I said, "Yes,"' and clapped my hands. Then you came and snatched me up to bed; and on the way up-stairs you put your head close down on me, like this, and said: "Mm-m-m, but you smell good! You've been in the rose garden." That's how you said, mother, but I just laughed at you, for I knew what had happened—and the fairy lives on our front porch, in the honey-suckle.

Fragrant Memories of Childhood BY MRS. L. L. CANTWELL.

Prairie Smoke is a Spring blooming wildflower found in native prairie

May I be indulged in a few pastoral remembrances before I settle down to the serious work of my subject? Some of the most radiant memories of my early life are my visits to the country. I remember the thrills of anticipation that made glorious the days preceding the one of the appointed visit; the getting together small gifts for the dearly loved, the field and hedge scented cousins, the early breakfast, the heart throbbing suspense of waiting for the wagon. And when the wagon came, the delight of climbing into it, and feeling that the consummation devoutly wished for was now slowly and surely enfolding us. The wagon itself was none of your fancy, dainty affairs of luxurious locomotion.

Bless you! it was a regular old grinder, thumper and thunderer. It raised an earthquake of sound and an earthquake of motion. Seated in it, you could not talk without biting your tongue, and you grew numb in many spots from the merciless St. Vitus' dance of the monster. It was all Puritanical adamant without sanctimoniousness of springs or sentiment of cushions or poetry of paint. It was a huge box on stout wheels, and was pulled by two spotted, fat, straight-backed, unsophisticated horses. Before we got to the line of country versus town, the dirty town air was all thumped out of our quivering lungs, and the welcoming zephyrs of the country broke upon us in waves of beauty, color and fragrance.

We were literally churned by the lime the five miles of up and down hill were jolted over, and were so hungry that the blood of an hundred blushes, if blushed at this late day would not express our mature mortification at the shameless havoc we made upon the nectar and ambrosia of the farm house table—aye, and the brazen visits between meals to the spring-house, orchard and pantry.

But I am not done with the wagon. Its ponderous wheel hubs drippad with a mixture of tar and grease, black, shining, jellied and fragrant. Yes, fragrant. Don't sneer, fair and dainty critic. Can you not recall scenes of enchanting romance and bewildering sentiment, thrilling hand pressures and ecstatic eye glances, when the scent of tuberoses or heliotrope steals upon your delicate nostrils? Ah ! you blush. You are convinced. On the same sweet principle of powerful and tender association, is the odor of tar and wagon grease dear and magical to my faithful nostrils. Whenever that insinuating, assertive fragrance is wafted to the sensitive membrane of my constant nose, there pass to my sensibilities and brain thrills of joyful memory to which only a poet could do justice.

For, are not the memories of childhood the records of a journey 'mid wonders, enchantments and magic? "No art can paint or gild" scenes in after life with the glory that decked everything when we though the world a paradise. We see no such landscapes now, no such castled cities in clouds and sunsets; we dream no such future of magical achievements. We have found out that a landscape is made up of mountain, valley, stream and sky; that the country means geology, chemistry and crops.

Alas! How practical and prosaic the necessary anatomizing of life makes us. How the glow fades from even the rose when we interrogate it, and the music from the bird's notes, when we attempt to ask the sentiment of its song. But the old wagon has never lost its charm for me, and could I greet the fragrance of its voluptuous wheels I would find rising before me all those enchanting, first illuminations of my childhood's country visits.

The puzzle of growing things delighted me; the very weeds were exquisitely saucy and attractive; the dew was a wonder; the heavenly expanse, unbroken from horizon to horizon, was a sublime joy; the grand awakenings to fragrant mornings; the country sounds of lowing herds, of concerts of birds, the echoes of the shrill cry and the soft laugh, the contrast of sound and silence, each and all of these were magnificent mysteries. The dream-inspiring sunsets, the long slanting evening shadows with their Japanese effects, the slow march homeward of the punctual cows, the solemn stillness of the opal-tinted twilight, the distant, plaintive note of the whip poor-will, the stealing forth of Night, with bare, silent feet and diadem of stars, all these were beautiful enigmas, long since vainly interrogated, though swept by the sad toned zephyrs of life and loss, as the winds sweep aeolian harp strings.

To pluck the fruit; to sally forth in bold warfare against the repulsive, soul shuddering tomato worm, to help pick tomatoes; to defy snakes, toads, and a hundred unknown monsters in the berry patch; to stand bravely close to the cow's terrible heels and horns; to climb a tree, to hunt eggs at risk of limbs; to change one's climate from the hot tropic of noon to the mild chill of the spring house; to peep into bureau drawers whose fragrance was that of fields and old fashioned flower gardens; to see the long preserved treasures and souvenirs of a simple country life kept carefully from dust and sacrilegious hands; to watch the mysteries of the sweet, clean, great kitchen; to' drop into the one luxurious chair in the darkened, prim parlor, and dream that all these delights were mine to have and hold forever, all these and more, have left ineffaceable pictures in my memory.

And I am quite sure that no faces in all the years since have glowed with the honest love and candor that made more than beautiful the countenances of my beloved country cousins, when life was as I have described it.

Fragrant Wild Flowers-John Burroughs

 Wildflowers and poppies in the hills surrounding Lake Elsinore, California.



Fragrant Wild Flowers-John Burroughs

On the Tree Yielding African Olibanum(Frankincense)


 A frankincense tree (Boswellia sacra) at Wadi Dowkah Natural Park (Dhofar, Oman).

On the Tree Yielding African Olibanum

Fragrant Quote for September 29th, 2012-THE AUTUMN WOODS By Eva Beede Odell

Autumn Woods


THE AUTUMN WOODS By Eva Beede Odell
What beauty in the Autumn woods!
Where, in the calm, deep solitudes,
The amber sunshine finds its way,
And checkered light and shadows play.
Such beauty everywhere we turn!
The moss-grown rock and drooping fern,
The woodland flowers and trailing vines,
The singing brooks and sighing pines,
The murmur of the gentle breeze
That stirs the yellow chestnut leaves,
Till softly in the grasses brown
The round and prickly burs drop down.
The maples are in bright array
Of mottled gold and crimson gay;
The oaks in bronze and russet dressed;
In cloth of gold are all the rest,
Except that now and then between
There stands a tall, dark evergreen
That sheds its spicy fragrance round
And drops its cones upon the ground.
With asters white and purple tinged,
And goldenrod, the woods are fringed,
With scarlet berries peeping through
Where wild grapes hang, of purple hue,
And fiery-fingered ivy clings,
While milkweed floats on downy wings.
The crickets chirp and insects hum,
For glorious Autumn now has come.

On Incense-Encyclopædia of Religion and Ethics: Hymns-Liberty By James Hastings


 Incense from the Sacrafice of Abraham

INCENSE.—The custom of burning sweet smelling substances in religious ceremonies, or sometimes as a separate rite, has been of wide-spread occurrence, especially in the higher religions.

i. Kinds of incense.—While frankincense and other gum resins are more strictly to be called incense, many other substances have been used for the purpose of producing an agreeable odour when burned—various kinds of wood or bark, branches or roots of tree9, herbs and odoriferous plants, seeds, flowers, fruits, aromatic earths, etc.

Ot substances referred to in the Bible which are known to have been used by the Hebrews and other peoples as incense there an: (1) Wood—aloes (eagle-wood), Ca «f«, ct. Diosoor. L 21; sweet cane, Jer 620. (2) Bark—cassia, Pa 45»; cinnamon, BerlgU. (8) foots—castas, Ex SO". (4) Gum rains—balm <! mastic), On 37», Erk 27"; tragacanth (spicery), On 87*»; balaam (spices;, Ca &>•'»; bdellium. On 2«, c(. Diosoor. L 80; galbanum, Ex SO"; ladanum (myrrh), On 37%; stacte. Ex 30**; frankincense. Ex 303*. (5) Flower products—saffron, Ca 414; spikenard, Ca 41*. (6) Animal product*—onycha(the operculum of a marine mollusc). Ex 3034.

