Conifer Oils and Hydrosols


Conifer Oils and Hydrosols

Avicenna’s Aromatic Waters


Aromatic Waters

Theophrastus: Concerning Odours Enquiry into Plants - Vol. II Translated by Arthur F. Hort (1926)

Theophrastus: Concerning Odours
Enquiry into Plants - Vol. II
Translated by Arthur F. Hort (1926)

A Study on the Relationships between Iranian People and Damask Rose (Rosa damascena)

A Study on the Relationships between Iranian People and Damask Rose

Hindu Wedding

Hindu Wedding
Hindu Wedding

Fragrant Quote for November 1st-Sunday Afternoon, Volume 3

Autumn Barn
When, however, on a golden September afternoon she walked through the orchard gathering up windfalls from beneath the apple-trees, and a train of fowls followed her, cluttering tranquilly, while two particolored cats, as sleek as if all the world was sunshine and milk, rubbed their glossy sides against her and purred ecstatically,—when on a November morning she walked along the barn floor between the fragrant haymows, picking up corn-husks for her mattresses, and the horse reached out his nose to be patted or the cows lowed recognition, her life seemed sufficiently full. She was content, and certainly her individual interests were not of such importance that she should be continually asking herself whether or not she was happy.
Sunday Afternoon, Volume 3

Fragrant Quote for October 31st, 2012- OCTOBER—Stanford Conant.

Autumn Rainbow

Golden rod and thistle down
In the fields and all around,
And a fragrance in the air,
And the fairy barks a-sailing,
And the beauty everywhere
Hill and wood and valley valeing,
Like an angel's soft caress,
Fills the heart with loveliness.
And the present is a vision,
And the past is but a dream;
And the deep soul laughs at wisdom
That would have things somber seem.
Only joy the days contain,
When life leads this happy round;
All the world sings one refrain.
Golden rod and thistle down.
Stanford Conant.

Fragrant Quote for October 30th, 2012-Niels Lyhne, Volume 13 By Jens Peter Jacobsen

Autumn Forest Path
If Niels came while Erik was away, they nearly always, even on rainy and stormy days, took long walks in the woods behind the garden.They had fallen in love with that forest, and grew fonder of it as they watched the summer life die out. There were a thousand things to see. First, how the leaves turned yellow and red and brown, then how they fell off, whirling on a windy day in yellow swarms, or softly rustling in still air, single leaf after leaf, down against the stiff boughs and between the pliant brown twigs. And when the leaves fell from trees and bushes, the hidden secrets of summer were revealed in nest upon nest. What treasures on the ground and on the branches, dainty seeds and bright-colored berries, brown nuts, shining acorns and exquisite acorn cups, tassels of coral on the barberry, polished black berries on the buck-thorn, and scarlet urns on the dog-rose. The bare beeches were finely dotted with prickly beechnuts, and the roan bent under the weight of its red clusters, acid in fragrance like apple cider. Late bramble berries lay black and brown among the wet leaves at the wayside; red whortleberries grew among the heather, and the wild raspberries brought forth their dull crimson fruit for the second time. The ferns turned all colors as they faded, and the moss was a revelation, not only the deep, luscious moss in the hollows and on the slopes, but the faint, delicate growth on the tree-trunks, resembling what one might imagine the cornfields of the elves to be as it sent forth the finest of stalks with dark brown buds like ears of corn at the tip.
They scoured the forest from end to end, eager to find all its treasures and marvels. They had divided it between them as children do; the part on one side of the road was Fennimore's property, and that on the other side was Niels's, and they would compare their realms and quarrel about which was the more glorious. Everything there had names — clefts and hillocks, paths and stiles, ditches and pools; and when they found a particularly magnificent tree, they gave that too a name. In this way they took complete possession and created a little world of their own which no one else knew and no one else was at home in, and yet they had no secret which all the world might riot have heard.

