Monday, May 30, 2011

Ginger(Zingiber officinalis) CO2 organic total extract/India

Ginger(Zingiber officinalis) CO2 organic total extract/India

Ginger Images

The total co2 extract of Ginger from India is a golden liquid displaying a warm, tangy, spicy-aromatic bouquet with a powdery, earthy-rooty undertone

In natural perfumery it is used in culinary perfumes, Oriental bouquets, spice accords, incense bouquets and high class florals in trace amounts, tropical essences, aromatherapy blends, apothecary perfumes

Galbanum(Ferula galbaniflua) CO2 Select Extract/Iran

Galbanum(Ferula galbaniflua) CO2 Select Extract/Iran

Images of Galbanum

Galbanum CO2 select extract is a colorless to pale yellow liquid displaying fine, deep, green, balsamic, resinous bouquet with dry, woody, coniferous undertone of excellent tenacity

In natural perfumery is used in fougere, cologne, chypres, Oriental bases, sacred perfumes, incense bouquets, moss notes, high class florals in trace amounts

Cocoa(Theobroma cocao) co2 select extract/South America

Cocoa(Theobroma cocao) co2 select extract/South America

Images of Cocao

Even though cocoa bean co2 is considered a select extract, it like several other select extracts like orris root co2 is a solid, beige, waxy mass at room temperature. It displays a very complex chocolaty-vanillic bouquet with a sweet, creamy undertone

In natural perfumery used in culinary perfumes, lip balms, amber bases, fantasy perfumes, high class florals

Clove Bud(Eugenia caryophyllata, Syzygium aromaticum) select extract organic /Indonesia, Madagascar

Clove Bud(Eugenia caryophyllata, Syzygium aromaticum) select extract organic /Indonesia, Madagascar

Images of Clove

Select extract of Clove Buds from Indonesia is a pale yellow liquid displaying a rich sweet/sour, spicy-aromatic bouquet with a balsamic-floral undertone of fine tenacity

In natural perfumes it is used in culinary perfumes, spice accords, high class florals(night queen, carnation, ylang, rose, narcisuss), incense bouquet

Coffee (Coffea arabica) organic total extract/India

Coffee (Coffea arabica) organic total extract/India

Coffee Images

Total CO2 extract of roasted coffee beans from India is a brown liquid displaying a deep, toasted, coffee bean like aroma with a delicate, complex balsamic, earthy, spicy, carmelic undertone of good tenacity

In natural perfumery is used in culinary perfumes, amber bases, fougere, earth accords, and fantasy perfumes

Cassia/Cinnamon Bark(Cinnamomum cassia) total extract/China

Cassia/Cinnamon Bark(Cinnamomum cassia) total extract/China

Cassia Images

Cassia Bark CO2 total extract is a brown opaque viscous liquid with a powerful, sweet, spicy bouquet with a unique vanillic-balsamic, powdery undertone of great tenacity and radiance

In natural perfumery is used in culinary bouquets, spice accords, incense perfumes, high class florals in trace amounts to introduce a warm radiant spicy note

Celery Seed( Apium graveolens) total extract organic/India

Celery Seed( Apium graveolens) total extract organic/India

Celery Images

Celery Seed total extract from India is an olive green viscous liquid displaying a rich, slightly punguent, green, spicy-aromatic bouquet with a earthy, herbaceous undertone of great tenacity and power

In natural perfumery used in culinary bouquets, forest notes, spice accords, fougere, earth accords, herbaceous essences

Angelica archangelica root co2 select extract/Poland

Angelica archangelica root co2 select extract/Poland

Images of Angelica

Angelica root co2 select extract is a golden slightly viscous liquid displaying and immensely rich, sweet, animalic-musky, rooty aroma with an earthy-mossy-woody undertone of fine tenacity. The richness of the musk bouquet is especially displayed in the co2 extract

In natural perfume it is used in musk accords, Oriental bases, incense perfumes, culinary essences, fougere, heavy chypre, and special colognes

Sunday, May 29, 2011

Petitgrain Sur Fleur Neroli (Citrus aurantium var. amara) essential oil/Morocco

Petitgrain Sur Fleur Neroli (Citrus aurantium var. amara) essential oil/Morocco

Images of Bitter Orange

Petitgrain sur fleur Neroli(codistillation of petitgrain leaves with neroli flowers) is a pale yellow liquid displaying a elegant, sweet, ethereal floral bouquet with a delicate green leafy undertone

In natural perfumery is used in colognes, high class florals, chypre, fougere

Opoponax (Commiphera guidotti) Absolute/French extracted

Opoponax (Commiphera guidotti) Absolute/French extracted

Images of Opoponax

Opoponax absolute is a dark amber colored very viscous liquid displaying an elegant, mellow, sweet, rich, resinous, balsamic bouquet with a delicate, warm, animalic-spicy undertone.

In natural perfumery it is used in amber bases, musk accords, fougere, chypre, Oriental bases, leather notes, incense bouquets, sacred perfumes

Black Hemlock Spruce (Tsuga canadensis) Absolute/Canada

Black Hemlock Spruce (Tsuga canadensis) Absolute/Canada

Images of Black Hemlock Spruce

Black Hemlock Spruce Absolute is a dark green very viscous liquid displaying an immensely rich, suave, fruity, coniferous bouquet with a sweet, balsamic, woody undertone of good tenacity

In natural perfumery it is used in forest notes, fruit accords, sacred perfumes, colognes, fougere, chypre, high class florals

Red Raspberry Leaf (Rubus idaeus) absolute 30% in perfumers alcohol/French extracted

Red Raspberry Leaf (Rubus idaeus) absolute 30% in perfumers alcohol/French extracted

Red raspberry images

Red Raspberry Leaf absolute in perfumers alcohol is a dark green liquid displaying a fine green,leafy, sweet, fruity bouquet with a delicate resinous undertone

In natural perfumery used in fruit accord, culinary perfumes, herbaceous accords, colognes, chypre

Pine, Forest/Virginia Cedarwood(Pinus sylvestris/Juniperus virginiana) coextracted absolute/France

Pine, Forest/Virginia Cedarwood(Pinus sylvestris/Juniperus virginiana) coextracted absolute/France

Pine Forest/Cedarwood coextracted absolute is pale yellow liquid displaying an fine rich, warm, green, resionous, nutty, slightly fruity aroma with a precious woods, earthy undertone

In natural perfumery used in incense perfumes, sacred essences, forest notes, colognes, chypre, fougere, after shave lotions

Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) Absolute/France

Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) Absolute/France

Images of Licorice

Licorice absolute is a dark brown viscous liquid which is soluble in perfumers alcohol but not directly soluble in carrier oils. It displays a soft, sweet, moss/ rooty aroma with a delicate rounded carmelic undertone. The odor is soft and mild as compared with its intensely sweet rooty taste of licorice.

In natural perfumery it is used in earth accords, apothecary blends, new mown hay, herbaceous bouquets, culinary perfumes, amber bases, musk accords

Lavender, Seville (Lavandula luisieri) absolute/Spain(French extracted)

Lavender, Seville (Lavandula luisieri) absolute/Spain(French extracted)

Images of Seville Lavender

Seville Lavender absolute is a olive green viscous liquid displaying a unique rich, dry-fruity, herbaceous bouquet with a sweet ambery-resinous, coumarinic undertone

In natural perfumery it is used in fruit accords, herbaceous notes, high class florals, colognes, amber bases, new mown hay, fougere, chypre

Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) absolute/Bulgaria

Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) absolute/Bulgaria

Lavender Images

Bulgarian Lavender absolute(French extracted) is an emerald green viscous but pourable liquid displaying an immensely rich, sweet, coumarinic-herbaceous bouquet with a delicate floral, woody-herbal undertone

In natural perfumery it is used extensively in herbal accords, chypre, fougere, colognes, new mown hay bases, forest notes, culinary perfumes, sachet perfumes, literary essences

Labdanum, Incense note(Cistus ladanifer) Absolute/Spain

Labdanum, Incense note(Cistus ladanifer) Absolute/Spain

Images of Cistus

Labdanum incense note absolute is a amber colored viscous but pourable liquid displaying an extremely rich, sweet, resinous, ambery-incense bouquet with a dry herbaceous, balsamic undertone of outstanding tenacity

In natural perfumery it is used in incense notes, sacred perfumes, colognes, Oriental bases, musk accords, ambre bases, forest notes, chypre, fougere

Frankincense/Virgininia cedarwood (Boswellia carteri/Juniperus virginiana) coextracted absolute/France

Frankincense/Virgininia cedarwood (Boswellia carteri/Juniperus virginiana) coextracted absolute/France

The Frankincense/Cedarwood absolute which is coextracted in France is a colorless to pale yellow flowable liquid displaying a perfect balance of rich, balsamic, resinous notes of frankincense with the deep, dry, precious woods, earthy notes of Virginia cedarwood giving it a very ancient and sophisticated bouquet of good tenacity

In natural perfumery it is used in sacred perfumes, incense bouquet, Oriental bases, precious woods notes, and a general fixative in most perfume types

Calendula (Calendula officinalis) absolute/Egypt

Calendula (Calendula officinalis) absolute/Egypt

Images of Calendula

Calendula absolute is a deep orange viscous liquid displaying a deep, warm, green, herbaceous bouquet with a dried fruity-spicy undertone

In natural perfumery it is used in herbaceous accords, high class florals(gardenia, hyacinth, lilac) in trace amounts, forest notes, green notes, earth accords

Juniper Berry (Juniperus communis) wild harvest essential oil-India

Juniper Berry (Juniperus communis) wild harvest essential oil-India

Images of Juniper

Juniper Berry essential oil from India is a colorless to pale yellow liquid displaying a warm, green, resinous, coniferous bouquet with a woody-balsamic undertone

In natural perfumery it is used in forest notes, room refreshners, after shave lotions, ambre bases, spice notes, chypres, fougere, sacred perfumes, incense bouquet

Tangerine (Citrus reticulata) non sprayed/South Africa

Tangerine (Citrus reticulata) non sprayed/South Africa

Images of Tangerine

Tangerine essential oil is a orange liquid with a delicate, fresh, sweet, juicy-citrus aroma

In natural perfumery it is used in culinary perfumes, colognes, citrus accords, top note in floral perfumes

Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus) essential oil/Italy

Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus) essential oil/Italy

Images of Tarragon

Tarragon essential oil is a colorless to pale yellow liquid display a uniforim sweet, fresh, clean, anisic-spicy bouquet

In natural perfumery it is used in trace amounts in herbal bouquets, culinary perfumes, chypre, cologne and green-floral bases

Sandalwood, Papua(Santalum macgregorii) wild harvested essential oil/Papua , New Guinea

Sandalwood, Papua(Santalum macgregorii) wild harvested essential oil/Papua , New Guinea

Sandalwood essential oil from Papu, New Guinea is a pale yellow liquid displaying a soft, sweet, balsamic bouquet with a creamy, delicate precious woods undertone.