The sacred incense used in later Hebrew ritual was a compound of stacte, onycha, galbanum, and pure frankincense, seasoned with salt and reduced to a fine powder.1 In still later times—the Herodian period—Josephus records that thirteeu ingredients (sweet-smelling spices) were used.* Plutarch gives a list of sixteen ingredient* used by the Egyptians in prei*aring btphi— honey, wine, raisins, sweet rush, resin, myrrh, frankincense, seseus, calamus, asphalt, thryon, dock, both kinds of aiwuthids, cardamum, and orris root.' In both cases the compounding was of ritual importance and a matter of mystery, oacred books were read aloud while the kuphi was being mixed.

Frankincense (Gr. Xt^avurrbt, Heb. I'blidndh, Med. Lat olibanum, libanns in Vulg. of Sir 24" 391B) is the gum resin of trees of the genus Boswcllia \B. Carterii, B. Frereana, B. Bhua-Dajicma), and is exported from Somaliland, probably the Punt of Egyptian inscriptions. Pliny* refers to it as a product of Arabia (Hadramaut), and says that the oabeEi alone behold the tree which produces it, and of these only 3000 families by virtue of hereditary succession. The trees are sacred ; and, while pruning the trees or gathering the resin, men must

i Ex so". a ft/v. v. 6.

• cb/sid.81. < y/.Vxii. i4ff.

not contract pollution by sexual intercourse or contact with a corpse. It is carried to Sabota, where the priests claim a tithe of it in honour of their god Sabis; until this is paid, none of it may be disposed of. Herodotus' speaks of winged serpents which guard the trees and are driven off by training styrax. It was one of the ingredients of Jewish incense,1 as it is still of that used in Christian ritual. Classical authors, in speaking of frankincense, usually refer to its exporting place as the seat of its origin, e.g. Syria and Phoenicia.

2. Purpose df incense.—The use of incense is connected primarily with the psychical aspects of the sense of smell. Pleasant-smelling perfumes, in whatever way they are obtained, are agreeable to men. They were offered to honourable persons in ancient times, or diffused over the roads on which they travelled.' Incense was also used at banquets as an agreeable accompaniment of food and wine. Hence it was supposed that such perfumes would also be agreeable to gods or spirits, on the same principle as that by which foodstuffs which men liked were offered to them. This is obvious when we consider that the smoke of sacrifice is pleasing to the gods, and that they are thought to seize on 'the unctuous smoke' with delight,4 and that flowers are commonly offered to the gods, or scented oils applied to their images.1 The bodies of the dead are also decked with flowers, aromatic oils, and perfumes for the same reason. Disagreeable odours, being obnoxious to men, were also obnoxious to supernatural beings. Hence it came to be thought that beneficent gods not only liked, but actually themselves possessed, pleasant odours.

Egyptian texts Illustrate these beliefs. Ms baa a wonderful odour which she can transfer to others, e.g. to the dead. Osiris transfers his odour to those whom he loves. At the anointing ot the corpse, the ' perfume on the head ot Horus * la besought to place itself on that of the deceased.8 Similar ideas are found in Mandaean belief. The Light beings have a perfume which invigorates those who smell it.' in Persian belief the righteous after death are said to have a sweet odour.8 The region of the gods, the place of bliss, has also a sweet perfume. The Polynesian Rohutu is free from all noxious odours.9 In the Persian texts the deceased, approaching the blissful regions, is surrounded by a perfumed breeze.10 Sweet odours form one of the characteristics of Hindu and Buddhist Paradises, and, where Divine beings or saints descend to the malodorous hells, they change the evil odour to sweet perfume.11 Evil odours characterize the Persian regions of punishment, as well as the Muhammadan and Christian hell.1' The idea that Paradise has a iileasant odour is found in Jewish, Christian, and Gnostic writings. Thus in the regions of the eastern Paradise and the 'garden of righteousness' visited by Enoch there are many fragrant aromatic trees, i.e. those which yield material for incense, and among them one ' with a fmgranco beyond all fragrance.'18 The idea that Paradise is a region of fragrant perfume appears already in the Apoe. of Peter, and is found in most accounts of visits to or visions of the Other-World, while the same idea is referred to in inscriptions on Christian gravestones.14 Spiritual persons and martyrs also possess this fragrance.18 in Onostic writings this perfume is connected with
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the powers of the upper world, or the various heavens.1 In Onostic and Christian circles the anointing with fragrant oil had the effect of repelling the demons, because it was ' a type of that sweet odour which is above all things.'8

While evil odours are obnoxious to gods, they also scare off demons, who are likewise put to flight by pleasant odours, e.g. that of incense, which is one of the material objects commonly credited with magical virtues. The Andaman Islanders believe that the smell of bees'-wax is offensive to a demon of epidemic, who is kept off by stakes painted with it.* The Kei Islanders (New Guinea) burn the scrapings of buffalo horn to drive off demons.* The Thompson River Indians scare off ghosts by burning juniper.* In India, incense, which pleases the gods, drives off demons, who are also kept off by offensive odours.* In Canton, on the third day of the tenth month, filth is swept out of the house, and three sticks of incense are used to drive off the demon of penury.7 In Palestine it is commonly used as an apotropoeic,8and in Morocco before and during the 'Great Fast' incense is burned to keep off the jinn.* Incense, because dreaded by evil spirits, is one of the ingredients of the 'amulet-box in Tibet. ** In Greece, at the Anthesteria and also at child-birth, doors were smeared with pitch to keep out ghosts and demons.11 The Book of Tobit" illustrates this belief among the Jews. The liver and heart of a fish are laid on 'ashes of perfumes' so as to cause a smoke. When the demon smells this, he flees away to Egypt. In modern survivals similar ideas are found. In the Tyrol, witches are expelled by fumigating houses with juniper, and by burning rosemary, hemlock, sloe, and resinous splinters. Fairies are also kept off by strong odours, e.g. burning an old shoe, or by garlic.1* Hence, generally, fumigation is a method of purifying persons and places, and of scaring off all kinds of evil influences; and for this incense is often used, as, e.g., in mourning ceremonies in China.14

Besides the primary purpose of the use of incense as an offering pleasing to the gods, there were other practical, symbolic, or mystical uses which it served. (1) It was burned to neutralize the strong odours of bloody or burnt sacrifices, especially in hot regions. It was also used for sanitary reasons, e.g. in places where the dead were buried.1* (2) It was likewise a symbol or vehicle of prayer. This is already found in Egypt, where it was thought that the smoke as it rose bore words of power or of prayer to the gods, who were pleased by its odour. The soul of the dead ascended to heaven by the smoke of the incense burned on his behalf." In Jewish thought, prayer was connected with incense. In Ps 141s it is compared to incense. Cf. Kev 58, where golden bowls full of incense represent prayer. In Rev 83-4 prayer rises

1 Cf. Iren. L iv. 1; Hippol. Philosoph. v. 14, vii. 10; Apoc.

Acts, passim.

* Iren. I. xxi. 3.

» E. H. Man, JAI xii. [1883] 97.

* Frazer, GB? iii. 68.

* J. Teit, Memoirs Amer. Mus. of Nat. Hist. ii. pt. 4 [1900], p. 832.

* Crooke, PR », 1896, U. 21; cf. ERE ill. 445*.

1 L'Anthrop. iv. [1893] 175 f. « FL xviil. [1907] 89.

» E. Westermarck, FL xxii. [1911] 182, 142. 1° See ERE iii. 488>>.

11 Hesychius, s.v. utapai nujpat ; Photius, s.v. paupov

H 67. lb. 17 82- 3.