Niels Lyhne, Volume 13

 By Jens Peter Jacobsen

Fragrant Quote for October 29th, 2012-Autumn Reverie by Celia Thaxter

Autumn Sea
All through these quiet days the air is full of wandering thistle-down, the inland golden-rod waves its plumes, and close by the water's edge, in rocky clefts, its seaside sister blossoms in gorgeous color; the rose-haws redden, the iris unlocks its shining caskets, and casts its closely packed seeds about, gray berries cluster on the bayberry-bushes, the sweet life-everlasting sends out its wonderful, delicious fragrance, and the pale asters spread their flowers in many tinted sprays. Through October and into November, the fair, mild weather lasts. At the first breath of October, the hillside at Appledore fires up with the living crimson of the huckleberry bushes, as if a blazing torch had been applied to it; the slanting light at sunrise and sunset makes a wonderful glory across it. The sky deepens its blue, beneath it the brilliant sea glows into violet, and flashes into splendid purple where the "tide-rip," or eddying winds, make long streaks across its surface, — poets are not wrong who talk of "purple seas." — the air is clear and sparkling, the lovely summer haze withdraws, all things take a crisp and tender outline, and the cry of the curlew and the plover is doubly sweet through the pure cool air. Then sunsets burn in clear and tranquil skies, or flame in piled magnificence of clouds. Some night a long bar lies like a smouldering brand along the horizon, deep carmine where the sun has touched it, and out of that bar breaks a sudden gale before morning, and a fine fury and tumult begins to rage. Then comes the fitful weather, — wild winds and hurrying waves, low, scudding clouds, tremendous rains that shut out everything; and the rocks lie weltering between the sea and sky, with the brief fire of the leaves quenched and swept away on the hillside,—only rushing wind and streaming water everywhere, as if a second deluge were flooding the world.

Incense ingredients
Incense Making Step by Step

Fragrant Quote for October 28th, 2012- An essay by Dallas Lore Sharp The Fields Of Fodder

The sap is sinking in the trees, the great tides of life have turned, but so slowly do they run these soft and fragrant days that they seem almost still, as at flood. A blue jay is gathering acorns overhead, letting one drop now and then to roll out of sight and be planted under the mat of leaves. Troops of migrating warblers flit into and through the trees, talking quietly among themselves as they search for food, moving all the while--and to a fixed goal, the far-off South. Bob-white whistles from the fodder-field; the odor of ripened fox grapes is brought with a puff of wind from across the pasture; the smell of mint, of pennyroyal, and of sweet fern crisping in the sun. These are not the odors of death; but the fragrance of life's very essence, of life ripened and perfected and fit for storing till another harvest comes. And these flitting warblers, what are they but another sign of promise, another proof of the wisdom which is at the heart of things? And all this glory of hickory and oak, of sumac and creeper, of burning berries on dogwood and ilex and elder--this sunset of the seasons--but the preparation for another dawn?
An essay by Dallas Lore Sharp The Fields Of Fodder

Handbook of Medicinal Plants of the Bible by James A. Duke

Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives

Handbook of Medicinal Plants of the Bible by James A. Duke

Fragrant Quote for October27th, 2012-Autumnal Scents from The borderland of country life By Augusta Larned

Tetlin Refuge Autumn Landscape

The autumnal rays of the sun are not garish now as they send long, misty shafts of light streaming over the fields to touch the undergrowth of the forest and turn the trunks of trees to massive gold. Our vagabondage is careless and without direction; it takes us along the brook, through the wood-path, through a sheep-pasture, or over the hill where cows are grazing, in search of that most precious of all flowers, heart'sease. It even takes us to places where our feet cannot stray, but the mind images what has been.
There is a pungency of sweetness in the autumnal scents; mint and sage and flagroot and lobelia-flower seem to mingle their smells in a braided strand of invigorating flavor. The fields are never so good as at this season when the winds blow over them with fresh life and vigor. To stand on a hilltop in the cheery autumn breeze and view the four quarters of the globe is a benediction. Nature does not say to you, Come here, and I will read you a lesson, preach you a sermon, or deliver you a lecture. She says, Just come to me, and I will steal into your heart an influence like the perfume of the autumn pasture, or the freshness of the western breeze.
Frankincense Tree