In natural perfumery it is used as a general fixative in almost any perfume type.
Its particular application is in Oriental-floral bouquets, incense notes, fougere, woody-floral bases, chypres, fougeres, sacred perfumes

Saturday, May 28, 2011

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Yarrow (Achillea millefolium)

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Yarrow (Achillea millefolium)

The book of herbal wisdom: using plants as medicine By Matthew Wood

Handbook of medicinal plants By Zohara Yaniv, Uriel Bachrach

Alchemical Medicine for the 21st Century. By Clare Goodrick-Clarke

German Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia, Volume 1

Montana--native plants and early peoples By Jeff Hart, Jacqueline Moore

Aromatherapy science: a guide for healthcare professionals By Maria Lis-Balchin

Pocket Guide to Herbal Medicine By Karin Kraft, Christopher Hobbs

Native American medicinal plants: an ethnobotanical dictionary By Daniel E. Moerman


Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Wintergreen (Gualtheria fragrantissima)

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Wintergreen (Gualtheria fragrantissima)


Curtis's botanical magazine, Volume 98

Plants and people of Nepal By N. P. Manandhar, Sanjay Manandhar

National register of medicinal plants By IUCN Nepal, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Nepal. Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation

Dr. K.M. Nadkarni's Indian Materia Medica., Volume 2 By K. M. Nadkarni

PROSEA : Plant Resources of South-East Esia 19, Essential-oil Plants By L.P.A Oyen and Nguyen Xuan Dung (Editors)

Indigenous Drugs Of India By Chopra R N, I.C. Chopra

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Pine, Scotch/Forest(Pinus sylvestris)

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Pine, Scotch/Forest(Pinus sylvestris)


Forestry Commission Great Britian


Plants for a Future

A Modern Herbal


Medicinal plants of the world By Ben-Erik Van Wyk, Michael Wink

Medicinal Plants: (nos. 228-306) Artocarpaceae to Algae By Robert Bentley, Henry Trimen

Aromatherapy science: a guide for healthcare professionals By Maria Lis-Balchin

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Ravensara aromatica

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Ravensara aromatica


Ravensara Essential Oil Profile

The healing trail: essential oils of Madagascar By Georges M. Halpern, Peter Weverka

Medicinal and aromatic plants of Indian Ocean islands By Ameenah Gurib-Fakim, Thomas Brendler

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Raventsara (Cinnamomum camphora)

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Raventsara (Cinnamomum camphora)

The healing trail: essential oils of Madagascar By Georges M. Halpern, Peter Weverka

Medicinal and aromatic plants of Indian Ocean islands: By Ameenah Gurib-Fakim, Thomas Brendler

Ravintsara vs Ravensara: What’s the difference?


Ravintsara versus Ravensara

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin)

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin)

Medicinal plants: chemistry and properties By Dr. M. Daniel

Cultivation and Utilization of Aromatic Plants By H. Panda

The Complete Technology Book on Herbal Perfumes & Cosmetics By H. Panda

PROSEA : Plant Resources of South-East Esia 19, Essential-oil Plants By L.P.A Oyen and Nguyen Xuan Dung (Editors)

Medicinal plants of the world: an illustrated scientific guide to important ... By Ben-Erik Van Wyk, Michael Wink

Encyclopedia of food and color additives, Volume 3 By George A. Burdock

National Geographic Desk Reference to Nature's Medicine By Rebecca Johnson, Steven Foster

The encyclopedia of herbs: By Arthur O. Tucker, Thomas DeBaggio

Essential Aromatherapy: A Pocket Guide to Essential Oils and Aromatherapy By Susan E. Worwood, Valerie Ann Worwood

Aromatherapy science: a guide for healthcare professionals By Maria Lis-Balchin

Planetary herbology By Michael Tierra

Wintergreen (Gualtheria fragrantissima) organic essential oil/Nepal

Wintergreen (Gualtheria fragrantissima) organic essential oil/Nepal

Images of Wintergreen

Nepalese wintergreen essential oil is a colorless to pale yellow liquid(sometimes reddish in color if distilled in copper vessels) displaying an intensely sweet, minty-herbaceous bouquet with a delicate creamy-woody undertone

In natural perfumery used in herbal bouquets, room refreshers, apothecary perfumes, aromatherapy blends, fougere and forest notes. In trace amounts can be effective in high class florals like narcissus, ylang, tuberose, lily and gardenia

Thyme, linalool chemotype(Thymus vulgaris) organic essential oil/France

Thyme, linalool chemotype(Thymus vulgaris) organic essential oil/France

Images of Thyme

Linalool chemotype Thyme essential oil from France is a colorless to pale yellow liquid displaying a fresh, terpenic, herbaceous bouquet with a warm, woody-spicy undertone

In natural perfumery used in aromatherapy blends, apothecary perfumes, herbal accords, sacred perfumes, colognes, fougere, spice accords. Should be used in trace amounts as it its aroma is potent

Yarrow, Blue (Achillea millifolium) organic essential oil/ Bulgaria

Yarrow, Blue (Achillea millifolium) organic essential oil/ Bulgaria

Images of Yarrow

Blue Yarrow essential oil is a deep blue liquid displaying a sweet, fruity, herbaceous bouquet with a warm-woody undertone

In natural perfumery used in herbal accords, aromatherapy blends, apothecary bouquets, sacred perfumes, literary perfumes, sacred essences

Tagetes(Tagetes minuta) organic essential oil/South Africa

Tagetes(Tagetes minuta) organic essential oil/South Africa

Images of Tagetes

Tagetes essential from South Africa is an orange liquid displaying a lovely sweet, fruity, floral-herbaceous bouquet with a delicate green, balsamic undertone

In natural perfumery used in herbaceous accords, fruit notes, fougere, cologne, chypre, high class florals

Pine Maritime(Pinus pinaster) essential oil/Hungary

Pine Maritime(Pinus pinaster) essential oil/Hungary

Images of Maritime Pine

Maritime Pine essential oil is a colorless liquid with a soft, sweet, green, resinous-coniferous aroma with delicate balsamic undertone

In natural perfumery it is used in incense perfumes, forest notes, sacred perfumes, room refreshners, colognes, holiday bouquets, aromatherapy blends, spa perfumes

Pine, Forest/Scotch (Pinus sylvestris) wild harvest/Bulgaria, Hungary

Pine, Forest/Scotch (Pinus sylvestris) wild harvest/Bulgaria, Hungary

Images for Pinus sylvestris

Forest/Scotch Pine essential oil is a colorless liquid displaying a sweet, coniferous-resinous bouquet with a green-balsamic undertone

In natural perfumery it is used in forest notes, sacred perfumes, incense bouquet, room refreshers, aromatherapy blends, spa perfumes

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) organic/South Africa

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) organic/South Africa

The organic Rosemary essential oil from South Africa is distinctly different than the Tunisian especially in the top notes.
It is a colorless to pale yellow liquid with a balanced, clean, fresh, green-resinous, herbaceous aroma with a woody-minty undertone. The camphoraceous-medicinal top note which is so strongly present in the Tunisian essential oil is much reduced in the South African material.

In natural perfumery used in colognes, culinary perfumes, sacred essences, incense bouquets, fougere, chypre, after shave lotions, forest notes, geographical perfumes, literary essences, room refreshners, herbal accords

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) organic/Tunisia

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) organic/Tunisia

Images of Rosemary

The organic Tunisian rosemary essential oil is a colorless to pale yellow liquid displaying a distinct, penetrating green-camphoraceous top note with a resinous-herbaceous body note and a clean minty-woody undertone

In natural perfumery it is used in herbal notes, culinary perfumes, colognes, fougere, forest notes, Oriental bases, aromatherapy blends, apothecary perfumes, room refreshners, literary creations

Orange, Sweet (Citrus sinensis) wild harvest/West Indies

Orange, Sweet (Citrus sinensis) wild harvest/West Indies

Images of Sweet Orange

The wild harvested Sweet Orange essential oil from the West Indies(cold pressed) is the most unique in aroma amongst the sweet oranges that I have had encountered.
It is an orange liquid with a distinctive fresh, sweet/punguent fruity-citrus bouquet.
Its overall bouquet is more intense in the above described notes than any other sweet orange I have smelled

In natural perfumery can be effectively used in culinary perfumes, top note in floral compositions, colognes, fougeres and chypres, fruit accords

Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) essential oil/Indonesia

Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) essential oil/Indonesia

Images of Nutmeg

Indonesian nutmeg essential oil is a colorless to pale yellow liquid displaying a warm, sweet spicy-aromatic bouquet with balsamic woody undertone. The terpenic top note which is distinctly present in the Sri Lankan nutmeg is very subdued in the Indonesian oil.

In natural perfumery it is used in culinary perfumes, incense note, after-shave lotions, spicy accords, chypres, incense notes

Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) organic-Bulgaria

Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) organic-Bulgaria

Images of Lavender

Bulgarian lavender essential oil is a colorless to pale yellow liquid displaying a warm, sweet, fruity, herbaceous aroma with a delicate, floral, woody, balsamic undertone

In natural perfumery it is used in fouguere, cologne, chypres , amber bases, herbaceous notes, culinary perfumes, sacred perfumes, aromatherapy blends, apothecary bouquets

Ravintsara (Cinnamomum camphora) essential oil/Madagascar

Ravintsara (Cinnamomum camphora) essential oil/Madagascar

Ravintsara images

Ravintsara essential oil is a colorless liquid displaying a clean, fresh, medicinal-camphoraceous, spicy bouquet

In natural perfumery used in aromatherapy blends, diffuser blends, apothecary perfumes

Ravensara aromatica essential oil/Madagascar

Ravensara aromatica essential oil/Madagascar

Images of Ravensara aromatica

Ravensara aromatica displays a good deal of variety in its aromatic qualities as it is distilled from the leaves of a wild harvested crop so much depends on the the area within Madagasar from which they come.

It is a colorless to pale yellow liquid displaying a sweet, fresh herbaceous-spicy bouquet with a slightly medicinal undertone

Used in apothecary creations, aromatherapy blends, herbaceous bouquets, spicy notes

Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin) essential oil/Indonesia

Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin) essential oil/Indonesia

Patchouli essential oil displays a range of colors and odors depending on the way in which the leaves are fermented, the age of the oil, the type of equipment distilled in, method of growth etc-so I will do my best to describe the patchouli essential oils we have in stock.