13 J. O.Campbell, Superstitions of the Highlands and Islands of Scotland, Glasgow, 1900, p. 38; E. 8. Hartland, Science of Fairy Tales, London, 1891, p. 99.

•4 J. J. M. de Oroot, Rel. System of China, Leyden, 1892 ff., 1. 88, 77; cf. W. R. Smith, Rel. Sem.*, London, 1894, p. 426 ; M. Jast row, Aspects of Rel. Belief and Practice in Bab. and Assyr., New York, 1911, p. 318 (purification of house after sickness with torches and censers); cf. also ERE iv. 729b, 762*.

« Cf. Tert, de Cor. Mil. 10; Apol. 30, 42.

w Budge, op. dt. iii. 256; cf. the idea current in the New Hebrides that the soul of the departed rose to the sun on the flre kindled at the grave (Q. Turner, Samoa, London, 1884, p. 835).

with the smoke of the incense, as in the Egyptian view. So in Christian thought incense has usually been regarded as symbolic of prayer, though it also typifies contrition, the preaching of the faith, etc (3) More mystical views have sometimes been entertained. Plutarch explains the beneficial effect of the Egyptian kuphi by saying that its sixteen ingredients are a square out of a square. Being composed of aromatic ingredients, it lulls people to sleep, loosens the tension of daily anxieties, and brightens the dreams. It is made of things that delight most in the night and exhibits its virtues by night.1 Plutarch also gives medico-mystical reasons for the burning of other substances at other times, e.g. resin in the morning to purify the air, because of its strong and penetrating quality; myrrh at midday, because its hot nature dissolves and disperses the turbid qualities in the air.' Philo explains the four ingredients of the Hebrew incense as symbolizing the four elements, and thus representing the universe.* Josephus writes that the altar of incense, with the thirteen kinds of sweet-smelling things gathered from all places, points to the fact that God is Lord of all4 In the Orphic hymns the different substances used and offered to the gods are chosen because of some occult reason in each case.

W. R. Smith (426 f.) considers the religious value of incense as originally independent of animal sacrifice, since frankincense was the gum of a very holy species of tree collected with religious precautions. The right to see the trees was reserved to certAin sacred families. While harvesting the gum they mu
3. Ritual use of incense in ethnic religions.—(a)

Lower races.—The use of incense among lower races is hardly known, save perhaps where they have been in contact with higher races using it. We may, however, note the American Indian custom of offering tobacco smoke to the gods, and the Polynesian offering of flowers and aromatic substances.' Among the Sakai, Seniang, Jakun, etc., the only common kind of offering is the burning of incense (benzoin). At a death among th« Sakai, the magician waves a censer seven times over the body, recommending the dying man to think of his dead ancestors. As the smoke mounts up and then vanishes, so does the soul. Good spirits love its smell and evil spirits hate it. In sickness, among the savage Malays of Johore, the magician burns incense. The fumes rise to the abode of Jewa-Jewa and gratify him. He welcomes the soul of the magician and grants him medicine for the sick.7 Incense is burned as an offering at shrines, saints' tombs, etc., among the Malays, and is the usual form of burnt sacrifice, with invocation to the Spirit of Incense. It reaches the nostrils of the gods and propitiates them as a foretaste of other offerings to follow.8 It is also used in magical ceremonies, e.g. to make one walk on water or remain under water in an ordeal, in the use of the divining rod, or to cause a spirit to possess a magician.* Callaway refers to 'incense' burned with Zulu animal sacrifices (blood and caul of a bullock) to the spirits, in order to give them a sweet savour. It is apparently some native product and is also used in rites for the cure of sickness.10

(6) Among the Semites the use of incense came to be wide-spread. Its name among the Babylonians was fcutrinnu, and the meense-offering

1 de Isid. 81. * lb. 80.

8 Qnis rerum divin. heres. 41. * BJ v. v. 6.

» Pliny, xii. 64. 6Turner, i. 86,71.

7 Skeat-Iilagden, Pagan Races of the Malay Penintuh, London, 1906, ii. 98,199, 352.

* W. W. Skeat. Malay Magic, London, 1900, p. 74 f.

• Skeat, FL xiii. [1902) 136, 1441., 162.

10 Religious System of the Amasulu, Natal, 1870, London, 1874, pp. 141, 174.

consisted of odoriferous woods (cedar, cypress), myrtle, cane, and sweet herbs, by which the gods were made to smell a pleasing odour. After the Deluge, its survivor ottered calamus, cedar, and fragrant herbs, and 'the gods inhaled the sweet odour'and 'gathered like flies round the sacrificer.'1 Incense is frequently mentioned in the texts—e.g., 'before Saras* he makes an incense-offering'—or kings are represented making this ottering. Nabonnedos is described as filling the temple with the odour of incense.' Herodotus' says that 1000 talents of frankincense were ottered on the great altar of Bel at his annual feast, and the author of Is 65* refers to Babylon as the land where incense is offered on bricks. It was burned as a ritual accompaniment of incantations, prayers, and the presentation of oracles, and also at the yearly mourning for Tammuz, with which was combined a memorial of the dead, who are said to 'arise and inhale the incense of offerings,' as well as at funeral rites.' It was also used as a fnmigatory, e.g. of the gods' table and its accessaries and the place whither the gods were supposed to come, of houses, and of persons.*

Evidence of the popularity of incense-offerings among the peoples of Canaan and the surrounding districts is found in the fact that it is the most commonly denounced form of idolatry in Israel. Incense was ottered on altars of brick or on the housetops to Baal, the sun, moon, stars, etc.' Lueian describes the sweet odours and the incense smoking without ceasing in the temples of the Syrian goddess.

(e) Although in the OT the Hebrew use of incense seems to be early, this is due to the rendering of the word k'tOreth as ' incense,' when, strictly speaking, it mean." the savoury odour or smoke of a burnt sacrifice.' The word translated 'frankincense' is I'bhOnah, \lparos, Arab, lubdn, meaning a sweet resinous gum, and incense in this sense was not certainly used until the 7th century.8 $'(6reth also came to mean 'incense.'* Ezekiel makes no reference to incense in his description of the reformed ritual. The first distinct reference to its use in the cult of Jahweh iB in Jer 6"> 'To what purpose cometh there to me frankincense from SheDa, and the sweet cane [calamus] from a far country.!' Cf. 17" 41* and Is43as-S4 60° 66s—the latter passages show that it was not required, and was an innovation in the cult of Jahweh and was expensive. Once admitted, however, it came to be a regular part of the ritual, and is frequently referred to in the Priestly Code (P). Incense was offered either (1) by itself, or (2) as a part of other sacrifices. (1) It was ottered in censers, e.g. on the Day of Atonement when the high priest appeared before the mercy-seat;10 or when Aaron passed through the congregation to stay the plague with his censer and incense (an atonement and fumigation). u The incense used in these rites was carefully compounded according to a set formula,19 and was obviously regarded as sacred—' most holy' and not to be used for common purposes. It must not be consumed on 'strange fire,' i.e. fire from some other source than the glowing altar coals,1* and it 1 Jastrow, Hel. of Bab. and Assyria, Boston, 18DS, p. 603. > Jutrow, p. 666; K. Delitxsch, Auyr. HWB, Leipzig, 1896, p. 600. • L 4
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must not be offered by any but the priests.1 Probably as a later custom a separate altar on which this incense was burned came into use, and on it incense was burned morning and evening.' (2) Frankincense {i.e. not the compounded incense of Ex 30") was offered with the meat-offering,' and firstfruit*,4 and burned with them on the altar. It was also placed on the shewbread as a ' memorial,' 'azk&rdh, in two golden vessels and then consumed on the altar at each weekly renewal of the bread.* But it was not to be offered with a sin-offering or with the ' meal offering of jealousy.'*

In later times the daily offering of incense became an elaborate ceremony, and priests were chosen by lot to offer it.'

