Plants Used in Attar Ruh/Attar Series-Motia/Mogra/Bela(Jasminum sambac)

Motia

Oil.—This species(Jasminum sambac), together with J. officinale and J. grandiflorura, is extensively cultivated for its fragrant Flowers, from which a considerable proportion of the oil of Jasmine used in India is derived (see J. grandiflorum). The method of enfleurage is resorted to in India, as in Europe, for extracting the odorous principle, but instead of fat or oil, crushed sesamum seeds are employed. Dr. Dymock states that in Persia almonds are similarly used.
A dictionary of the economic products of India, Volume 4

 By Sir George Watt, India. Dept. of Revenue and Agriculture

There are two varieties of this beautiful and very fragrant twining plant, one is J. sambac, plenum, the great double Arabian jasmine, the rich-lobed branches of which are studded all over like the snowdrop tree with lovely white flowers, the size of small roses, and delightfully fragrant. This variety is probably more cultivated than any other flower, though the single-flowered, with a twining habit, is not unfrequently to be seen. The single variety is called Motiya; but beautiful varieties called Satha, with single and double flowers, which have the odour of fine green tea, are also cultivated. J. sambac is used to decorate the hair of the Chinese ladies, and to garnish the tables of the wealthy. All Chinese gardens, both in the north and south, are supplied with this favourite flower from the province of Tokein. This, J. paniculatum, and Olea fragrans, the orange tree, Murraya exotica, Aglaia odorata, and Chloranthus inconspicuus, are grown for their blossoms, which are used for mixing with the tea. The flowers of the sambac are supposed by the Hindus to form one of the darts of Kama Deva, the Hindu god of love.
The cyclopædia of India and of eastern and southern Asia: commercial ...
 By Edward Balfour

http://whitelotus.smugmug.com/Other/Jasmine/016edited/290231548_PzfNm-M.jpgThe Indian Mode of preparing the Perfumed Oils of Jasmine and Bela.—Dr Jackson of Ghazeepore, in a letter to the editors of the Asiatic Journal of Calcutta for June 1839, says :—In my last communication on the subject of rose-water, I informed you that the natives here were in the habit of extracting the scent from some of the highly-smelling flowers, such as the jasmine, &c., and that I would procure you a sample, and give you some account of the manner in which it is obtained.* By the present steamer, I have dispatched two small phials, containing some of the oil procured from the Jasmine and the Bela flower. For this purpose the natives never make use of distillation, but extract the essence by causing it to be absorbed by some of the purest oleaginous seeds, and then expressing these in a common mill, when the oil given Out has all the scent of the flower which has been made use of. The plan adopted is to place on the ground a layer of the flower, about four inches
thick and two feet square; over this they put some of the Tel or Sesamum seed wetted, about two inches thick and two feet square; on this again is placed another layer of flowers, about four inches thick, as in the first instance; the whole is then covered with a sheet, which is held down by weights at the ends and sides. In this state it is allowed to remain from twelve to eighteen hours; after this the flowers are removed, and other layers placed in the same way; this also is a third time repeated, if it is desired to have the scent very strong. After the last process, the seeds are taken in their swollen state and placed in a mill; the oil is then expressed, and possesses most fully the scent of the flower. The oil is kept in prepared skins, called dubbers, and is sold at so much per seer. The Jasmine and Bela (Jasminums ambac) are the two flowers from which the natives in this district chiefly produce their scented oil; the Chumbul (Jasminum grandiflorumj is another, butl have been unable to procure any of this. The season for manufacture is coming on. The present oils were manufactured a year ago, and do not possess the powerful scent of that which has been recently prepared. Distillation is never made use of for this purpose, as it is with the roses, for the extreme heat (from its being in the middle of the rains when the trees come into flower) would most likely carry off all the scent. The Jasmine, or Chymbele, as it is called, is used very largely amongst the women, the hair of the head and the body being daily smeared with some of it. The specimen I send you costs at the rate of two rupees per seer.
The Edinburgh new philosophical journal, Volume 29

Jasminum Sambac (Mogra). Besides the ordinary double petalled creep, ing Mogra, there are three other distinct varieties—(a) The compound flower, known as Batt mogra; (b) the Madan-ban (Cupid's arrow), bearing a highly fragrant bold flower, the petals of which are often over an inch and-a-half in length; (e) the Kasturi mogra, a Binaller flowered variety. The odour is delicate and partaking of the smell of the musk faintly; (d) there is also the Poona variety known as Motya mogra.
Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, Volume 7
 By Bombay Natural History Society