Patchouli essential oil(aged 5 years)conventianal- Indonesia
The 5 year aged patchouli is a golden liquid displaying a very rich, sweet, balsamic, herbaceous aroma with a woody, mossy, earthy undertone. Tenacity is very good. Its overall character is sweeter more ethereal-herbaceous than the other patchouli's we offer.

Patchouli essential oil(aged 2 years) organic-Indonesia
The 2 year aged patchouli is an amber colored liquid displaying a rich, earthy, herbaceous aroma with a woody, rooty, slightly animalic undertone. Tenacity is very good. Its overall character is heavier, more earthy-herbaceous than the other patchouli's we offer

Patchouli esssential oil (iron free because distilled in stainless steel vessels) organic-Indonesia
Iron free patchouli is a light amber colored liquid displaying a rich, sweet, balsamic, herbaceous aroma with a fine earthy, woody, slighty minty undertone

Patchouli, dark(dark because distilled in old fashioned crude iron vessels) essential organic-Indonesia
Dark patchouli is quite similar to the iron free patchouli with its rich, balsamic-herbaceous bouquet and earthy, woody, minty undertone. It is in my opinion a bit deeper in its undertone notes

Patchouli essential oil is used extensively in natural perfumery including Oriental bases, fougere, chypre , incense notes, culinary perfumes, precious woods bases, sacred perfumes

Friday, May 27, 2011

Monograph-Cedar, Atlas(Cedrus atlantica)

Monograph-Cedar, Atlas(Cedrus atlantica)

Images of Himalayan Cedar


The specific epithet and English vernacular name derive from the Sanskrit term devadāru, which means "wood of the gods", a compound of deva (god) and dāru (wood, etym. tree)).


"A tree up to 40 m high and up to 2 m in diameter. BARK on old trees fissured. CROWN pyramidal, with few branches, open. BRANCHES strongly ascending and relatively short; leading shoot erect and bent at the tip. SHOOTS thickly pubescent. LEAVES silvery bluish or green, usually not longer than 2.5 cm, between 19 and 28 in a whorl. FLOWERS appearing from June to September. CONES cylindrical, with level or concave top, 5-7 cm long, up to 4 cm wide, glossy, light brown, maturing in September and October and shedding seeds into the spring; seed scales about 3.5 cm wide, with tomentose keel. SEED 12 mm long and wing 12-15 mm long" (Vidakovic 1991).

Cedrus atlantica, the Atlas Cedar, is a cedar native to the Atlas Mountains of Algeria (Tell Atlas) and Morocco (in the Rif and Middle Atlas, and locally in the High Atlas).[1] A majority of the modern sources[2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9] treat it as a distinct species Cedrus atlantica, but some sources[10][11] consider it a subspecies of Lebanon Cedar (C. libani subsp. atlantica).

Medicinal use of Atlas Deodar:
An essential oil obtained from the distilled branches is a good antiseptic and fungicide that stimulates the circulatory and respiratory systems and also calms the nerves. The oil is also astringent, diuretic, expectorant and sedative. Diluted with a carrier oil such as almond, and massaged into the skin it is used in the treatment of skin diseases, ulcers, chest infections, catarrh, cystitis and dandruff. It is used as an inhalant for treating bronchitis, tuberculosis and nervous tension. An infusion of the branches can also be used.
Natural Medicinal Herbs

Common name Himalayan cedar wood (E), Deodar (H)
Sanskrit Devadaru
Latin Cedrus deodara – Lignum (Coniferae)

This hardy tree thrives in the high altitude of the western Himalayas. It means ‘wood of the gods’.
The inner wood is aromatic and is also distilled into essential oil. The outer bark is astringent and is
used for diarrhoea and neuralgic pain.

Rasa (taste) Bitter, pungent
Virya (action) Heating
Vipaka (post-digestive effect) Pungent
Guna (quality) Light, unctuous
Dosha effect VK-, P+
Dhatu (tissue) Plasma, blood, muscle, fat
Srota (channel) Digestive, respiratory, circulatory

Essential oil – sesquiterpenes
Flavonoids – deodarin, taxifolin, quercetin1

Carminative, anti-spasmodic, aromatic, analgesic, cholesterolaemic, diaphoretic

GIT Used in digestive distension from weak digestion. As it alleviates vata it can reduce intestinal
spasms and cramping by relaxing the nervous system and easing flatulence. Very useful in digestive
disturbance from nervous tension, it can clear constipation by relaxing and lubricating the bowel. Its
hot resinous nature is beneficial for reducing ama from the intestines and excess weight and
cholesterol from medas-dhatu.2
Lungs Its bitter and pungent flavour is the perfect combination to remove kapha; it dries the excess
mucus and therefore helps to clear the wet stagnation. Its snigdha and unctuous property loosens
phlegm and facilitates expectoration helping to alleviate kapha and dry excess mucus. It is also used
when there are fevers that are affecting breathing.3
Pain Devadaru is an excellent anti-inflammatory that relieves cold, spasm and contraction in the
muscles. Its pungent and warm properties increase circulation and relax muscular tension. Use in
arthritis, sciatica, headache and pain from high vata.

Deepana Increases digestive function
Amapachana Removes toxins from the bowel
Vatanuloma Redirects the flow of vata downwardsVibandahara Alleviates constipation
Kasahara Alleviates coughing
Hridaya Nourishes the heart
Vedana sthapana Analgesic
Vatakaphahara Alleviates vata and kapha
Herbal Ayurveda


Botanical name: Cedrus deodara, Pinaceae

Other names: Dedwar, Deodar (H), Tevadaram, Tevadaru, (T), Himalayan Cedar (E)

DevadaruBotany: Devadaru is a large conifer that attains a height of between 20 and 45 meters, pyramidal in shape when young but becoming irregularly shaped with age. The bark is dark, almost black in colour, the branches horizontal and spreading, the leading shoot and tips usually drooping. The needle-like leaves are stiff, about 2.5-3.8 cm long, borne in dense whorls of 20-30 per cluster. The flowers are usually monoecious, the male catkins solitary and cylindrical, producing clouds of yellow, wind-blown pollen in early spring. The egg-shaped female cones are bluish green, 10-12.5 cm long, solitary, carried on the ends of the branchlets, and release pale brown seeds with papery wings after about two years. Devadaru is found throughout the Himalayas and Hindu Kush mountain ranges, from 1000 to 3500 meters in elevation, usually growing in full sunlight (Warrier et al 1994, 41; Kirtikar and Basu 1935, 2390).

Part used: Heartwood.



Rasa: tikta

Vipaka: katu

Virya: ushna

Karma: dipanapachana, bhedana, krimiaghna, jvaraghna, hrdaya, mutravirechana, shotahara, vedanasthapana, Kaphavatahara (Srikanthamurthy 2001, 210; Warrier et al 1994, 41-44).

Constituents: The primary component of interest in Devadaru is the essential oil, which contains p-methylacetophenone, p-methyl-?-3tetrahydroacetophenone, alantone, the sesquiterpene alcohols himachalol, allohimachalol, ? and ?-himachalenes, as well as cedrol and limonene. Other constituents that have been isolated from the wood include the flavonoids deodarin, cedeodarin, cedrin, cedrinoside and quercitin, as well as the sesquiterpene himasedone, isoprimaric acid, deodadione, carboxylic acid, cedrusin, cedrusinin, matairesinol, nortrachelogenin, and a dibenzylbutyrolactollignan (Tiwari et al 2001; Yoganarasimhan 2000, 119; Kapoor 1990, 110).

Medical research:

Antioxidant: Dried heartwood powder of Cedrus deodara defatted with petroleum ether and then extracted with chloroform demonstrated a strong antioxidant activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical (Tiwari et al 2001).

Antiinflammatory: The volatile oil of Cedrus deodara administered orally at the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight significantly inhibited pedal edema induced by compound 48/80 in rats. The oil also significantly inhibited compound 48/80-induced degranulation of isolated rat peritoneal mast cells and significantly inhibited the lipoxygenase, and therefore leukotriene synthesis (Shinde et al 1999a). The volatile oil extracted from the wood of Cedrus deodara by steam distillation was administered orally in rats and examined for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activites. The oil was found to significantly inhibit carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and exudative-proliferative and chronic phases of inflammation in adjuvant arthritic rats at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight. The oil was also found to possess analgesic activity against acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate reaction in mice (Shinde et al 1999b)

Antifungal: The sesquiterpene alcohol himachalol derived from Cedrus deodara was tested for its antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus. The treatment of infected Swiss mice with himachalol (200 mg kg) once daily for 7 days provided significant protection when compared to controls, and enhanced survival (Chowdhry et al 1997).

Antispasmodic: Pharmacological studies on himachalol on various isolated smooth muscles and against different agonists such as acetylcholine, histamine, serotonin, and nicotine indicate a spasmolytic activity similar to that of papaverine. In conscious immobilized cats the intragastric administration of himachalol or papaverine (100 mg/kg) produced an equal inhibition of carbachol-induced spasm of the intestine, lasting about 2 hours, but himachalol had a faster onset of action. Although himachalol was devoid of spasmolytic effect on the bronchial musculature of guinea pig, it was 3.3 times more potent than papaverine in antagonizing epinephrine-induced contraction of the guinea pig seminal vesicle. The intravenous injection of himachalol (3-10 mg/kg) in cats produced a dose-dependent fall in blood pressure and an increased femoral blood flow (Kar et al 1975).

Toxicity: No data found.

Indications: Fever, dyspepsia, colic, flatulence, hemorrhoids, hiccough, bronchitis, renal and vesical calculi, stranguary, edema, diabetes, skin diseases, ulcers, wounds, epilepsy, heart disease, pain, inflammation, headache.

Contraindications: Pittakopa, in large doses.