(d) In Egypt the burning of various kinds of incense was always an important rite, each ingredient of it having magical properties, and, as has been seen, its smoke was supposed to cany the words of prayer as well as the souls of the dead to heaven. Prayer was made, e.g., to Ra, that he would draw the soul up to heaven on the smoke of the incense. Probably the earliest reference to the use of in cense in any religion occurs in the notice of Sanchkara, a king of the Xlth dynasty, who sent an expedition for aromatics through the desert to the Red Sea towards the incense land of Punt. Hatsepsu, a queen of the XVIIIth dynasty, also sent an expedition by sea thither. Punt is probably Hadramaut and Somaliland.' Incense was also obtained from Gilead.' A common representation on the walls of temples is that of a king offering incense. He holds a censer in one hand and with the other throws little balls or pastilles of incense upon it, praying the god to accept it and give him a long life. Immense quantities of incense are often spoken of as having been offered, e.g. 1000 censers, or, as an inscription referring to Barneses III. reports, 1,933,766 pieces of incense, eto., during the 31 years of his reign.14 It was ottered to all the gods, who delighted in its odour, their statues being censed with it and perfumed. Often it accompanied other offerings, greater or smaller—e.g., frankincense, myrrh, and other perfumes were placed in the carcass of the bullock ottered to Isis11—or was presented by itself, as described above. The censer was an open cup holding fire, with or without a handle, but other forms were also used.1' At funerary rites the deceased was purified with incense. Five grains were twice offered to mouth, eyes, and hand, once for the north and once for the south; then incense from foreign parts was similarly offered, along with the litany of purification. Nlyrrh, resin, etc., but not frankincense, were placed in the body which was embalmed.u

(e) Incense, in the sense of a gum resin, does not seem to have been used in Greece until postHomeric times, and Pliny says that people knew only the smell of cedar and citrus as it arose in volumes of smoke from the sacrifice.14 The idea of a fragrant odour, e.g. of sacrifice, being pleasant to the gods was well known.1* The wood of odoriferous trees, e.g. a kind of cedar (to 8vov),a as well as myrtle was burned in houses for its fragrant smell. In Homer17 dim probably means no more than the burning of such wood or some native pro

iNo 16TM-, 2CI1261W

• Ex 801- 7- s a secondary part ol P.

I Lv 21 6i». * Lv 2«'-.

s Lv 24»»-; Jos. Ant. m. x. 7. « Lv 6", Na 61*.

7Lk 1»10; jy/K col. 2167.

s Schroder, HeaUex., t.v.'Welhrauch.'

» On 87*>.

w J. G. Wilkinson, J/annersand Customs of Ane. Egyptians, London, 1878, iil. 414, 417; A. Erman, Xgypten una dyypt.
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duct as an offering, or it may simply mean 'sacrifice.' Later it came to mean 'incense,' and was the source of Lat. tus. The word for 'frankincense,' \ipavw6s, was of foreign derivation. Incense as such was not used before the 8th cent. B.C.,1 and is first mentioned in Euripides.' Schrader is of opinion that it may have Tbeen introduced through the cult of Aphrodite, and it was certainly traditionally thought to have come from Phoenicia via Cyprus, where it was used in her cult.' It was brought into Greece commercially from Arabia, and imported thence by Phoenicians.4 Incense was burned with bloody sacrifices as an offering or to combat evil odours,* or with fruits, cakes, wheat, etc.,' or as a separate offering, both in domestic ritual and in the cult of the gods; e.g., it was burnt to Zeus Meilichios, to Demeter before consulting the oracle at Patra, and to Hermes and Sosipolis.7 The inventory lists of some temples contain evidence of the large quantities which came to be used, and it was sometimes given as a gift by one person to another.8 Incense of different kinds was also used largely in the Orphic cult, as the hymns show. It was offered along with cakes of honey, rAwoc, without being burned, in the rites of certain divinities.' The method of burning incense was to throw it on the altar so as to mingle with the smell of the victim, or to fill the victim with it,10 or to burn it in braziers standing on or near the altar, or even outside temples, or in vessels which could be borne on the hand.

(f) In Roman religion, incense (tus) was one of the most important of the bloodless offerings (libamina), and indeed without it no rite was regarded as com

Elete. But, as in Greece, odoriferous woods and erbs had probably been used first, as described by Ovid in his account of the Palilia"—olive, pitchwood, laurel branches, and Sabine herbs.1* Gums and resins came to be used—frankincense (masculum tus),1* myrrh, crocus, costum." In the case of animal sacrifices, incense, saffron, and laurel were burned as a preliminary, and, as the animal was led up, incense and wine were sprinkled on the altar. It was also offered with the blood, and burned with the exta.u Incense was also offered by itself in public or private ritual; and this is illustrated by the fact that one method of forcing a renunciation of Christianity was to burn some incense on an altar before an image or to the Emperor. Incense was offered to the lar familiaris daily.1' The method of using it was to burn it on the greater altars, or in braziers, or small portable altars [focus, turibulum). It was carried in a casket called acerra (much used in funerary ceremonies), whence it was taken and burned.17 It was also offered for the averting of prodigies e. 296 B.C.,18 and burned in magical ceremonies.1* The introduction of incense into the cult was connected with Bacchus, the first to make offerings of cinnamon and frankincense30—an obvious suggestion of

I Farnell uses this as an argument against the likelihood of Hesopotaniian influences affecting Greece In earlier periods (Greece and Bab., Edinburgh, 1911, p. 232L\

a Bacch. 144.

'Athenams, zii. 10; Hesychius, s.v. ftfa.

* Herod, ii. 8, iii. 107 (the trees are said to be guarded by winged serpents).

» Paus. ix. 3. 8; Daremberg-Saglio, rv. ii. 964a. 'Paus. v. xv. 10, Vl xx. 3.

7 Paus. v. xv. 10, VL xx. 8, vn. xxi. 12, xxii. S: Luclan, do Saer. 12; Plaut. Aul. 24.

• Boeckh, CIG 2852, 6773; Lucian, Cronosolon, 16.

9 L. F. A. Maury, Hist, dtt religion* ds la Grice ant., Paris, 1857-69, ii. 116. 1° Paus. ra. iii. 8.

II Fasti, iv. 741 f.; cf. L 338 ff.

i» For the burning of laurel in a magrical ceremony, see Verg. Eel. vili. 82 f.; cf. Theocr. Id. ii. 33. « Verg. Eel. viii. 65. "Fasti, i. 839 ft

« lb. IV. 933 ff. ; Arnobius, vii. 26. 1" Plaut. Aul. prol. 23 f.

« Verg. jEn. v. 745. is Livy, x. 23.

l» Verg. Eel. viii. 65. *> Fasti, iii. 727.

its entrance into Roman ritual through the Greek cult of Dionysos. Elsewhere OvidJ speaks of its importation from the Euphrates region, perhaps connecting it with the Oriental cults which introduced it into Greece.

(ff) Hindus have always been fond of pleasant odours, and India was already celebrated for its perfumes in ancient times. Incense from Arabia was early imported there, but many native kinds of sweet-smelling materials have long been in use— benzoin, and other gum resins, seeds, roots, dried flowers, and fragrant woods. These are burned ritually or in ordinary domestic usage. In ancient times sandal-wood was burned as incense in temples and as a fragrant stuff in houses, and in the daily rites the sacred fire was fed with consecrated wood, usually from the Palasa tree.' In modern Hinduism the use of incense is wide-spread in all forms of cult. Thus in the cult of Siva it is daily burned by the priest before the stone representing the god at Orissa, and perfumes are also placed on it. In the Vallabha sect of Vaisnavism the Maharajas offer incense and swing lights before the images, and the same act of homage is paid to them by the people. Camphor and incense are burned before the image of Krsna, and in the demon cults of Western India perfumes are commonly burned. In the PaRchayatana ceremony of the Brahman householder perfumes and flowers ore offered, and among the sixteen acts of homage is the offering of perfumes, sandal, flowers, and incense (dhupa; see Monier Williams, passim).