Frankincense, Myrrh and Balm of Gilead

The Amber Road Joannes Richter

The Amber Room
The Amber Road by Joannes Richter
Types of Amber, Copal & Resin
Baltic Amber

Saffron-History and Legends

Spice Shop

Saffron-History and Legends

Fragrant for October 26th, 2012-Auturmnal Beauty from Scribners Monthly, Volume 16

Apple in Autumn
Whether or not the frost has come to blacken the leaves of the pumpkins, squashes and cucumbers, and hasten the ripening of the foliage, the trees are taking on the autumnal colors. The ash shows the first grape-bloom of its later purple, the butternut is blotched with yellow and the leaves of the hickory are turning to gold; and though the greenness of the oaks and some of the sugar-maples and elms still endures, the sumacs along the walls and the water maples and pepperidges in the lowlands are red with the consuming fires of autumn. The yellow flame of the golden-rods has burned out and the paler lamps of the asters are lighted along the fences and wood-sides.
The apples are growing too heavy to hold longer to the parent branch and, with no warning but the click of intercepting leaves, tumble perhaps, on the head of some unprofitable dreamer even in practical New England. They are ready for gathering, and the Greenings, Northern-spies, Spitzenbergs, Russets, Pomeroys and Tallman-sweets, and all whose virtues or pretensions have gained them a name, are plucked with the care befitting their honored rank and stored for winter use or market, while their plebeian kindred, the "common" or "natural" apples are unceremoniously beaten with poles or shaken from their scraggy, untrimmed boughs and tumbled into the box
of the farm-wagon to go lumbering off to the cider-mill. This, after its ten or eleven months of musty emptiness and idleness, has now awakened to a short season of bustle, of grinding and pressing and fullness of casks and heaped bins and the fragrance thereof. Wagons are unloading their freight of apples and empty barrels, and departing with full casks after the driver has tested the flavor and strength of the earliest made cider. And now at the cellar hatch-way of the farm-house, the boy and the new-come cider-barrel may be found in conjuncture with a rye straw for the connecting link.

Scribners Monthly, Volume 16


Aromatic Terpenes in Desert Plants
Ancient South Arabian incense burners

The Incense Burner Virtual Museum

Thyme Travels

Bee on Thyme
Thyme Travels

The Roses of Taif

Taif Mountains
The Roses of Taif

Natural Remedies of Arabia

Spice Market

Natural Remedies of Arabia

Zanzibar: Cloves and Stone

Fragrant Quote for October 25th, 2012-Nature's diary By Francis Henry Allen-October 11th

Nature's diary By Francis Henry Allen-October 11th

In such weather the woodland air is laden with the light burden of odor, the faintly pungent aroma of the ripened leaves, more subtle than the scent of pine or fir, yet as apparent to the nostrils, as delightful and more rare, for in the round of the year its days are few, while in summer sunshine and winter wind, in springtime shower and autumnal frost, pine, spruce, balsam, hemlock, and cedars distill their perfume and lavish it on the breeze or gale of every season.
Robinson: 1n New England Fields and Woods.

A Biblical History of King Solomon's Temple

King Solomon
A Biblical History of King Solomon's Temple
Vishnu with Lotus

Fragrant Quote for October 24th, 2012THE ATMOSPHERE OF THE HARVEST FIELD.