Medicinal uses: Devadaru is called the ‘wood of the gods’ because it grows in the Himalayan mountain range, said to be the abode of the god Shiva, nurtured by the breast-milk (melting snow) of his consort, Parvati (Sharma 1993, 21). Devadaru is also used in Hindu religious ceremonies, mentioned in the epic Ramayana as a fragrant wood used to build the funeral pyre. In regard to its medicinal uses, the Bhavaprakasha mentions that Devadaru is useful to remove ama from the amashaya (Srikanthamurthy 2001, 210). To this extent Devadaru is also used in the treatment of fever, particularly of the bilious variety, to rekindle agni and restore weakened hepatic secretions. Devadaru is also used an anodyne, either singly or combination, taken internally and applied topically. In diarrhea Devadaru has a tonic action, restoring tone to the muscular fibers (Nadkarni 1954, 295), and thus finds application in rectal prolapse (Kirtikar and Basu 1935, 2391). Applied topically, the powder and distilled oil is often used in the treatment of ulcers as an antinfective and vulnerary, and has traditionally formed topical therapies targeted to leprosy (Kirtikar and Basu 1935, 2391). The Bhavaprakasha mentions Devadaru as one of the chief ingredients in Devadarvyadi kvatha, used post-partum restorative and tonic (Sriknathamurthy 2000, 798). Combined with equal parts Haritaki, Vasaka, Shaliparni, Shunthi (Zingiber officinalis) and Amalaki, taken with honey, the Sharangadhara samhita recommends Devadaru in the treatment of fever, dyspnea, cough and dyspepsia (Srikanthamurthy 1984, 63). In the treatment of Vata-type variants of headache, the Sharangadhara samhita recommends a lepa prepared with equal parts powders of Devadaru, Nata (Valeriana wallachi), Kushta, Jatamamsi and Shunthi (Zingiber officinalis), mixed with rice water and oil, applied over the head (Srikanthamurthy 1984, 242).
Todd Calecott

Principal Constituents
Himalayan Cedarwood Oil contains two major sesquiterpenoids a - and ß- himachalenes1. Deodarone2 and deodardione3 are also isolated from the essential oil.
Himalayan Health Care

Perfumer and Flavorist: Atlas Cedarwood Chemistry

Cultural importance in the Indian subcontinent

Among Hindus, as the name deodar suggests, it is worshipped as a divine tree. The first half of the word deva means the words divine, deity, deus and the second part connotes durum, druid, tree, true.[2][3]

Several Hindu legends refer to this tree. In Valmiki Ramayan – Kishkinda khanda- stanza 4-43-13 reads:[4]

lodhra padmaka khaNDeSu devadaaru vaneSu ca | raavaNaH saha vaidehyaa maargitavyaa tataH tataH || || 4-43-13

That means “In the stands of Lodhra trees, Padmaka trees and in the woods of Devadaru, or Deodar trees, Ravana is to be searched there and there, together with Seetha. [4-43-13]”

Forests full of Devadaru trees were the favorite abode or living place of ancient Indian sages and their families who were devoted to Hindu god Shiva. To please Lord Shiva, the sages used to perform very difficult tapasya (meditation) in deodar forests. There is regular mention of Darukavana, meaning a forest of deodars, as a sacred place in the ancient Hindu epics and Shaivite texts.

The deodar tree is the national tree of Pakistan.

Monograph-Fir Balsam(Abies balsamea)

Monograph-Fir Balsam(Abies balsamea)

Images of Fir Balsam(Abies balsamea)

The balsam fir (Abies balsamea) is a North American fir, native to most of eastern and central Canada (Newfoundland west to central Alberta) and the northeastern United States (Minnesota east to Maine, and south in the Appalachian Mountains to West Virginia).[1]


Canada: Alberta, Saskatchewan; Manitoba, Ontario, Québec, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland; France: St. Pierre and Miquelon; USA: Minnesota, Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa, West Virginia, Virginia, Pennsylvania, New York, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine at 0-1700 m elevation in boreal and north temperate forests (Hunt 1993). See also Thompson et al. (1999).
Gymnosperm Database

It is a small to medium-size evergreen tree typically 14–20 metres (46–66 ft) tall, rarely to 27 metres (89 ft) tall, with a narrow conic crown. The bark on young trees is smooth, grey, and with resin blisters (which tend to spray when ruptured), becoming rough and fissured or scaly on old trees. The leaves are flat needle-like, 15 to 30 millimetres (½–1 in) long, dark green above often with a small patch of stomata near the tip, and two white stomatal bands below, and a slightly notched tip. They are arranged spirally on the shoot, but with the leaf bases twisted to appear in two more-or-less horizontal rows. The cones are erect, 40 to 80 millimetres (1½–3 in) long, dark purple, ripening brown and disintegrating to release the winged seeds in September.

The balsam fir has long been a popular choice for Christmas trees in eastern North America, and is widely farmed for that purpose. It has also been used by many companies as their model for artificial Christmas trees, which are growing increasingly popular. Commercially, the species is also used for pulpwood and yields the oleoresin known as Canada balsam (Burns and Honkala 1990).
Gymnosperm Database

Ethnobotany of the Menomini - H.H.Smith

Balsam Fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.), “pikewa'xtîk.” This is the name of
the balsam tree and the medicine is known as “okikaxtîk.” There are two
remedies from thi's tree. The liquid balsam which is pressed from the
trunk blisters is used for colds and pulmonary troubles. The inner bark is
also gathered, observing the same rules as in the gathering of white pine
bark, with, of course, the particular song and a deposit of tobacco in the
ground that accompanies all medicines. It is a very valuable remedy with
the Menomini. The inner bark is steeped and the tea is drunk for pains in
the chest. It is also used fresh for poultices. It is further used as a
seasoner for other medicines. Inquiry as to whether the Menomini
gathered the bark with the oil vesicles intact and used it as the Hudson
Bay Indians do under the name of “wayakosh” for wounds, developed
that they did not know this use. Yet the same eff ect would probably be
produced by the inner bark used as poultices, which the Menomini did.

Ethnobotany of the Forest Potawatomi - H.H.Smith

Balsam Fir (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill.)204 shown in plate 27, fig. 1,
“kêki'ntebä” [peaked top]. The Forest Potawatomi gather the resinous
exudate from the blisters on the trunk of the Balsam Fir, and use it, just
as it comes from the blisters, for colds. Although they sometimes gather
it in a bottle, it is more often that they go to the trees, open the blisters
with their thumb nail and pick out the drops of Balsam to swallow fresh
to cure a cold. Where it is gathered, it is saved in a bottle and used as a
salve to heal sores. Perhaps the cure results as much from the exclusion of
air from the sore surface as it does from the medicinal qualities of the
Balsam. They also make an infusion of the bark to drink for curing
consumption and other internal affections. Among the whites,205 the bark
extract is considered stimulant, diuretic, anthelminthic, deturgent and
vulnerary. The Dispensatory206 records the practice of the Hudson Bay
Indians who peel the bark, leaving the resin vesicles exposed and dry it.
They call this “weakoc” and apply it to wounds. According to the
National Dispensatory, it is valuable for its bitter and astringent
properties. Many people have made pillows from the dried leaves of the
Balsam Fir for the pleasant aroma that is considered to give relief from
hay-fever and colds.
Ethnobotany of the Menomini/Fir Balsam

Special Uses

The most important products made from balsam fir wood are pulpwood and lumber (43). The wood of balsam fir, as well as that of other true firs, is creamy white to pale brown. The sapwood has little odor or taste. Wood structure in the true firs is so similar that identification of species is impossible by examining only the wood (1,43).
Balsam fir is pulped by all of the pulping processes. Sulfate and semichemical processes are used most extensively. A fiber length of 3 to 4 mm A 12 to 0.16 in) is good, as is fiber quality. Because balsam fir is less dense than other major pulpwood species, its yield is lower (37).
The wood of balsam fir is light in weight, relatively soft, low in shock resistance, and has good splitting resistance. Recent testing of several mechanical properties of balsam fir and of red, white, and black spruce indicates strength values for balsam fir generally exceeding those of white spruce. In some tests, strength values were equivalent to or only slightly below the values of red and black spruce (5,34). Nail-holding capacity is low. Balsam fir is very low in resistance to decay (43). The major use of balsam fir lumber is for light-frame construction. Minor uses include paneling, crates, and other products not requiring high structural strength.
Balsam fir provides food or cover for some animals and both food and cover for others. Moose rely on balsam fir in winter when it is a major source of food. The use of balsam fir by deer for cover and shelter is well documented. During severe winter weather, especially in northern areas of the white-tailed deer range, lowland balsam fir stands and spruce-balsam fir swamps are used extensively as winter yarding areas. The fact that these sites usually contain, at best, only small amounts of preferred food suggests their attractiveness as shelter.
Other mammals use balsam fir to varying degrees. The snowshoe hare uses it for cover, and there is some seed and phloem feeding by various species of mice and voles. Red squirrels occasionally feed on balsam fir seed, bark, and wood. They prefer flower buds to vegetative buds. There is some use of wood by beaver for dam building, but little is used as food. Black bear strip bark and lick the exposed surfaces between bark and wood (1).
Balsam fir provides a minor part of the diet for both the spruce grouse and the ruffed grouse. Buds, tips, and needles are consumed, and more feeding occurs in winter than in summer. Thickets of balsam fir provide shelter for both birds (1). The response of bird populations to several forestry practices in stands containing balsam fir has been recorded (8,40). Species composition, the vertical and horizontal structure of the stand, and the extent of spruce budworm infestation influence the composition and density of bird populations.
Balsam fir is not widely planted as an ornamental nor does it offer much potential in areas other than northern New England, Canada, and perhaps the Lake States. Plantings as screens or as windbreaks are successful only when the moisture requirement of the species is met (1). On certain lands and especially on public lands, the unique presence of spruce-fir stands suggests management for esthetic values. In the southern Appalachian mountains, coniferous forests containing balsam fir are managed for watershed protection (44).
Oleoresin, a substance confined to the bark blisters of balsam fir, is used as a medium for mounting microscopic specimens and as a cement for various parts of optical systems. It is also used in the manufacture of medicinal compounds and spirit varnishes (4).
Balsam fir wood is not prized for fuelwood, but industries that use balsam fir for pulp and lumber products are using increasingly larger quantities of wood waste for the production of energy. The heating value of ovendry fir bark is 21 166 600 joules/kg (9,100 Btu/lb) (26).
The fir tree has been a favorite Christmas tree for more than 400 years. It remains among the top three species. In 1980, balsam fir ranked second behind Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris), commanding 13.9 percent of the market (38). Sheared plantation-grown trees are usually preferred over wildings by retailers and consumers. Wreath-making is another holiday business that rivals that of Christmas tree sales in some areas. Prolonged needle retention after harvest, color, and pleasant fragrance are characteristics of balsam fir that make it attractive for these uses. Fragrance alone accounts for use of the needles as stuffing for souvenir pillows commonly sold in New England gift shops.
Balsam Fir Pinaceae -- Pine family--Robert M. Frank