(h) Incense was unknown in early Buddhism, which was opposed to external ritual, but in the course of time its use, especially in northern Buddhism, has become general. Thus, in Ceylon, perfumes and flowers are offered before the image of Buddha, and in thePirit ceremonial incense is burned round the platform on which the relics of Buddha are exposed.' But it is in Tibet that the use of incense is most prevalent, and Hue and other travellers there have referred to the likeness of its ritual use and of the censers to that of the Roman Catholic Church. It is used in the initiation of a monk; it is offered to the good spirits and Lamas in the daily cult of the monasteries and of the village priesthoods; it is one of the usual offerings in the temples, and is prominent in the festivals at which 'clouds of incense fill the air'; it is used in exorcisms, in baptisms, and other ceremonies; it is burned in censers before the Lamas at the performance of religious dramas, or in shrines and chapels, etc. Perfumes and incense form one of the five sensuous offerings, and figure prominently in the ' presentation of offerings, which is one of the seven stages of worship. These seven offerings are 'essential,' and among them flowers and incense occur as early as the 7th century. They bear Sanskrit names, and are borrowed from Hinduism.4 In Japanese Buddhism, incense is also commonly used, and has influenced the native Shinto religion. In earlier Shintoism incense was unknown, but it is now burned in censers at many ceremonies, e.g. at the new moon, and at magical rites.6

(i) In China, incense is much used in public and private cults. It is offered in the temples as part of the daily worship, and it is burned at festivals and in processions. It is also offered before the ancestral tablets or before the household deities, and is used in consulting the gods and in magical

1 Faiti, i. 338.

a C. Lassen, Ind. Alterthumskunde*, Leipzig, 1868-74, i. 834 f.; M. Monier Williams, Rel. Thought and Life in India, London, 1883, p. 366.

» Monier Williams, Buddhism, London, 1889, pp. 316, 319. < Monier Williams, pp. 329, 345, 350, 357; L. A. Waddell, Tht Buddhism of Tibet, London, 1895, passim. 5 W. G. Aston, Shinto, London, 1905, pp. 213, 292, 354.

ceremonies. Chinese Buddhism also used it extensively.1 In Chinese funeral ceremonies the burning of incense plays an important part, both as an offering and as a f umigatory, and one purpose is to gratify the olfactory nerves of the soul of the deceased.1

if i In the ancient Persian religion incense was in nee. It was burned fire times daily in the official cult, and at times was used in large quantities. Herodotus5 describes Darius burning 300 talents of frankincense upon the altar. It was also burned as a method of purification or fumigation, and in a passage of the Vendidad * it is called 'incense of mhugaona'—'Thou shalt perfume Vohu-mano [perhaps an idol; see above, p. 153s] therewith.'* Sandal wood and incense are burned in modern Parsi ritual.' The Bahman-YaH 7 describes how, in the 'sheep period,' firewood and incense will be properly supplied.

(*) Incense was very largely used in the religion of ancient Mexico, and was offered to all the gods, and in all festivals, processions, and sacrifices. Incense-burning was performed four times daily in the temples. Images of gods were censed in the temples and in processions, and the chief officiant was also himself censed. Some gods desired only bloodless sacrifices, of which incense was one, e.g. Quetzalcoatl, who delighted in fragrant odours and perfumes. The incense was carried in an embroidered bag and thrown on an open censer [tmaUl) of baked clay containing fire. It consisted of copal, or it was sometimes made from a herb called yiauhtli. Its fumes were of a narcotic kind and were also used to stupefy human victims. The fumesof incense were regarded as typifying prayer.* Incense consisting of sweet-scented gums was used in Peruvian ritual and offered as a sacrifice. Golden censers or braziers stood in the temples.*

(f) In Muhammadan cultus proper, incense is not used, but it is commonly offered at the shrines of saints, and is permitted by the traditions as a perfume for a corpse. Muhammadans in India, possibly as an influence from Hinduism, use it in their rites, e.g. circumcision, marriage, funerals, etc, and it is supposed to have the effect of keeping off evil spirits. But among all Muhammadans it is burned in houses on braziers, or at marriage processions it is burned in a mibkharah, and it is also commonly used in magical ceremonies, e.g. to counteract the evil eye, or in the 'science' of da'wah, a method of incantations in which various perfumes are burned according to a table showing the letters of the alphabet. The letter of the name of the person for whom the incantation is made gives the required perfume. The materials used tor incense are frankincense, benzoin, storaz, coriander-seed, aloes-wood, etc.10

4. Incense in the Christian Church.—Although incense was used in Jewish ceremonial, while such a prophecy as Mai lu might seem to point to its continued use in the new dispensation, and though it was one of the offerings of the Magi and its use is referred to in the Apocalypse, there is no evidence that it was part of early church ritual; indeed there is strong evidence against it. Some of the Fathers refer to it as a type of prayer; but Tertullian, Athenagoras, Arnobius, ana Lactantius clearly witness against its ritual use.

1 J. Doolittle, Social Lift of the Chinese, London, 1866, passim.

» 3. J. 1L da Groot, op. tit. i. pasrim.

>vL97. ->xix. 24.

■ Fend, xix. 24 ; cf. Hang, pp. 835 L, 386.

« Hsu(f, 404, 408.

'iii. 48; cf. SBE r. (1880] 230.

< Bancroft, KB iii. chs. 7-10, passim.

• W. H. Prescott, Hist. of Conquest of Pern, 1870, pp. 47, 80; A. Rerille, Saline Religions 0/ Mexico and Peru, London, 1884,

p.518.

19 See E. W. Lane, Mod. Egyptians, London, 1846, i. 186, 217, li. 71,93, iiL 154; Hughes, Dli, 72ff., 206.

Tertullian1 says: 'Not one pennyworth of incense do I offer Him.' Athenagoras 2 declares that God does not require the sweet smell of flowers or incense. Arnobius,3 referring to the fact that the early Romans did not use it, maintains that Christians may safely neglect it. Lactantius4 says that odours are not desired by God, and a{p*ees with Neo-Platoniat writers that frankincense and the like should not be offered to Him.

The fact that it was a Jewish usage may have tended to make Christians neglect it, but what had probably a more powerful effect was its use among pagans and the common practice during the ages of persecution of insisting that Christians should offer a few grains of incense to the gods or on the altar of the Emperor as a token of their renunciation of their faith. Such apostates as yielded in this way during the Decian persecutions were called Thurificati. Incense was, however, used for fumigations as a sanitary precaution, e.g. at burials or in places with a disagreeable odour; * but otherwise its ritual use was almost unknown during the first four centuries. The Apostolic Canons refer to the use of incense (Bupiaita) at the Eucharist, but this is probably a later interpolation. It was used at the vigil offices on Sunday in Jerusalem towards the end of the 4th century.* Pseudo-Dion vsius' speaks of the priest censing the altar and making the circuit of the holy place. In the Liturgy of St. James it is used in the pro- and post-Anaphora portions, and in that of St. Mark before the gospel, at the great entrance, at the kiss of peace, and at the commemoration of the dead. In the Liturgy of St. Cbrysostom the sacred vessels, the Gospels, altar, priest, and sanctuary are censed in the pro-Anaphora, and the altar is censed in the Anaphora. Evagrius* refers to the gift of a thurible to a church in Antioch by a Persian king c. 594. In the West the Ordines of the 8th cent, describe the swinging of the censer during the procession of the pontiff and his acolytes from the sacristy to the altar in the church at Rome. 'As for censing the altar, or the church, or the clergy or congregation, such a thing is never mentioned.'9 The further use of incense was gradual, since it is not mentioned by writers of this period who treat of ritual, and its use at the elevation and benediction was not known in the West till the 14th century. In the Roman Catholic Church at the present time incense is burned at solemn Mass before the introit, at the gospel, offertory, and elevation, at solemn blessings, processions, choral offices, consecration of churches, burial rites, etc. In the Church of England there is no decisive evidence of its ritual use in Divine service during the period after the Reformation. It was used, however, for sanitary purposes, as a fumigatory, and for tho sake of its agreeable odour in churches, at feasts, at coronations, etc. Its ritual use was resumed towards the middle of the 19th cent., but this was decided to be illegal in Martin v. Mackonochie, 1868, and in Sumner v. Wix, 1870.10 Incense is used ritually in many churches of the Anglican communion, and the practice is certainly spreading as a pleasing adjunct to worship, and as a symbolic rite typifying prayer.