Harvest Moon
To those who have ever worked in a wheat field, it is not difficult to arouse poetic fancy in recalling the scene. The golden straw seems freighted with the fragrance of rich autumn. The scorching rays of noonday sun and the refreshing shade of the shock where the water jug nestles; the buzz of the reaper in its te deum of praise; the prickling stubble and fleeing gopher; the birds circling on wing in their playful spirit; the typical harvesthand "binding his station" or capping the shock to keep out the threatening rain—all this is the picture.
Then husking corn in the snapping cold months to come, with the ever hungry horses to keep the driver's voice in tune. All this may be too crass to be poetic, but it is the one great jubilee of the western farmers and laurels from the golden sheaf are truly his own. Lowell wrote in a burst of harvest fancy: "The plump swaing at evening bringing home four months' sunshine bound in sheaves."
The situation, too is not without its idyllic aspect. What one subject in painting  has even inspired such warm, sym thetic and wholesome admiration as that of a field? Jules Breton's "Reapers" and Dupre's "The Hay Harvest" has a fascination alike for critic, connoiseur and novice, and breathes the real and pulsating life. All these great paintings have their setting in a field, and so with many of the masterpieces. One who has never felt the warm, gentle breath of a harvest breeze finds a subtle pleasure in even a suggestion recalling the scene. Close to Nature in God's own Garden. The romantic and idyllic painting of European peasantry and views of the great wheat fields of our own West seem to blend into one grand symphony. It may take statistics to give the details of the great harvest, but there is another aspect often overlooked in coldblooded business calculations, and that is the spirit of hope and cheerfulness which is no small factor in determining individual and national welfare. There is a cheerful suggestiveness in "Hail to the Harvest Moon" that compensates for the sad and fading reveries of autumn.
National magazine ..., Volume 9
 By Arthur Wellington Brayley, Arthur Wilson Tarbell, Joe Mitchell Chapple

Plant Myths and Traditions of India

Banyan tree and Temple
Plant Myths and Traditions of India

Flowers in Ancient Literature

Akbar and Tansen visit Haridas
Flowers in Ancient Literature(click here for website)

Fragrant Quote for October 23rd,2012-Fragrant Harvest Scent from The Touchstone, Volume 6 By Mary Fanton Roberts

Pumpkin Field
CERES, Goddess of the Harvest, trailing her garments of crimson, purple and gold, swept regally through Westchester fields this fall, touching apples, grapes and pumpkins, roses, asters and marigolds until they glowed with unprecedented color. Cerulean blue was the sky and emerald green the lawn when the Westchester Floralia, the festival of fruits and flowers was held in the lovely Station Park at Hartsdale, September twentieth. Brilliant displays of flowers and gorgeous stands of fruits and vegetables, arranged in a blazing circle around the green lawn, proved that Demeter's Daughter was in charge of the Westchester Harvest Festival. Pumpkins outrivaling Cinderella's coach in polished splendor, sheaves of corn of mammoth size, strangely large beans that might have been gathered from Jack's magic bean stalk, scarlet tomatoes fit for a poet's praise, melons that filled the air with fragrance, grapes of regal size and flavor, carrots tenderly flushed as a rose, beets radiant as giant garnets, potatoes without a flaw, held a place of honor with autumn flowers, lovely as though dropped from Ceres' cornucopia of beauty.
The Touchstone, Volume 6
 By Mary Fanton Roberts
Tea House China
Traditional Jasmine Tea from Fujian Province,China: Ethereal Cups of Sublime Tea Drinking Pleasure  By Mary Lou Heiss

The Simple Life by Alfred Stead

Japan-Temple Gate

The Simple Life by Alfred Stead

The Good Old Doctor by Anges Romilly White

Irish Countryside

The Good Old Doctor by Anges Romilly White

Water Lilies from The heart of the continent By Fitz Hugh Ludlow

Dwarf Waterlily

But the two most charming flowers of the region, the one for its perfume, the other for its color, were a tiny species having the habits and appearance of the water-lily, to whose family I supposed it to belong, and a crimson cup as large as a small althea, whose only name among the ranch people was "the ground poppy" though whether it be really allied to that plant I regret my inability to state. Its plant-leaves are multi-lobed, and somewhat like those of our own poppy; but it grows upon running stalks close to the ground, and to unscientific eyes seems quite as closely connected with the mallows. It appears in patches varying from a few feet to several rods in circuit, and wherever these occur, the ground is one gorgeous mass of magenta fire. It is the glory of the fertile plains in May and early June, and we afterward found it extending for miles among the barren-sand dunes beyond Fort Kearney, encroaching upon the territory of the cacti and the gramma-grass. Wherever it appears, it is the chief visual delight of the Plains, Flora. The tiny water-lily above mentioned, I only found once in all our progress to the buffalo country. We had halted at the bottom of a wet-draw to water our horses. I went above the place where they were drinking, to quench my thirst at a brown pool which appeared a trifle less stagnant than their watering place, and, lying down with my face over the water, noticed an exquisitely subtle fragrance like that of tuberose and orange-flower combined. On pushing away the weeds which grew out over the pool, I found a nest of lovely white blossoms, smaller than the smallest strawberry-flower, shaped like an Eastern waterlily in miniature, with delicate yellow. stamens and pistil, and moored on the water by slender green filaments rooted in the ooze of the pool  No American blossom that I am acquainted with, not even the trailing arbutus, possesses such an indescribable ethereal fragrance as this tiny water-lily. I sought in vain to preserve specimens of it. The pages of the note-book in which I pressed them, absorbed the petals as if they had been dew, and only stains were left, having none of the flower's characteristic odor.