Folk Medicine
According to Hartwell (1967–1971), the buds, resin, and/or sap are used in folk remedies for cancers, corns, and warts. Reported to be anodyne, antiseptic, diaphoretic, diuretic, masticatory, and vulnerary, balsam fir is a folk remedy for bronchitis, burns, cancer, catarrh, cold, consumption, cough, dysentery, earache, gleet, gonorrhea, heart ailments, leucorrhea, paralysis, rheumatism, scurvy, sores, ulcers, urogenital ailments, warts, and wounds (Duke and Wain, 1981; Erichsen-Brown, 1979). Chippewa used the gum as an analgetic, the root decoction as an antirheumatic. Kwakiutl used the gum as a laxative and held the root in the mouth to cure sores there. Menominee used the gum for colds, cuts, lungs, and sores, the inner bark for chest pains, colds, and skin. Montagnai applied the gum for chest or heart pain. Ojibwa use the gum for colds, sores, sore eyes, and venereal diseases; the leaves as stimulant; Penobscot used the gum for cuts and sores; Pillagers used the needles in sweat baths and fumitories. Potawatomi used the gum for colds and sores, the bark infusion for consumption and other ailments. Caughnawaga used the gum as a cataplasm for cancer (Duke, 1983c).
Center for New Crops and Plant Products-University of Purdue

Chemistry of essential oil

Composition and antibacterial activity of Abies balsamea essential oil.
Essential Oil Analysis of Balsam Fir Abies balsamea
Balsam Fir Essential Oil-The Aromahead Blog

Thursday, May 26, 2011

Monograph-Ambrette Seed (Abelmoschus moschatus)

Monograph-Ambrette Seed (Abelmoschus moschatus)

Images of Ambrette Seed/Abelmoschus moschatus

Names for Ambrette Seed
Abelmoschus moschatus (L.) Medic, Malvaceae (Syn. Hibiscus abelmoschus L.) is a tropical weedy shrub native to India valued for its scented seed. Ambrette is a close relative to Okra, a popular horticultural crop. The genus Abelmoschus has six species distributed in the South and South East Asia and in North Australia. Abelmoschus moschatus Medic., A. manihot (L.) Medic., and A. esculentus (L.) Moench, contain wild and cultivated forms, and A. ficulneus, A. crinitus, and A. angulosus, are only wild. Abelmoschus manihot, A. moschatus and A. esculentus are compared in Table 1. In Hindi, it is popularly known as mushkdana, kasturi bhendi (kasturi = musk; bhendi = lady’s finger). In other Indian languages it is known as gukhia korai (Assamese), kasturi bhenda (Telgu), kattukasturi (Malylam), varttilai kasturi (Tamil), lalkasturika (Sanskrit) (Krishnamurty 1993). The area under ambrette is presently low in India but is increasing rapidly (Oudhia and Tripathi 2000) with seed exports to France, Germany, Japan, Singapore, Spain for its use as an aromatic oil. Indian drug manufacturers are introducing new herbal drugs containing ambrette for medicinal use.
Aromati, Spice and Medicinal Plants-Purdue

Annual hibiscus is an erect, annual or biennial, hirsute shrub. The soft, herbaceous plant trails to 2 meters in diameter, with soft hairy stems. The lower leaves are ovate and acute, while the upper leaves are palmately 3 to 7 lobed. The bright yellow and large flowers are usually solitary and auxiliary. The capsules are ovate, acute and hispid. The seeds are sub-reniform, black and musk-scented. Due to this strong musk aroma, annual hibiscus seeds are known as grani moschi. In India, the plant is grown widely over the Deccan regions, the hilly regions of Karnataka and at the foothills of the Himalayas. The plant is known as latakasturi, gandapura and kasturilatika in Sanskrit and kasturidana and muskadfana in Hindi.

Natural Habitat
A. moschatus can grow in a variety of places, e.g. roadsides, brushwood, fallow land, and on the bunds of rice fields. In the tropics it occurs up to 1650 m altitude in Indonesia, while in India it is cultivated up to 1000 m. A. moschatus requires a humid tropical or subtropical climate, although heavy and continuous rain affects crop growth negatively. The optimum temperature for vegetative growth is about 20-28 deg. C, but it can tolerate temperatures up to 45 deg. C. Frost is not tolerated. It is daylength sensitive, short days promoting early flowering. Flowering is also stimulated by low night temperatures. During flowering and fruiting dry weather is preferred. Subsp. biakensis grows near beaches, subsp. tuberosus prefers locations with an annual dry period and where the vegetation is periodically burnt.
A. moschatus occurs from India to southern China including Hainan and Taiwan and through South-East Asia to northern Australia and the Pacific. In Malesia it is common in the more humid areas, rare in the Lesser Sunda Islands and southern Papua New Guinea, lacking in the south-eastern Moluccas. It is cultivated commercially in Java, India (mainly in the Deccan and Carnatic), Madagascar and in parts of Central and South America. On a small scale it is cultivated and occasionally occurs as a weed throughout the tropics and in warm temperate areas.
AfroForestry Tree Database

Uses for Ambrette
Ambrette oil obtained from seeds possess an odor similar to that of musk and its aromatic constitents have long been used in perfumery industry. Different grades of essential, or aromatic absolute, are marked in Europe as high-grade perfumes (Singh et al. 1996 ) The seeds are valued for the volatile oil present in the seed coat. Seed analysis report 11.1% moisture, 31.5% crude fiber; 14.5% lipids, 13.4% starch, 2.3% protein, volatile oil (0.2-0.6% ) and ca/ 5% resin (Srivastava 1995).
Analysis of volatiles report myricetin-3-glucoside and a glycoside of cyanidin in flowers, an aromatic constituent in seeds, beta-sitosteral and its beta-D-glucoside, myricetin and its glucoside in leaves and petals and beta-sitosterol from dry fruit husk (Rastogi and Mehrotra 1991a,b).
In India, roots, leaves (rarely), and seeds of ambrette are considered valuable traditional medicines. The bitter, sweet, acrid, aromatic seeds are used as a tonic and are considered "cooling, aphrodisiac, opthalmic, cardiotonic, digestive, stomachic, constipating, carminative, pectoral, diuretic, stimulant, antispasmodic, deodorant, and effective against "kapha" and "vata," intestinal complaints, stomatitis; and diseases of the heart, allays thirst and checks vomiting. According to Unani system of medicine seeds allay thirst, cure stomatitis, dyspepsia, urinary discharge, gonorrhea, leucoderma and itch. Roots and leaves are cures for gonorrhea (Agharkar 1991). Even use against venomous reptiles has been reported (Lindley 1985).
Aromati, Spice and Medicinal Plants-Purdue

Other products: A. moschatus is the source of ambrette seed oil used in luxury perfumery, cosmetic products and as an additive in the preparation of some kinds of chewing tobacco, baked products, sweets, alcoholic (e.g. vermouth and bitters) and non-alcoholic drinks. Arabs sometimes flavour their coffee with the seed. The leaves are sometimes used by Malay people as wrappers for parcels. The mucilage from the roots is used in China for sizing paper. Seeds are burned as incense and used in making incense sticks (agarbattis). Essential oils: In India and Malaysia pounded seeds are used to perfume hair. Food: Tender leaves, shoots and pods are occasionally eaten as vegetable. Medicine: A. moschatus has many applications in traditional medicine. In the Philippines a decoction of the roots and leaves is taken as an emollient remedy for gonorrhoea and rheumatism, while in Burma (Myanmar) and the Philippines the seed is said to have stomachic, tonic, diuretic, antihysteric, stimulating and antispasmodic properties. In Indonesia pulverized seeds mixed with powder provide a useful remedy to treat prickly heat. In Indo-China the root is said to be effective in the treatment of blennorrhagia and leucorrhoea, the leaves and flowers are rubbed on scabies and applied as poultice to swellings. In traditional Vietnamese medicine the plant is used as an antivenom and a diuretic. It is also said to be an aphrodisiac. The tuberous roots of A. moschatus subsp. tuberosus (Span.) Borss. are said to be sought after by the Chinese as a substitute for ginseng. Fibre: Fibre from the stem is a substitute for jute, but offers no advantages over the latter. Poison: The seeds placed between clothes to keep away insects.
AfroForestry Tree Database

Chemistry of Ambrette Seed
Essential oils: The seed of A. moschatus contains per 100 g: 13-15 g fatty oil and 0.2-0.6% essential oil. The main constituents of the fatty oil are: palmitic acid (20%), oleic acid (20-25%), linoleic acid (50-57%), stearic acid (2.5-4%) and smaller amounts of myristic acid and palmitoleic acid. When ambrette seed is crushed before steam distillation, the odourless, palmitic acid is distilled over together with the aromatic components yielding a crude oil of paste-like consistency. The aromatic components are concentrated in the outer seed coat and distillation of whole seed gives a liquid essential oil, containing only small amounts of fatty oil, but also a lower yield of essential oil. This ambrette seed oil should be allowed to age for several months before being used in aroma or flavour materials. By ageing, the original fatty notes become subdued and a rich sweet floral-musky aroma with distinctly wine-like or brandy-like notes develops, with a uniquely rich bouquet known for the exalting effect it imparts to perfumes. The odour has notes also found in a great variety of products, e.g. cypress oil, Bulgarian rose oil, sage clary oil and cognac oil; there are also some notes with a similarity to the aroma of higher dodecyl esters. The aroma is strong and long lasting and the recommended concentration in a final product is about 1-3 mg/kg, while the minimum perceptible concentration is 0.1-0.4 mg/kg (0.1-0.4 ppm). " Medicine and Food: The essential oil is classified by the Food and Drugs Administration of the United States (FDA) as 'generally recognized as safe' (GRAS No 2051). The chemical characteristics of the essential oil are only incompletely known and are affected by the method and conditions of extraction. The characteristic musk-like odour is due mainly to ambrettolide (Z-hexadec-7-en-16-olide) and Z-tetradec-5-en-14-olide, both macrocyclic lactones. Other major components are farnesol and farnesyl esters and other acyclic aliphatic esters and terpenes. The composition of the volatile fraction of the oleoresin obtained by solvent-extraction of the seed is similar to the composition of the steam-distilled essential oil. An ambrette seed oil from Vietnam was characterized by (E)-2,3-dihydrofarnesyl acetate (32-67%), (E,E)-farnesyl acetate (15-36%), ambrettolide (3-6%) and (Z,E)-farnesyl acetate (1-5%). Adulterations and substitutes: Ambrette seed oil was originally a substitute for deer musk, but became an essential oil in its own right because of its subtly different, flowery fragrance. The characteristic constituent of ambrette seed oil, ambrettolide, is made synthetically. Musk ambrette, a synthetic nitro-musk compound is used as a fragrance and fixative material. It is olfactively different from ambrette seed oil.
AfroForestry Tree Database