LrrsRiTCBB. — H. von Fritze, Die Rauchopftr bei den Griecken, Berlin, 1894; Pliny, UN xii. SOU., xiv. 33ff.; O. Schrader, Itealltxikon, Strassburg, 1901, s.v. 'Weihrauch'; Theophrastus, de Odoribus; H. Zwaardemaker, Die Physiologie des Geruchs, Leipzig, 1896; E. G. C. F. Atchley, Hist, of Vie Use of Incense in Divine Worship, London, 1909; R. Sigismund, Die Aromata in ihrer Bedeutung Jut Religion... des Alterthums, Leipzig, 1884. Cf. also the authorities cited in the footnotes of the present article.

SUBSTANCES USED AS INCENSE IN THE EAST. By W. Dymock, Brigade-Surgeon, Retired. (Read before the Bombay Natural History Society on 1st July, 1891.)

 Incense smoke Aarti, Ganges, Varanasi.

SUBSTANCES USED AS INCENSE IN THE EAST. By W. Dymock, Brigade-Surgeon, Retired. (Read before the Bombay Natural History Society on 1st July, 1891.)

Incensation or sacrifice is the chief element of all the ancient religions, and the most primitive form of it was the sacrifice of human beings; children offered to Moloch or Baal, captives burnt by the ancient Greeks and Gauls, the Merieh sacrifice of the Khonds, and the sacrificial cakes of Peru soaked in human blood. Primitive man offered what ho thought would be most acceptable to his deity, in si more civilized condition ho substituted burnt offerings of animals for human sacrifices; to these he added perfumes, and lastly the fire and perfumes only remained as the symbol of sacrifice.

In the Book of Genesis (8, 20) we are distinctly told that burnt offerings of animals were made, and that " the Lord smelled a sweet savour." In Exodus (30, 31) Moses is directed to take sweet spices stacte, onycha, and galbanuin, with pure frankincense for use as incense in the tabernacle. In India, animal incense, in the form of ghi or clarified butter, is still used by the Hindus in the H6m sacrifice, and in the arthi or incensation of idols and important personages, such as the bridegroom by the bride.

Incense burning is all that remains as a symbol of sacrifice in the Christian Church, and is used at the daily sacrifice of the Eucharist. Among the Parsees fire is considered to be the son of Hormuzd, and to act as a mediator between the faithful and the divine being. Sacrifices of bread, meat, and the juice of the Homa plant are made.

Among the ancient Arabs fire alone appears to have been used in sacrifice, and also fire upon which salt was sprinkled.

What was the practice of these two ancient nations in pre-historic times we do not know, but we may infer that it was similar to that of uncivilized man elsewhere.

The principal plants which furnish the incenses used in the East are: —

Ailantus malabarica, D. C, which yields the Baga-dhup incense of Canara.

Boswellia, several species growing in Arabia and Africa which yield Olibanum or Frankincense.

Boswellia serrata, Roxb., growing in India and yielding the •Guggalu of Sanskrit writers.

Aquilaria Agallocha, Roxb., and A. moluccana, Lamk., yielding Aloes or Eagle-wood.

Styrax Benzoin, Dryander, yielding Benzoin or Benjamin,

Styraz officinalis, Linn., yielding the bark sold as Usturak in the bazars.

.....' Liguidamber erientalis, Miller, yielding Liquid storax, the Silaras

of the bazars.

Dorema Ammoniacum, Don, yielding the root sold as Boi in the bazars.

Saussurea Lappa, Clarke, yielding Gostus or Kust, best known in Bombay as Upalet.

Santalum album, Linn., yielding Sandal-wood.
Laurus Camphora, Linn., yielding Camphor.

Dryobalanopt Aromaticat Gartn., yielding Borneo camphor, the Barai or Bhimseni-kapur of the bnzars.

Ginnamomum, several species, yielding Cassia and Cinnamon.

Cedrus Deodara, Lond., yielding the Deodar-wood of the bazars.

Pinus hngifolia, Roxb., yielding Sarala-drava.

Jurinea macrocephala, Benth., yielding a root which is used as incense under the name of Dhupa at Rampur and elsewhere in Northern India.

Juniperus communis, Linn., /. recurva, Ham., and J. macropoda, Boiss., "yielding Jimiper-wood and resin, used as Dhupa in Northern India.

Oupressus tornlosa, Don, the Himalayan Cypress, the wood and resin of which is burnt as incense in the Hindu temples of the North.

Morina GouUeriana, Royle, which furnishes a root used as incense in Kashmir.

Balsamodendron, several species, yielding Myrrh and Bdellium. Shorea robusta, Gartn., yielding the Rdla or Dhuna of the bazars. Shorea Talura, Roxb., yielding the Sambrdni incense of the Wynaad.

Ganarium bengalense, Roxb., yielding the Gokaldhup incense of the Lepchas in Sikkim.

Vateria indiia, Linn., yielding the Vellai-kingiliyam incense of Southern India.

Ferula galbanifiua, Boiss. et Buhse, yielding Galbanum used as incense by the Jews.

The Baga-dhup of Canara is a fragrant resin of the colour of the glass used for making Hock bottles, it is used in Malabar by the Saraswat Brahmins as a substitute for the Sarala or oleo-resin of the Himalayan Pinas longifolia.

It is hardly necessary to say much about frankincense as it is so well known, but it is curious that the botanical source of a substance, which is one of the oldest articles of commerce, has only been ascertained within the last 50 years. The Book of Exodus, and the recent discoveries of Prof. Diimichen of Strassbourg in the temple of Dayr el Behri in Upper Egypt, shew that it was a well known article of commerce 1700 years before the Christian era, and one of the inscriptions at the temple states that thirty-one of the trees producing it were brought to Egypt from the land of Punt (the Somali coast) as an offering to the god Ammon. The name which frankincense bears in the East is of Semitic origin and signifies " milk," from the juice being milky when it first exudes from the tree; in Hebrew it is Lebonah and in Arabic Luban, the latter word being in use among the Musalmans of India. The Hindus call it Visexha. Formerly this gum-resin was supposed to be obtained from a kind of Juniper, until Colebrooke in the 11th Vol. of the Asiatic Researches described the Boswellia serrata of Roxburgh growing in India, and erroneously supposed that he had discovered the source of the commercial article. This mistake was not corrected until Carter, in 1846, brought specimens of the true Olibanum plant from Ras Fartak on the S.-E. coast of Arabia (Journ.,By. Br., El. As. Soc, II. (1848,380) tab. 23). Lastly Birdwood, in a monograph (1870), described some specimens of the Olibanum tree from the African coast, also Carter's plant which was still growing in Bombay (Linn. Trans., XXVII. 111-148).

It is probable that this incense was brought to India in pre-historic times by Arab traders, and we know that Alexander, B. C. 325, found a vessel loaded with it at the mouth of the Indus. The bark of the frankincense tree, called by the Arabs Kishar—kundar or Kashfa, forms a separate article of trade, which is known in India as Dhtipa or inconse. Frankincense is more generally used than anyother kind of incense, and together with benzoin, storax, myrrh, and eauearilla bark forms the incense now in use in Europe.