Plants Used in Attar Ruh/Attar Series-Motia/Mogra/Bela(Jasminum sambac)


Oil.—This species(Jasminum sambac), together with J. officinale and J. grandiflorura, is extensively cultivated for its fragrant Flowers, from which a considerable proportion of the oil of Jasmine used in India is derived (see J. grandiflorum). The method of enfleurage is resorted to in India, as in Europe, for extracting the odorous principle, but instead of fat or oil, crushed sesamum seeds are employed. Dr. Dymock states that in Persia almonds are similarly used.
A dictionary of the economic products of India, Volume 4

 By Sir George Watt, India. Dept. of Revenue and Agriculture

There are two varieties of this beautiful and very fragrant twining plant, one is J. sambac, plenum, the great double Arabian jasmine, the rich-lobed branches of which are studded all over like the snowdrop tree with lovely white flowers, the size of small roses, and delightfully fragrant. This variety is probably more cultivated than any other flower, though the single-flowered, with a twining habit, is not unfrequently to be seen. The single variety is called Motiya; but beautiful varieties called Satha, with single and double flowers, which have the odour of fine green tea, are also cultivated. J. sambac is used to decorate the hair of the Chinese ladies, and to garnish the tables of the wealthy. All Chinese gardens, both in the north and south, are supplied with this favourite flower from the province of Tokein. This, J. paniculatum, and Olea fragrans, the orange tree, Murraya exotica, Aglaia odorata, and Chloranthus inconspicuus, are grown for their blossoms, which are used for mixing with the tea. The flowers of the sambac are supposed by the Hindus to form one of the darts of Kama Deva, the Hindu god of love.
The cyclopædia of India and of eastern and southern Asia: commercial ...
 By Edward Balfour Indian Mode of preparing the Perfumed Oils of Jasmine and Bela.—Dr Jackson of Ghazeepore, in a letter to the editors of the Asiatic Journal of Calcutta for June 1839, says :—In my last communication on the subject of rose-water, I informed you that the natives here were in the habit of extracting the scent from some of the highly-smelling flowers, such as the jasmine, &c., and that I would procure you a sample, and give you some account of the manner in which it is obtained.* By the present steamer, I have dispatched two small phials, containing some of the oil procured from the Jasmine and the Bela flower. For this purpose the natives never make use of distillation, but extract the essence by causing it to be absorbed by some of the purest oleaginous seeds, and then expressing these in a common mill, when the oil given Out has all the scent of the flower which has been made use of. The plan adopted is to place on the ground a layer of the flower, about four inches
thick and two feet square; over this they put some of the Tel or Sesamum seed wetted, about two inches thick and two feet square; on this again is placed another layer of flowers, about four inches thick, as in the first instance; the whole is then covered with a sheet, which is held down by weights at the ends and sides. In this state it is allowed to remain from twelve to eighteen hours; after this the flowers are removed, and other layers placed in the same way; this also is a third time repeated, if it is desired to have the scent very strong. After the last process, the seeds are taken in their swollen state and placed in a mill; the oil is then expressed, and possesses most fully the scent of the flower. The oil is kept in prepared skins, called dubbers, and is sold at so much per seer. The Jasmine and Bela (Jasminums ambac) are the two flowers from which the natives in this district chiefly produce their scented oil; the Chumbul (Jasminum grandiflorumj is another, butl have been unable to procure any of this. The season for manufacture is coming on. The present oils were manufactured a year ago, and do not possess the powerful scent of that which has been recently prepared. Distillation is never made use of for this purpose, as it is with the roses, for the extreme heat (from its being in the middle of the rains when the trees come into flower) would most likely carry off all the scent. The Jasmine, or Chymbele, as it is called, is used very largely amongst the women, the hair of the head and the body being daily smeared with some of it. The specimen I send you costs at the rate of two rupees per seer.
The Edinburgh new philosophical journal, Volume 29