Harvesting: In India fruit sets continuously from October to April. As mature pods open and shatter their seed, several picking rounds are needed. Harvesting starts when most pods begin to turn from green to brown and just start to open. Pods are picked when three-quarters of their body has turned blackish-brown; the seed is removed manually. Picking is an arduous task as the plants, including the pods, possess hairs that cause itching. In India harvesting has often stopped by the end of February, as later harvesting rounds yield too little to be economical. Yield: Average seed yield obtained in India is 0.8-1 t/ha. Handling after harvest: After drying in the shade, the pods are mostly threshed by being beaten with sticks. The husk is then removed by winnowing. Steam distillation of whole seed yields ambrette seed oil, while distillation of ground seed and hydrocarbon extraction of ground seed produces ambrette seed concrete, largely consisting of palmitic and myristic acids, which are unstable and odourless. Ambrette seed absolute is prepared from the seed concrete either by neutralization and subsequent elimination of fatty acids or by steam distillation of the concrete followed by washing with alcohol.
AfroForestry Tree Database

Volatile Organic Nitrogen-Containing Constituents in Ambrette Seed Abelmoschus moschatus Medik (Malvaceae)
Extraction and Composition of the Essential Oil of Ambrette (Abelmoschus moschtus) Seeds

Uses & Benefits of Annual Hibiscus
* Annual hibiscus is used as a stimulant and anti-spasmodic in curing snakebites, stomach and intestinal disorders.
* It helps in treating ailments such as cramps, loss of appetite, headaches, stomach cancer, hysteria, gonorrhea and respiratory disorders.
* Annual hibiscus forms an ingredient in vermouths, bitters and other food products.
* The herb is used in relieving spasms of the digestive tract, poor circulation and aching joints.
* It is used in the manufacturing of cosmetics like perfumes, soaps, detergents, creams and lotions.
* Annual hibiscus is considered as an insecticide also.
* The herb is used by the Arabs for flavoring coffee.
* Its seeds are crushed and steam distilled to produce a volatile oil called musk seed oil or ambrette seed oil.
* The seeds are known to be antiseptic, cooling, tonic, carminative and aphrodisiac.
* The leaves and roots of annual hibiscus are helpful in curing gonorrhoea and venereal diseases.
* Its seeds are used as an inhalation, when suffering from hoarseness and dryness of throat.
* The unripe pods, leaves and new shoots of the herb are consumed as vegetables.
* The plant’s root mucilage provides sizing for paper. On the other hand, the flowers are sometimes used to flavor tobacco.
* Annual hibiscus is also used in making traditional herbal liquor called Benedictine.

Tuesday, May 24, 2011

Monograph-Allspice (Pimenta dioica)

Monograph-Allspice (Pimenta dioica)

Images of Allspice (Pimenta dioica)

Other Names
English Spice, Jamaica Pepper, Clove Pepper, Myrtle Pepper, Pimenta, Pimento
French: pimenta, tout-épice
German: Jamikapfefer
Italian: pimento
Spanish: pimiento de Jamaica
Indian: kabab cheene, seetful

Common names allspice, pimento, pimienta gorda, piment, kryddpeppar, pepe di Giamaica, pimenta-da-Jamaica, yamayski pyerets, bahar

The spice or condiment, allspice, is made from the dried, unripe fruit of the allspice or pimento tree. This is a small tree that grows to 40 ft (12.2 m) tall, with large 4-8 in ( cm) long leaves. These are leathery, evergreen, opposite, oblong, aromatic and quite attractive. The whitish gray bark peels in thin sheets. The white flowers are about a 0.25 in (0.6 cm) across and borne in many flowered pyramidal cymes originating from the leaf axils. The fruit is a brown berrylike drupe, about a 0.25 in (0.6 cm) long. The leaves and fruit smell like a combination of cloves, black pepper, nutmeg, and cinnamon, hence the common name.

Plant Description and Cultivation
A tropical evergreen tree, growing 7 -13m (22-43 ft) in height. It has smooth grey bark, with elliptic, glossy leaves, dark green and glossy, up to 15 cm (6 in) long. It has small white flowers appearing in mid summer followed by green berries that turn purple when ripe. Trees are planted about 10m (30 ft ) apart, allowing room for a full canopy of fruit-bearing branches. Fruit starts to develop after about five years, and becomes full-bearing after twenty years.
These plantations are not called orchards, but ‘walks” and in the summer, when whole trees are blanketed in aromatic flowers, the ‘pimento walk’ was a stroll through the grounds. The botanist Patrick Browne wrote in 1755: “nothing can be more delicious than the odour of these walks, when the trees are in bloom, as well as other times; the friction of the leaves and small branches even in a gentle breeze diffusing a most exhilarating scent.
Berries are picked when they have reached full size, but before they can ripen. The height of the trees makes mechanizing the process difficult, so hand picking or pulling off branches is still common. Berries are then ‘sweat’ for a few days, then they are spread out on a concrete platform called a ‘barbeque’ where they are dried. Leaves from the male trees are also harvested for eugenol oil.

Allspice is native to the West Indies, southern Mexico and Central America. It was "discovered" in Mexico by 16th century Spanish explorers who called it "pimienta", confusing it with black pepper. (Those traveling Spaniards were so intent on finding a new source of black pepper, that they also confused the New World chilis with that precious East Indian spice.) Nowadays allspice is grown commercially in Mexico, Honduras, Trinidad, Cuba, and especially in Jamaica, which practically has a monopoly. It is the only spice whose commercial production is entirely confined to the New World.


Allspice takes its name from its aroma, which smells like a combination of spices, especially cinnamon, cloves, ginger and nutmeg. In much of the world, allspice is called pimento because the Spanish mistook the fruit for black pepper, which the Spanish called pimienta. This is especially confusing since the Spanish had already called chillies pimientos. Lets also thank the Spanish for centuries of linguistic confusion created by naming all the natives they met ‘Indians’.
Allspice is the only spice that is grown exclusively in the Western Hemisphere. The evergreen tree that produces the allspice berries is indigenous to the rainforests of South and Central America where it grows wild. Unfortunately the wild trees were cut down to harvest the berries and few remain today. There are plantations in Mexico and parts of Central America but the finest allspice comes from Jamaica where the climate and soil are best suited to producing the aromatic berries.
Allspice was used by the Mayans as an embalming agent and by other South American Indians to flavour chocolate. The name ‘Jamaica’ comes from Xamayca, meaning ‘land of wood and water’ in the language of the Arawaks. These natives used allspice to help cure and preserve meats, sometimes animals, sometimes their enemies. The allspice cured meat was known in Arawak as boucan and so later Europeans who cured meat this way came to be known as boucaniers, which ultimately became ‘buccaneers’.
The spice was imported to Europe soon after the discovery of the new world. There were several attempts made to transplant it to spice producing regions of the east, but these trees produced little fruit. Despite its rich fragrance and a strong flavour resembling other more coveted spices, allspice never had the same caché in Europe as cinnamon or pepper. The English started making regular shipments to England in 1737, but by that time the lust for spices been eclipsed by other New-World products like sugar and coffee. It was quite popular in England though, where it came to be known as ‘English Spice”.
In the Napoleonic war of 1812, Russian soldiers put allspice in their boots to keep their feet warm and the resultant improvement in odours is carried into today’s cosmetic industries, where pimento oil is usually associated with men’s toiletries (especially products with the word ‘spice’

The Cultural history of plants By Mark Nesbitt

Sensory quality
Dried allspice fruits are powerfully aromatic, like cloves with a hint of cinnamon and nutmeg; the taste is similar, but with some peppery heat. In the leaves, the clove flavour is somewhat reduced, and nutmeg or cinnamom become the dominant fragrance impressions.

Spice Description
Dried allspice berries resemble large brown peppercorns. Unripe berries are harvested and sun dried until the seeds in them rattle. They vary in size between 4 to 7 mm (1/8 - 1/4 in) in diameter and are dark brown with wrinkled skins. The outer case contains two dark, hard kidney-shaped seeds. Allspice is available whole or ground. Sometimes the whole berry will be called ‘pimento’.
Bouquet: pungent and aromatic, like a combination of nutmeg, clove , ginger and cinnamon.
Flavour: warm and sweetly pungent like the combination described above with peppery overtones.
Hotness Scale: 4

Main constituents
The fruits contain 2 to 5% essential oil (the exact content depends much on the time of harvest). As main components, eugenol, eugenol methyl ether, and terpenes (myrcene, 1,8-cineol and α-phellandrene) have been reported.
In allspice fruits from Jamaica, eugenol (65% to 90%) is the main constituent; methyl eugenol is found in minor (10%) and myrcene in trace amounts (1%). Allspice from México is dominated by methyl eugenol (50 to 60%) with smaller amounts of myrcene (15%) and eugenol (10%).
The leaves contain less essential oil, but the content is high enough to make distillation profitable. In composition, it is similar to the essential oil from the fruits.

Essential oil Chemistry
Spice plants: Chemical composition and antioxidant
properties of Pimenta Lindl. essential oils, part 1:
Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. leaf oil from Jamaica*

Comparative Analysis of Supercritical CO2 Extract and Oil of Pimenta Dioica Leaves
Typical GC

Culinary Use
The leaves of the allspice plant are also used in island cooking[which?]. For cooking, fresh leaves are used where available: they are similar in texture to bay leaves and are thus infused during cooking and then removed before serving. Unlike bay leaves, they lose much flavour when dried and stored, so do not figure in commerce. The leaves and wood are often used for smoking meats where allspice is a local crop. Allspice can also be found in essential oil form.

Allspice is one of the most important ingredients of Caribbean cuisine. It is used in Caribbean jerk seasoning (the wood is used to smoke jerk in Jamaica, although the spice is a good substitute), in moles, and in pickling; it is also an ingredient in commercial sausage preparations and curry powders. Allspice is also indispensable in Middle Eastern cuisine, particularly in the Levant, where it is used to flavor a variety of stews and meat dishes. In Palestinian cuisine, for example, many main dishes call for allspice as the sole spice added for flavoring. In America, it is used mostly in desserts, but it is also responsible for giving Cincinnati-style chili its distinctive aroma and flavor. Allspice is commonly used in Great Britain, and appears in many dishes, including cakes. Even in many countries where allspice is not very popular in the household, such as Germany, it is used in large amounts by commercial sausage makers. Allspice is also a main flavor used in barbecue sauces.[citation needed] In the West Indies, an allspice liqueur called "pimento dram" is produced.

Attributed Medicinal Properties
Because of its eugenol content, allspice has attributes similar to clove. It is a digestive and carminative. The oil is classed as rubefacient, meaning that it irritates the skin and expands the blood vessels, increasing the flow of blood to make the skin feel warmer. The tannins in allspice provide a mild anesthetic that, with its warming effect, make it a popular home remedy for arthritis and sore muscles, used either as a poultice or in hot baths.