The exudation of the Indian olibanum tree appears to have been formerly used in this country, under the name of Quggalu, as an incense to a considerable extent; but, owing to the facilities for communication which are now afforded, it has been ousted by the commercial article, and is no longer collected. It differs from true olibanum in containing a much larger proportion of gum, and therefore does not burn so well, and is less fragrant. When collected by cutting the trees in the cold weather, it is a semi-fluid substance like Canada-balsam, but the specimen I now show of the natural exudation collected in May last bears a considerable resemblance to commercial olibanum of inferior quality.

Aloe or Eagle wood.—The use of this precious wood as a perfume and incense is of great antiquity. Together with myrrh, cassia, and other products of the East it is mentioned in the sacred writings of the Jews (Num., xxiv. 6; Psalms, xlv. 8; Prov. vii. 1 7; Cantic. iv. 14) under the name of Ahalot or Ahalim. It is the Agallochon of the ancient Greeks which is described by Dioscorides as a wood brought from India and Arabia. Later writers from ^Etius' time call it Zulaloe or "aloe wood," the name by which it is still known in Europe. The same substance is the Agaru of the Hindus, the Garu of the Malays, and the Chin-heang of the Chinese. In Sanskrit medical works it bears the synonyms of Rdjdrha, "worthy of a prince''; Visva-rvpa, "taking all forms"; Krimi-ja, "produced by worms"; A narya-ja, "produced in a non-aryan country" ; Kanaka, " golden"; lialiya, "black," &c. As aloe wood bears the Sanskrit name of Anarya-ja, it is probable that it was used by the aborigines of Eastern Asia before it became known to the Hindus, but that at a very early date it was carried overland to Central Asia, India, and Persia, and from thence reached Arabia and Europe. The early Arab travellers appear to have collected a good deal of information concerning the commerce and sources of supply of the wood. Yohanna bin Serapion mentions four kinds—Hindi, Mandali, Sainfi, and Kamari; and Ibn Sma, after enumerating a number of varieties of the commercial article, remarks, " the tree is said to be buried to promote the formation of aloe wood." This we now know to be correct. Ibn Batuta speaks of Kamari aloe wood as soft like wax. Aba Zaid calls it Kdmaruni, and says it is the best kind. Abulfeda states that Ood comes from the Kamarun mountains. The Kamarun of the Arabs is what we know as Cape Comorin, which they considered to divide the country and seas of India from the country and seas of China. The former region was also called by them Bddd-el-fulful or filfil, "the pepper country," and the latter Beldd-el-ndr, "the fire or incense country." Other names applied to different qualities of aloe wood were Kakuli or Jawi, "coming from Java or from Kakuleh," a place in Java; Saimuri, "coming from Saimur or Samar," an island in the Eastern Archipelago; and Mawardi, "smelling like rose water." The term Sinfi or Sainfi is probably derived from Champa, a province in Cambodia, and Mandali from Mount Mandar or Mandal, south of the modern town of Bhagalpur. Haji Zein el Attar (1368) calls aloe wood Ood-el-juj, from Juj or Juju, the name of a town in Cathay. After translating Ibn Sina's article on Ood, he gives his own opinion in the following terms:—" The author of this work (Ikbtiarat) says the best is called Kalambak and comes from the port of Jena, which is ten days' sail from Java. It is sold for its weight in gold. You would think it odourless, but when warmed in the hand it has a very sweet persistent odour • when burnt the odour is uniformly sweet until the wood is consumed. Next is Mandali and Samanduri, both from Sofala in India. The best of these is of a golden colour and heavy. Kakuli is like the Indian, and is generally in large pieces marked with black and yellow lines; then there is Kamari, golden brown, without streaks; it comes from the Kamarun country, and Sainfi from Samf, it is hard and sweet; then Sakili and Afdsi, a moist kind from China; then Mantai, Bandi, Halai, and Laufi, all of about equal value. And in Manta (Southern China) there is a tribe who call the wood Ashbdh, and it is of two kinds: one of these is in large pieces weighing from 5 to 50 maunds, without much odour, and used for making combs, knife-handles, &c. It must not be supposed that all these names indicate so many varieties of wood ; they appear to have been simply trade terms originating from accidental circumstances: for instance, it appears that the name Halai arose from the wood being brought to the West over the Hala mountains in Sind by Multani merchants."

Kumphius describes two kinds of true and two of false aloe wood. The first kind of true aloe wood, he says, is called KiUm or Ho-kilam by the Chinese and Calambac by the Malays, and is produced by a tree growing in the provinces of Champa and Coinam, and in Cochin China. (This tree has been described by Loureiro under the name of Alocxylon Agallochum, but it is unknown to modern botanists.) The second kind, called Oaro, is the product of A. malaceennis, Lamk., which he figures : this is the Chin-heang of the Pun-tmou-kong-muh, or great Chinese Herbal.

Modern investigation has shown that aloe wood (a corruption of the Arabic Al-aod, or "the wood par excellence "), is obtained from two species of AquUaria growing in Sylhet and extending, through Manipur, Chittagong and Arakan, to Mergui and Sumatra. It first reached Europe through China and Northern Asia or through India, but when the early Arab navigators found their way to China, the route was gradually changed. The collection of the wood in Sylhet, where the tree was found by Roxburgh, has been described, and confirms much of what has been said by the early Mahometan writers above quoted. It appears that the trees are felled, and afterwards searched to find the pieces of dark-coloured resinous agar which occur here and there in the naturally soft white wood of the trunk and branches. The blackest and heaviest portion, which is known as gharki, because it sinks in water, is worth in Sylhet from six to eight rupees per pound. From tha specimens on the table you will see how very limited the resinous infiltration often is.

At the present day aloe wood is imported into Bombay from Bankok, usually via Singapore or Batavia. Some of the Parsee silkmerchants also import it from Hong-kong. Only two kinds are known—Muwardi and Gaguli; the first appears to be the produce of A. malaccensis, and the second that of the Indian A. Agallocha,

There are several kinds of false aloe wood in the market; the most important of these is Taggar, a wood from Africa or Madagascar, of which I show you a specimen.

Aloe wood is now hardly known in Europe, but in former times the most expensive perfumes were sought for to be used as incense Pliny animadverts strongly (Books 12 and 13) upon the extravagance of the Romans in this respect, especially at funerals, and contrasts it with the simplicity of the Greeks at the time of the Trojan War, when incense was not used in sacrificing to the gods, but only the indigenous juniper and citrus wood necessary to burn the animals.

Benzoin, the Luban-Jawi, or Java frankincense of the Arabs, which they began to bring from the Belud-el-nur, or "incense country," about the middle of the fourteenth century, was not known to the ancient Hindus or to the inhabitants of Europe; but they used a somewhat similar substance obtained from Styrax officinalis, which is now no longer an article of commerce, though the bark is still used as incense, and appears occasionally in the Indian bazars under the name of JJsturah. Benzoin appears to have rapidly gained the favour of the users of incense both in the East and in the West. It is used all over India. Bombay imports annually about 6,000 cwts., and large quantities go to Europe, where it is used as an ingredient of the incenses used in the Greek and Roman churches. The modern storax of commerce was introduced in the sixth century apparently to replace the original storax, the source of supply of which had become insufficient to meet the demands of commerce, which were very considerable both in Europe and in the East. We learn from the author of the "Periplus of the Erythrean Sea" that as long ago as the first century, Silhaka (storax) was exported to India, and about this time it is mentioned as one of the imports of Thana, on the Western Coast. The Arabs also carried it to China, and it appears to have been known in the Indian vernaculars as Ast-lohan, "Western frankincense." Upon the decline of the port of Thana the trade was transferred to Surat, then to Goa, and afterwards to Bombay, which still imports from 300 to 400 cwts. yearly. Storax is an ingredient in European incense. In the trade statistics of the early European traders in India it is called Rosa Mallas and Rose Malloes, a name which it still retains, and the origin of which is doubtful, though some suppose it to be derived from Rosamdla, the Malay name for Altingia excelsa, a tree which produces an odoriferous resin in Java and Burma. That the latter supposition is incorrect I think there can be little doubt, as the only Rose Malloes known in Bombay is the European storax; the name appears to have been applied to it incorrectly through a confusion of this substance with the honey or manna collected from trees, the Spvao/uXi of the Greeks, and the Ros melleus of the middle ages. The author of the Makhzan-el-Adwiya says :—" Basimilius is a Greek name for a kind of incense called in Arabic Bukhanel~daru and in Hindi Ast lob&n. In another place, speaking of Baru, he says that its Greek name is Fazugus. Zugos (£vyos) is the modern Greek for the storax tree (Liquidamber orientalis).