Jasminum Sambac (Mogra). Besides the ordinary double petalled creep, ing Mogra, there are three other distinct varieties—(a) The compound flower, known as Batt mogra; (b) the Madan-ban (Cupid's arrow), bearing a highly fragrant bold flower, the petals of which are often over an inch and-a-half in length; (e) the Kasturi mogra, a Binaller flowered variety. The odour is delicate and partaking of the smell of the musk faintly; (d) there is also the Poona variety known as Motya mogra.
Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, Volume 7
 By Bombay Natural History Society

J. Sambac, the Bel of the Bengalis, is exceedingly plentiful, both single and double-flowered, and erect or climbing. Its flowers appear in the hot season, and are largely used as votive offerings. Oil of Jasmine is prepared from them....The Oil of Jasmine is regarded as cooling, and is much used by the richer natives of India to anoint the body before bathing. An oil prepared with the juice of the leaves is poured into the ears in otorrhcea. (U. C. Dutt.)
Economic products of India exhibited at the Calcutta international ..., Volume 1
 By Sir George Watt

Jasmin sambac Wikipedia

Among the Oleacea, the Jasmines are the most noted in this country and largely represented. They are as follows (all highly scented) :—
1 Jasminum Sambac (Mogra). Besides the ordinary double petalled creep, ing Mogra, there are three other distinct varieties—(a) The compound flower, known as Batt mogra; (b) the Madan-ban (Cupid's arrow), bearing a highly fragrant bold flower, the petals of which are often over an inch and-a-half in length; (e) the Kasturi mogra, a Binaller flowered variety. The odour is delicate and partaking of the smell of the musk faintly; (d) there is also the Poona variety known as Motya mogra.
2 Jasminum grandiflorum (Chambeli). This is a pretty flower delicately marked pinkish or light crimson on the back of the petals.
3 Jasminum officinale (Sayali).
4 Jasminum awiculatum (Jooi).
5 Jasmlnum arborascens, variety Lalifolium (Kusari or MAdhavi). This and the following are wild in our jungles and hedges.
6 Jasminum hirsutum (Syn. J. pnbesceus), Koxb. (Kund).
7 Jasminum anyustifoliu m(Ran Mogra).
8 Jasminum glandulosum (Van Jai). This is a climbing shrub cultivated in gardens from the wild variety. Faintly odonrous; flowers showy.
All these eight varieties aro white. There are two other fragrant varieties which are yellow, viz. :—9. Jasminum aureum (Don.) ( Piwli Jooi), and 10. Jasminum reoolutum (Piwli chambeli).
All these varieties of Jasmin, except the last two which are not very common, are great favourites with our ladies. To the Hindu mind the flowers oE Jasmin represent all that is the sweetest and loveliest in a Hindu home. See the little girl, the darling of her mother, docked from head to foot with costly ornaments of silver, gold and pearl—borrowed, if not possessed—not on any holiday or special occasion, but in the seasons when the Mogra, the Jai, the Jooi or the Chambeli is plentiful: the little darling's head is covered with a skilfully woven cap-like wreath of these flowers, of sambac and juhi particularly; her hair let down on the back in a solitary plait, which is tastefully decorated with rosettes and stars of artistically woven flowers of Mogra or Jooi interspersed with petals of the scarlet pomegranate flower. To u mind that would look at this decoration with the eye of love, it gives satisfaction. The child thus adorned, sweet in its child-liko simplicity, is made sweeter still—nay, more it looks happy and contented from this special mark of parental regard! Are you thinking of the young bride and bridegroom about to he united—not of their own seeking—in the indissoluble tie of Hindu wedlock? Even there the Jasmines lend enchantment to the scene. Long wreaths or garlands of thickly studded Jasmines, fulling in rich profusion from head to foot, and circling round the head, adorn the marrying couple as they stand before each other about to be made one in body and soul! While the priests are chanting the bridal hymns and solemnly invoking the blessings of their household gods and goddesses, fragrance fills the air. Wearing the same garlands the bridegroom leads his young wife to his parental home. Could the couple bo old enough to appreciate these sweet yet simple decorations at a time of the utmost happiness in human life, they would look upon the Jasmines with the same devout sentiment which naturally attaches—perhaps in a more appreciable manner—to the bridal orange-blossoms of our more advanced Western sisters. "More advanced " I say deliberately, for they are decidedly so in age and culture, and in consequence more advanced in the appreciation of the responsibilities of a wedded life. Turn again to the custom of the Hindu ladies of honouring their lady-visitors (barring the unfortunate widows) with the present of a veni (wreath) of flowers on marriage occasions, and even on ordinary friendly visits. The hostess with her own hands puts on the veni over and around the back hair-knot of her lady-guest. Not to do this is understood as tantamount to disregard, if not actual disrespect; and there is often to be seen a hypercritical lady -guest remarking that such and such a lady-friend of hers did not present the customary veni to her on such and such a domestic ceremonial or even on the occasion of an ordinary friendly visit. Judging from the importance attached to such genial exchange of flowers, it is not to be wondered at that at times intentional departures from what appears to me to be at once a noble and gratifying custom, are resented in no unmitigated terms. No Hindu sits before his idols in solemn worship of them but has a trayful of flowers for his gods and goddesses. On certain occasions as much as even a lakh (I mean numerically, a hundred thousand flowers) are heaped upon an image, as the humble offerings of an anxious worshipper asking a special blessing from his deity.
Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, Volume 7
 By Bombay Natural History Society