Properties: Anesthetic, Antioxidant, Antiseptic, Aperitive, Aromatic, Bitter Tonic, Carminative, Digestive Tonic, Stomach Tonic, Stimulant
Internal Uses: Chills, Colic, Diarrhea, Dysmenorrhea, Dyspepsia, Flatulence, Frostbite, Hyperglycemia, Indigestion, Muscle Soreness, Pain, Rheumatism
Internal Applications: Tea, Tincture, Capsules.
Topical Uses: Rheumatism
Topical Applications: The essential oil can be applied to the area of a toothache as a natural anesthetic. Bath herb for sore muscles. Mixed with other herbs as a rheumatism poultice. Sitz bath for dysmenorrhea. Compress or liniment to treat rheumatism. Cosmetically, the essential oil is used in perfumes, men's cologne and mouthwash.
Culinary uses: Cakes, chutneys, curries, custards, fruit, jam, pickles, pies, stews
Energetics: Pungent, Warm.

I’m Al Goetze, chief spice buyer at McCormick. In this installment of the Spice Buyer’s Journal, we’re taking a look at one of the holiday season’s essential flavors – allspice. Discovered by Christopher Columbus during his voyage to the new world, allspice is known in Jamaica as pimento, a name derived from "pimienta," the Spanish word for pepper. Columbus had actually come to the islands seeking pepper, and mistakenly identified the abundant allspice berries as pepper.

Allspice is one of the most versatile — yet underutilized — spices in the world. Its flavor combines notes of cinnamon, clove and nutmeg. In fact, because it encompasses these three distinct tastes, many people believe that it is a blend instead of a single spice. Allspice is a key ingredient in such diverse recipes as desserts, pickled herring and of course, Caribbean Jerk seasoning. Jamaica grows the best quality allspice, therefore, it is a key location to assess the current crop outlook.

On a recent early morning in Kingston, I met up with one of Jamaica’s major allspice collectors, who works directly with the local farmers. He brought me to the parish of Portland to see the crop firsthand. Allspice grows wild in all 14 parishes of Jamaica, with St. Ann, St. Elizabeth and Portland being the largest growers. We traveled over two-lane roads, following the coastline. To our left, we could see the deep green color of the lush Blue Mountains. To our right were the clear aqua waters of the Caribbean Sea.

Arriving in the village of Manchioneal, on the east coast of the island, we met two farmers, Jimbal and Junior, at their roadside fresh coconut stand. They escorted us to their nearby farms in the foothills of the Jamaican mountains.

Allspice is a beautiful, slender tree that can grow to 100 feet in height and live for more than 75 years. The wood of the tree is light tan in color and has a very thin, smooth outer bark. Its leaves are narrow and green, and are similar in shape to laurel (bay) leaves. The allspice berry is abundant and grows on the thin outer branches of the tree, about 15 feet above the ground. This fruit is slightly larger than the size of a black pepper berry and each is connected to the tree by a small stem.

Every year, the trees flower when the rains begin in May. Once pollinated, the trees produce mature berries from August through October. Jimbal told me that he looks to the birds to know when it is time to harvest the berries.

The berries become a greenish purple color when ripe, and are sticky and sweet. This attracts the local birds — baldpate, blue and brown doves and ringtail pigeons — which love to feed on them.

When the birds begin to feed, Jimbal begins the harvest process, climbing up into the tree and using an apple picker-like device to prune the outer branches. He cuts the branches back 12-15 inches to reach the berries. The annual pruning of branches causes the tree to grow back bushier and more fruitful the following year, provided that weather conditions are favorable.

The branches are collected, with the leaves and berries intact, and stored in a pile. Next, the farmers manually remove the berries from the stems and take the leaves off the branches. Jimbal and Junior informed me that the allspice flavor carries through all parts of the tree. While the berry is the most important source of flavor, the tree’s leaves are processed for oil and its branches are used to flavor Jerk chicken, pork and more during cooking.

Junior explains that after harvest, the green berries are spread out on a concrete drying pad — known as the BBQ — to sun dry for two weeks. During this time, the color of the berries changes from green to a rich, dark brown. After drying is complete, the berries are sold to a collector, who then sells them to the processors and shippers for international export.
McCormick Allspice Field Report

Monograph-Araucaria( Neocallitropis pancheri)

Monograph-Araucaria( Neocallitropis pancheri)

Images of Araucaria

Neocallitropsis pancheri (Carrière) Laubenfels
or Eutacta pancheri Carrière,
Callitropsis araucarioides Compton,
Neocallitropsis araucarioides (Compton) Florin.
Family of Cupressaceae

The tree grows in the Southern region of the Grande
Terre island, near the rivers.
Some words about History
In 1942, overexploitation threats led to a prohibition of
tree felling; nowadays, gathering dead wood is solely
Albert Vielle

New Caledonia. This tree is only found in small, scattered populations along the many rivers, especially in the southern part of the main island and along the ridges of Pic Buse on the southern flanks of Mt. des Sources at low altitudes and up to 950m above sea level. It grows in the middle maquis (see Gymnosperms of New Caledonia for a description) on serpentine. The pedomorphic form is comparable to that of Dacrydium guillauminii with which it is often associated; it is an adaptation to serpentine. The candelabra form is also characteristic of trees growing in serpentine soils, like Callitris neocaledonica Dummer (1914), another allied species (de Laubenfels 1972).

When adult this conifer reaches 9 to 11 meters. Most
often, its shape recalls a candelabrum. The appearance of
its leaves can remind of Araucaria cookii.
This explains the somewhat confuse denominations of
the essential oil. The leaves, 5 mm long are more or less
imbricate, lanceolate, acute, and concave on their top side.
The tree produces terminal cones.
Its wood liberates a camphor-like scent. It is considered as
rot proof because of its richness in essential oil.
Albert Vielle

Tree dioecious, 2-10m tall, form often like a candelabra or wide, with the upper branches partly recumbent toward the sun. Bark more or less smooth with long furrows, exfoliating in thin, fibrous bands, brown to dark brown, changing to gray with age. Juvenile leaves lanceolate, sharp, concave on the upper side, with a carina on the back, spreading, 8-14 × 0.8 mm, changing gradually into a strong transitional form. Transitional leaves 6-15 × 1.8-2.5 mm, curved toward the top, changing into adult leaves. Adult leaves slightly spreading and more or less imbricate, lanceolate, sharp, with a strong dorsal carina and concave on the upper side, 4-5 × 2 mm. Pollen cone terminal, globular, 8-10 × 6 mm. Microsporophylls acuminate and thorny, reaching a size of 3 × 3 mm at the base of the cone but much smaller toward the top. Seed cone terminal, often on a very short shoot, 10 × 8 mm, having 8 scales with the rostrum spreading on the top, partially covered by the accompanying leaves underneath, greatly unfolds when the cone is ripe. Cone scales linear, about 6-7 mm long × 2mm wide without counting the rostrum parts, rectangular in a transversal cross section, 1-4 ripe seeds per cone. Seed about 6 × 2 mm, with a wing of 0.6 mm. Wood has a strong odor of camphor (de Laubenfels 1972).

Essential Oil
Primarily made up of sesquiterpenic alcohols (alpha, beta
and gamma eudesmol), this Oil can be used by perfumery
and cosmetology, and by soap makers as it has a very
delicate scent and excellent fixative properties.
Albert Vielle

The chemical composition of the heartwood oil of Neocallitropsis pancheri (Cupressaceae) obtained by steam distillation, has been established using GC/MS, GC/FTIR, Kovats indices and NMR data. The major components were found to be alpha-eudesmol (13.26%), beta-eudesmol (25.92%), gamma-eudesmol (19.04%), guaiol (3.02%) elemol (4.99%), beta-bisabolenol (4.93%) and bulnesol (3.69%). Almost 40 compounds have been identified, 32 of which, including three new sesquiterpenoids (beta-bisabolenal, beta-bisabolenol and beta-acoradienol), are reported for the first time in this oil. Isolation of a concentrate of the volatiles from N. pancheri using different solvents, and steam distillation produced concentrates of different yields (6.96-12.9%) and chemical composition. Some components were found to be subject to quantitative variation in the different wood concretes

Scholarly Research on Araucaria

Monday, May 23, 2011

Monograph-Black Pepper(Piper nigrum)

Monograph-Black Pepper(Piper nigrum)

Images of Black Pepper

The word "pepper" is ultimately derived from the Tamil/Malayalam word for long pepper, pippali.[2][3][4] Black pepper is marica. Ancient Greek and Latin borrowed pippali to refer to either via the Latin piper which was used by the Romans to refer both to pepper and long pepper, as the Romans erroneously believed that both of these spices were derived from the same plant.[citation needed] The English word for pepper is derived from the Old English pipor. The Latin word is also the source of German Pfeffer, French poivre, Dutch peper, and other similar forms. In the 16th century, pepper started referring to the unrelated New World chile peppers as well. "Pepper" was used in a figurative sense to mean "spirit" or "energy" at least as far back as the 1840s; in the early 20th century, this was shortened to pep.[5]

The word "pepper" is ultimately derived from the Sanskrit pippali, the word for long pepper[2] via the Latin piper which was used by the Romans to refer both to pepper and long pepper, as the Romans erroneously believed that both of these spices were derived from the same plant.[citation needed] The English word for pepper is derived from the Old English pipor. The Latin word is also the source of German Pfeffer, French poivre, Dutch peper, and other similar forms. In the 16th century, pepper started referring to the unrelated New World chile peppers as well. "Pepper" was used in a figurative sense to mean "spirit" or "energy" at least as far back as the 1840s; in the early 20th century, this was shortened to pep.[3]
Plants as medicine

Black pepper, white pepper, green pepper, peppercorn, Madagascar pepper (English)
Pippali (Sanskrit)
Kali mirch (Hindi, Urdu)
Milagu (Tamil)
Botanical name: Piper nigrum
Family: Piperaceae, the black pepper family
Plant Cultures

Other Names
French: poivre
German: Pfeffer
Italian: pepe nero
Spanish: pimienta negra
Arabic: filfil
Indian: gol/kala,i, mir(i)ch(i)
Indonesian: merica hitam, meritja
Lao: phik noi
Malay: lada hitam
Thai: prik ki tai

French: poivre blanc
German: Weisser Pfeffer
Italian: pepe bianco
Spanish: pimienta blanca

French: poivre vert
German: Gruner Pfeffer
Italian: pepe verde
Spanish: pimienta verde

French: poivre rose
German: Blassroter Pfeffer
Italian: pepe rosa
Spanish: pimienta rosa
The EPI Center