J. Sambac, the Bel of the Bengalis, is exceedingly plentiful, both single and double-flowered, and erect or climbing. Its flowers appear in the hot season, and are largely used as votive offerings. Oil of Jasmine is prepared from them....The Oil of Jasmine is regarded as cooling, and is much used by the richer natives of India to anoint the body before bathing. An oil prepared with the juice of the leaves is poured into the ears in otorrhcea. (U. C. Dutt.)
Economic products of India exhibited at the Calcutta international ..., Volume 1
 By Sir George Watt

Jasmin sambac Wikipedia

Among the Oleacea, the Jasmines are the most noted in this country and largely represented. They are as follows (all highly scented) :—
1 Jasminum Sambac (Mogra). Besides the ordinary double petalled creep, ing Mogra, there are three other distinct varieties—(a) The compound flower, known as Batt mogra; (b) the Madan-ban (Cupid's arrow), bearing a highly fragrant bold flower, the petals of which are often over an inch and-a-half in length; (e) the Kasturi mogra, a Binaller flowered variety. The odour is delicate and partaking of the smell of the musk faintly; (d) there is also the Poona variety known as Motya mogra.
2 Jasminum grandiflorum (Chambeli). This is a pretty flower delicately marked pinkish or light crimson on the back of the petals.
3 Jasminum officinale (Sayali).
4 Jasminum awiculatum (Jooi).
5 Jasmlnum arborascens, variety Lalifolium (Kusari or MAdhavi). This and the following are wild in our jungles and hedges.
6 Jasminum hirsutum (Syn. J. pnbesceus), Koxb. (Kund).
7 Jasminum anyustifoliu m(Ran Mogra).
8 Jasminum glandulosum (Van Jai). This is a climbing shrub cultivated in gardens from the wild variety. Faintly odonrous; flowers showy.
All these eight varieties aro white. There are two other fragrant varieties which are yellow, viz. :—9. Jasminum aureum (Don.) ( Piwli Jooi), and 10. Jasminum reoolutum (Piwli chambeli).
All these varieties of Jasmin, except the last two which are not very common, are great favourites with our ladies. To the Hindu mind the flowers oE Jasmin represent all that is the sweetest and loveliest in a Hindu home. See the little girl, the darling of her mother, docked from head to foot with costly ornaments of silver, gold and pearl—borrowed, if not possessed—not on any holiday or special occasion, but in the seasons when the Mogra, the Jai, the Jooi or the Chambeli is plentiful: the little darling's head is covered with a skilfully woven cap-like wreath of these flowers, of sambac and juhi particularly; her hair let down on the back in a solitary plait, which is tastefully decorated with rosettes and stars of artistically woven flowers of Mogra or Jooi interspersed with petals of the scarlet pomegranate flower. To u mind that would look at this decoration with the eye of love, it gives satisfaction. The child thus adorned, sweet in its child-liko simplicity, is made sweeter still—nay, more it looks happy and contented from this special mark of parental regard! Are you thinking of the young bride and bridegroom about to he united—not of their own seeking—in the indissoluble tie of Hindu wedlock? Even there the Jasmines lend enchantment to the scene. Long wreaths or garlands of thickly studded Jasmines, fulling in rich profusion from head to foot, and circling round the head, adorn the marrying couple as they stand before each other about to be made one in body and soul! While the priests are chanting the bridal hymns and solemnly invoking the blessings of their household gods and goddesses, fragrance fills the air. Wearing the same garlands the bridegroom leads his young wife to his parental home. Could the couple bo old enough to appreciate these sweet yet simple decorations at a time of the utmost happiness in human life, they would look upon the Jasmines with the same devout sentiment which naturally attaches—perhaps in a more appreciable manner—to the bridal orange-blossoms of our more advanced Western sisters. "More advanced " I say deliberately, for they are decidedly so in age and culture, and in consequence more advanced in the appreciation of the responsibilities of a wedded life. Turn again to the custom of the Hindu ladies of honouring their lady-visitors (barring the unfortunate widows) with the present of a veni (wreath) of flowers on marriage occasions, and even on ordinary friendly visits. The hostess with her own hands puts on the veni over and around the back hair-knot of her lady-guest. Not to do this is understood as tantamount to disregard, if not actual disrespect; and there is often to be seen a hypercritical lady -guest remarking that such and such a lady-friend of hers did not present the customary veni to her on such and such a domestic ceremonial or even on the occasion of an ordinary friendly visit. Judging from the importance attached to such genial exchange of flowers, it is not to be wondered at that at times intentional departures from what appears to me to be at once a noble and gratifying custom, are resented in no unmitigated terms. No Hindu sits before his idols in solemn worship of them but has a trayful of flowers for his gods and goddesses. On certain occasions as much as even a lakh (I mean numerically, a hundred thousand flowers) are heaped upon an image, as the humble offerings of an anxious worshipper asking a special blessing from his deity.
Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, Volume 7
 By Bombay Natural History Society