History and Uses of Khus/Wild Vetiver

wild khus roots
History and Uses of Khus/Wild Vetiver

Creation of the Cosmic Ocean
Preparation of Perfumes in the Brhat Samhita of Varahamihira

Fragrant Quote for October22nd, 2012-An Autumn Day from Poems of the household ... By Margaret Elizabeth Munson Sangster

An Autumn Day


Like a jewel, golden-rimmed;
 Like a chalice, nectar-brimmed;
Like a strain of music low,
Lost in some sweet long ago;
Like a fairy story old,
By the lips of children told;
Like a rune of ancient bard;
Like a missal glory-starred, —
Comes upon her winsome way
This enchanting Autumn day.

O'er the hills the sunlight sleeps;
Through the vales the shadow creeps;
On the river's stately tides,
Rich the silent splendor glides;
Where the bowery orchards be,
Perfumed breezes wander free;
Where the purple clusters shine
Through the network of the vine,
Fragrant odors fill the air;
Beauty shineth everywhere,
While upon her joyous way
Comes the lovely Autumn day.

 By the road's neglected banks
Rise the sumach's serried ranks;
Ragged hedge of thorn and brier
Sudden flames with living fire;
From the hard unlovely sod
Springs the glancing golden-rod;
Light the level sunbeams sift
Through the violet aster-drift;
All her spears in proud array,
Comes the bannered Autumn day.
 Lifts the forest's lofty line,
Sceptred oak and solemn pine;
Shifting rainbow tints illume
All the depths of fronded gloom;
Through the vista'd aisles unroll
Sweeping robe and trailing stole,
— Where superbly on her way
Comes the royal Autumn day.

Heart of mine, be glad and gay;
Wear thy festival array;
Sing thy song for gathered fruit;
Why shouldst thou alone be mute,
When the winds, from sea to sea,
 Ring in chords of jubilee?
After waiting, after prayer,
After pain and toil and care,
After expectation long
— Lo! the bright fulfilments throng.
Gleam the apples through the leaves
Thickly stand the golden sheaves;
Earth is all in splendor drest;
Queenly fair, she sits at rest,
While the deep delicious day
Dreams its happy life away.