Ammoniacum root, the Boi of the Parsees, is regularly imported into Bombay for use in Parsee ritual as an incense. It is popularly spoken of as a wood, and is traditionally understood to be one of the fragrant woods mentioned in the Avesta. It is remarkable that before Persian ammoniacum was known in the west, the gum-resin of an Ammoniacum plant growing about Cyrene in Libya and in the neighbourhood of the temple of Ammon was used as an incense under the name of Thus Libycum, or "Libyan frankincense." The use of this substance appears to be now entirely confined to the Parsees.

Costm was one of the fragrant substances which the Arabs obtained from the Hindus and introduced into Europe to satisfy the ancient demand for perfumes to be burnt upon the altars of the gods and at funerals. They themselves considered it to be the best oj perfumes for fumigation. The Hindus and Chinese nsed this root for smoking as a narcotic before opium was known in the East, and it is still exported to China in enormous quantities, to be used as an incense. Baden-Powell says :—"In every Hong it is found; no mandarin will give an audience until the patched incense smokes before him; in every Joss-house it smoulders before the Tri-bndh deity; in every floating junk in the Chinese rivers, the only home of countless hordes, Budh's image is found, and the smoke of the patchak religiously wends its way heavenward." It is now hardly known in Europe, but the Arabs and Chinese esteem it as highly as ever as an incense, and the Hindus use it as a perfume and medicine.

Sandal wood must have been used in India from prehistoric times, as it is mentioned in the Nirukta, or writings of Yaska, the oldest Vedic commentary extant. It is principally consumed at the funeral piles of wealthy Hindus, and even comparatively poor people will expend as much as 40 to 50 rupees worth at a funeral. In China it is burnt as an incense, and the Parsees also burn it. There would appear to be no evidence of its ever having found much favour as an incense in the West, which is strange, as it was known to the Romans in the first century of our era. A false sandal wood is imported into Bombay from Zanzibar, of which I show you a sample: it is used as a substitute for the true article. Several kinds of false sandal are also in use in China.

Common camphor is used as an incense in India, especially in performing the arthi ceremony already mentioned; whilst the expensive Borneo camphor is largely used at the funeral rites of the Batta princes, whose families are often ruined by the lavish expense of providing the camphor and buffaloes which the custom of their obsequies requires. In Western India it is used in small quantities by the Jains, and costs from 80 to 100 rupees per maund.

The Cinnamon and Cassia of the ancients appears to have been used as incense, as we find Cassia turiana mentioned as a substance upon which duty was levied at the Roman custom-house at Alexandria, A.D. 176-80; and a thick kind of cinnamon bark, called Pisin-puttai or Pishoo-puttai in Tamil, is still used in India for this purpose. It has a delicious fragrance, but hardly any cinnamon flavour. Mr. Hooper informs me that it is ground to a powder, mixed with water, smeared on reeds, and dried. The reeds are burnt at Mahometan festivals. There is a thick variety of Cassia which fetches about 56 shillings a pound in China: possibly it may be the same article.

The wood of Cedrus Dcodara, the Deodar wood of the bazars, contains a large quantity of a very fragrant turpentine, and is much used all over India in making pastiles. Pinna longifolia is the Sarala of Sanskrit writers, who call the turpentine obtained from it Saraladrava; it does not resemble our turpentine, but has the colour and consistence of ghi. Popularly it is known as Ohir-pine oil or Gandha-biroja.

The roots of Jurinea macrocephala, a composite plant common in the Western Himalaya, are used locally as incense (dhupa). Dr. Stewart records that seven maunds from Bissahir were exposed for sale at the Rampur fair in 1867; and Dr. G. Watt saw the dhup being prepared from the roots in Rampur, and also higher up on the neighbouring hills, the plant being collected to be sent to Rampur. This substance is also said to be exported from Kashmir to Tibet for use as incense.

The wood, twigs, and resin of the Himalayan Junipers and of the Himalayan Cypress are used as incense in the Hindu temples of Northern India, and it is interesting to remember that the European species of these trees were used in the Trojan War in burning sacri6ces to the gods.

In Kashmir the root of Morina Coulteriana, belonging to the Dipsacece, is in local demand as an incense. It is said to be sometimes mixed with Costus for export.

Myrrh and Bdellium are chiefly used as incense in China, bat some European receipts for incense contain a little myrrh. The odour of bdellium when burnt is not agreeable, still it appears to have been used in Europe by the ancients, as Pliny states that its quality may be tested by its odour when burning. The refinements of civilization have greatly modified our appreciation of perfumes. In England three centuries ago our forefathers placed Valerian in their wardrobes and considered it an agreeable perfume; nowadays we should as soon think of keeping a polecat in our cupboards. In India, which has been stationary as regards refinement for the last three thousand years, Valerian is still used as a perfume for clothes, and is considered an agreeable addition to the hair douche. Bdellium has a decidedly musty odour, but Plautus in his "Curculio" uses it as a term of endearment: "Tu crocinumet cassia es, tu bdellium;" which may be freely translated, "You are a spicy darling." To his taste bdellium cannot have been musty. An idea of Solomon's taste in perfumes may be gathered from hi s Epithalamium: it would hardly meet with the approval of a modern bride.

The Rala or Dhuna of India is an interesting substance. I identify it with the Cancamum of the ancients. If we refer to Dioscorides, we find that he speaks of it as an Arabian gum, something like myrrh in appearance, used for fumigation on account of its fragrance and administered medicinally to reduce corpulence and to cure spleen, &c.; it was applied locally to remove opacities of the cornea and improve the sight, also to cure toothache; according to Paulun .
Galbanum, the Chelbenah of the Jews, was an ingredient of the incense used by the ancient Israelites (Exod., xxx. 34), and it is now used in the Irvingite churches in London. It is brought to Bombay from Persia and is known in the bazar as Jawdshir, an Arabic corruption of the Persian name Gaoshir, " cow's milk." Its odour is by no means agreeable, and when burnt decidedly offensive, so that it is difficult to understand its being used as an incense. In Persia it is used to keep evil spirits from the houses of parturient women, and the Greeks and Eomans*used it to drive away noxious animals. Virgil in his third Georgic, speaking of the diseases of sheep, says:—

"Disce et odoratam Btabulis aocendere cedrum,
Galbaneoqne agitare graves nidore chelydros."

( " Learn also to burn the fragrant Juniper in the folds, and to drive away the fetid Chelydrus with the fumes of galbanum.'')

We do not know exactly what the Chelydrus was. Nicander describes it as a kind of snake; some think it was a kind of tortoise; anyhow it was supposed to be injurious to the flock.

I will conclude by giving you a modern recipe for incense which appeared in a recent issue of the "Chemist and Druggist" newspaper :—

Olibanum 6 onnces.

Dry storax .. 3 „

Benzoin 3 „

Myrrh 1 ounce.

Cascarilla 1

Lavender flowers ... 2 ounces.
Powder coarsely and mix.