The Lavender Museum

Lavandula angustifolia

The Lavender Museum

Fragrant Quote for October 21st, 2012-Harvest Thanksgiving from Hymns of prayer and praise By Benjamin Gough



 "He reserveth unto us the appointed weeks of the harvest.' Jer. V. 24.
 GIVE thanks unto the Lord,
Praise His name with one accord;
Joyous anthems now begin,
For the harvest gathered in.
By the safely garnered wheat,
Now with songs of joy we meet.
God has sent the genial rain
On the mountain, o'er the plain;
Balmy breezes, sunny rays,
Starlight nights, and glowing days;
Till at length the smiling earth
Rings with songs of harvest mirth.
On the cottage and the throne
Has the love of harvest shone;
While the scent of ripened corn
Sweetened the autumnal morn;
And the scythe and sickle bright
Flashed across the upland height.
 Stretched for miles, and still renewed,
Shocks of wheat, all harvest-hued,
With the barley on the wold,
Waved, in glittering robes of gold;
While beside the placid stream
Rosy orchards softly gleam.
0 the joys of harvest home!
When the shouting peasants come;
And the heavy-laden wain
Brings the latest sheaves of grain,
Crowned with festive oaken bough,
Victory of the wondrous plough.
Plenty fills her bounteous horn,
Peace, heaven-shielded and heaven-born,
Walks with love, and hand in hand
Swells the mirthful harvest band;
Singing all in sweet accord, O give thanks unto the Lord!

Sacred Flower Circles-Flower Mandalas

Flower Mandala

Sacred Flower Circles-Flower Mandalas

Sacred Story of the Lotus

SWEETGRASS Hierochloe odorata (L.) Beauv.

Fragrant Quote for October 20th, 2012-Fragrant Thoughts from Autumn from the journal of henry david thoreau

Dicksonia(Dennstaedtia) -Hay Scented Fern

Oct. 18, 1859. Why can we not oftener refresh one another with original thoughts? If the fragrance of the Dicksonia fern is so grateful and suggestive to us, how much more refreshing and encouraging, re-creating, would be fresh and fragrant thoughts communicated to us from a man's experience. I want none of his pity nor sympathy in the common sense, but that he should emit and communicate to me his essential fragrance, that he should not be forever repenting and going to church (when not otherwise sinning), but as it were going a-huckleberrying in the fields of thought, and enriching all the world with his visions and his joys. Why flee so soon to the theatres, lecture rooms, and museums of the city ? If you will stay here awhile, I will promise you strange sights. You shall walk on water. All these brooks and rivers and ponds shall be your highway. You shall see the whole earth covered a foot or more deep with purest white crystals in which you slump or over which you glide, and all the trees and stubble glittering in icy armor.

The Afterlife of Natural, Ancient Egyptian Cosmetics

Egyptian Cosmetics Box

The Afterlife of Natural, Ancient Egyptian Cosmetics

Yarrow/Achillea millefolium-History and Uses

Yarrow/Achillea millefolium-History and Uses

Majmua Attar

Monsoon Season

Majmua Attar is composed of a number of attars and ruhs(ruh kewda, ruh khus, mitti attar, etc). It is  greenish brown liquid displaying a sweet  ethereal floral, yet cool  earthy-rooty bouquet with a green herbaceous-mossy undertone. Wonderfully complex and captivating, capturing the beauty of the monsoon season, when the richly aromatic plant life of India springs to life and fills the atmosphere with their intoxicating odors.

Majmua Attar was created to be enjoyed on its own rather than blended with other materials.
No doubt it could find a place in herbaceous bouquets, forest notes, incense blends, sacred perfumes and precious woods accords but my feeling is that it is a aromatic treasure in itself to be enjoyed as such.
Angelica archangelica

Angelica: From Norvegian Mountains to the English Trifle

Angelica archangelica Linn. is an angel on earth for the treatment of diseases

Angelica archangelica
Angelica archangelica Linn. is an angel on earth for the treatment of diseases