The pepper plant is a perennial woody vine growing to four metres in height on supporting trees, poles, or trellises. It is a spreading vine, rooting readily where trailing stems touch the ground. The leaves are alternate, entire, five to ten centimetres long and three to six centimetres broad. The flowers are small, produced on pendulous spikes four to eight centimetres long at the leaf nodes, the spikes lengthening to seven to 15 centimeters as the fruit matures.[12]
Piper nigrum on tree support in Goa, India.
Black pepper is grown in soil that is neither too dry nor susceptible to flooding, moist, well-drained and rich in organic matter (the vines do not do too well over an altitude of 3000 ft above sea level). The plants are propagated by cuttings about 40 to 50 centimetres long, tied up to neighbouring trees or climbing frames at distances of about two metres apart; trees with rough bark are favoured over those with smooth bark, as the pepper plants climb rough bark more readily. Competing plants are cleared away, leaving only sufficient trees to provide shade and permit free ventilation. The roots are covered in leaf mulch and manure, and the shoots are trimmed twice a year. On dry soils the young plants require watering every other day during the dry season for the first three years. The plants bear fruit from the fourth or fifth year, and typically continue to bear fruit for seven years. The cuttings are usually cultivars, selected both for yield and quality of fruit. A single stem will bear 20 to 30 fruiting spikes. The harvest begins as soon as one or two fruits at the base of the spikes begin to turn red, and before the fruit is mature, but when full grown and still hard; if allowed to ripen, the fruits lose pungency, and ultimately fall off and are lost. The spikes are collected and spread out to dry in the sun, then the peppercorns are stripped off the spikes.[12]
Black pepper is native to India.[13][14] Within the genus Piper, it is most closely related to other Asian species such as Piper caninum.[14]

Pepper plants are climbers which grow to a height or length of 10 m or more. When its main stem is established, it grows lots of side shoots to create a bushy column.
The plants form short roots, called adventitious roots, which connect to surrounding supports.
Although black pepper is cultivated in many tropical regions, it is native to Kerala State in India where it still occurs wild in the mountains.
Leaves - arranged alternately on the stems. They are shaped like almonds and taper towards the tip. They are dark green and shiny above but paler green below.
Flowers - grow in clusters along flowering stalks known as spikes. Between 50 to 150 whitish to yellow-green flowers are produced on a spike.
Fruits - the flowers develop into round, berry-like fruits. There may be 50-60 fruits on each spike. They grow to a diameter of 4 to 6 mm, each containing a single seed. Fruits are green at first but they turn red as they ripen. These fruits are picked when either green or red to produce black and white pepper.
Plant Cultures

Habitat of Black Pepper
Piper nigrum is a woody vine that is originally native to southwestern India. This area is known as the Malabar Coast and is comprised of lush tropical evergreen forests that are very humid and mountainous. Black pepper is a very hardy perennial and will thrive anywhere these conditions can be found. Other medicinally important organisms who cohabitate in these areas are the sweet orange,stone breaker, noni fruit, and chinese hibiscus.
Due to P. nigrum's longstanding status as an international staple and lucrative cash crop, the plant has been transported and cultivated in many countries throughout the history of human trade. Black pepper is now commonly found in nearly thirty countries containing humid, tropical climates. Black pepper is also a popular agricultural choice of intercrop to increase the yield of main crops during the off seasons.

Black pepper is native to Malabar, a region in the Western Coast of South India; today, this region belongs to the union state Kerala. Pepper is cultivated since millennia. The wild form has not yet been unambiguously identified, but there are closely related pepper species in South India and Burma. While black and white pepper were already known in antiquity, but green pepper (and even more, red pepper) is a recent invention.
Pepper reached South East Asia more than two thousand years ago and is grown in Malaysia and Indonesia since about that time. In the last decades of the century, pepper production increased dramatically as new plantations were founded in Thailand, Vietnam, China and Sri Lanka. In the New World, Brazil is the only important producer; pepper plantations there go back to the 1930s.
The most im­portant producers are India before Indonesia, which together account for about 50% of the whole production volume.
In trade, the pepper grades are identified by their origin. The most important Indian grades are Malabar and Tellicherry (Thalassery). The Malabar grade is regular black pepper with a slightly greenish hue, while Tellicherry is a special product (see below). Both Indian black peppers, but especially the Tellicherry grade, are very aromatic and pungent. In the past, Malabar pepper was also traded under names like Goa or Alleppey (the town is today named Alappuzha). The pepper trade center in India is in Kochi, still much known under its old name Cochin.
India’s main pepper product is black pepper. Yet the Malabar region also has a tradition for white pepper, and green pepper production has been introduced in the 1980s.
In South East Asia, the most reputed proveniences for black pepper are Sarawak in insular Malaysia and Lampong from Sumatra/Indonesia. Both produce small-fruited black pepper that takes on a grayisch colour during storage; both have a less-developed aroma, but Lampong pepper is pretty hot. Sarawak pepper is mild and often described fruity. Black pepper from other countries where it has been introduced to more recently is named after the trade center (Bangkok, Saigon); these proveniences are less valued, as they vary in heat and lack the complex aroma found in Indian and (to lesser degree) Malesian cultivars.
The most important source of white pepper is the small Indonesian island Bangka, south east of Sumatra. The peppercorns are named Muntok after the island’s main port. Smaller amounts of white pepper are produced in Sarawak, which is particularly light-coloured; the best quality is known as Sarawak Cream Label. There is also Brazil white pepper, but it has a poorer flavour and is, therefore, less reputated in the international trade.
Brazil produces black, white and green peppercorns; the pepper is grown along the Amazon river in the state of Pará, whence the paracress originates. Brazil almost held a monopoly for green pepper as the original production in Madagascar has declined, but the increasing Indian production has changed this picture. Brazil black and white pepper qualities are quite mild. All Brazil pepper is named after its main port, Belém.
Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages

History of Black Pepper
The "king of spices" has proven to be one of the most notable factors influencing human culture throughout history. Native to southern India, this spice has been cultivated and used in that area since the start of recorded history. Evidence of the use of pepper can be found in almost every major civilization since that time.
Peppercorns were gathered by hand from the tropical forests that cover the Malabar coast and sold on the nearby shores to merchant ships destined for the area. This coastal market quickly gained popularity as the sole source of this "black gold." Peppercorns themselves were commonly used as trade currency in the absence of any standard coin. As one of the pioneering trade cultures and possessing the strongest navy in the world during their time, the Portugese developed new trade routes with the sole intention of procuring and monopolizing trade of this precious spice. Due to the presence of these far reaching trade routes, Piper nigrum was transported and planted in many tropical climates around the world.
Due to the high costs of trading between Europe and India, black pepper became a sought after luxury and a symbol of elite class status during the period of the Roman Empire and continuing all the way through the Middle Ages. Discovering new paths to obtain the spices and riches of the "Orient" became the driving force behind discovery of the Americas by Portugese sailors and the monarchy of Spain.

Pepper has been used as a spice in India since prehistoric times. Pepper is native to India and has been known to Indian cooking since at least 2000 BCE.[15] J. Innes Miller notes that while pepper was grown in southern Thailand and in Malaysia, its most important source was India, particularly the Malabar Coast, in what is now the state of Kerala.[16] Peppercorns were a much prized trade good, often referred to as "black gold" and used as a form of commodity money. The term "peppercorn rent" still exists today.
The ancient history of black pepper is often interlinked with (and confused with) that of long pepper, the dried fruit of closely related Piper longum. The Romans knew of both and often referred to either as just "piper". In fact, it was not until the discovery of the New World and of chile peppers that the popularity of long pepper entirely declined. Chile peppers, some of which when dried are similar in shape and taste to long pepper, were easier to grow in a variety of locations more convenient to Europe.
Until well after the Middle Ages, virtually all of the black pepper found in Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa travelled there from India's Malabar region. By the 16th century, due to the Portuguese influence, pepper was also being grown in Java, Sunda, Sumatra, Madagascar, Malaysia, and elsewhere in Southeast Asia, but these areas traded mainly with China, or used the pepper locally.[17] Ports in the Malabar area also served as a stop-off point for much of the trade in other spices from farther east in the Indian Ocean.
Black pepper, along with other spices from India and lands farther east, changed the course of world history. It was in some part the preciousness of these spices that led to the Portuguese efforts to find a sea route to India during the age of discovery and consequently to the Portuguese colonial occupation of that country, as well as the European discovery and colonisation of the Americas.[18]
[edit] Ancient times
Black peppercorns were found stuffed in the nostrils of Ramesses II, placed there as part of the mummification rituals shortly after his death in 1213 BCE.[19] Little else is known about the use of pepper in ancient Egypt and how it reached the Nile from India.
Pepper (both long and black) was known in Greece at least as early as the 4th century BCE, though it was probably an uncommon and expensive item that only the very rich could afford. Trade routes of the time were by land, or in ships which hugged the coastlines of the Arabian Sea. Long pepper, growing in the north-western part of India, was more accessible than the black pepper from further south; this trade advantage, plus long pepper's greater spiciness, probably made black pepper less popular at the time.
A possible trade route from Italy to south-west India
By the time of the early Roman Empire, especially after Rome's conquest of Egypt in 30 BCE, open-ocean crossing of the Arabian Sea directly to southern India's Malabar Coast was near routine. Details of this trading across the Indian Ocean have been passed down in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. According to the Roman geographer Strabo, the early Empire sent a fleet of around 120 ships on an annual one-year trip to India and back. The fleet timed its travel across the Arabian Sea to take advantage of the predictable monsoon winds. Returning from India, the ships travelled up the Red Sea, from where the cargo was carried overland or via the Nile Canal to the Nile River, barged to Alexandria, and shipped from there to Italy and Rome. The rough geographical outlines of this same trade route would dominate the pepper trade into Europe for a millennium and a half to come.
With ships sailing directly to the Malabar coast, black pepper was now travelling a shorter trade route than long pepper, and the prices reflected it. Pliny the Elder's Natural History tells us the prices in Rome around 77 CE: "Long pepper ... is fifteen denarii per pound, while that of white pepper is seven, and of black, four." Pliny also complains "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces," and further moralises on pepper:
It is quite surprising that the use of pepper has come so much into fashion, seeing that in other substances which we use, it is sometimes their sweetness, and sometimes their appearance that has attracted our notice; whereas, pepper has nothing in it that can plead as a recommendation to either fruit or berry, its only desirable quality being a certain pungency; and yet it is for this that we import it all the way from India! Who was the first to make trial of it as an article of food? and who, I wonder, was the man that was not content to prepare himself by hunger only for the satisfying of a greedy appetite? (N.H. 12.14)[20]
Black pepper was a well-known and widespread, if expensive, seasoning in the Roman Empire. Apicius' De re coquinaria, a 3rd-century cookbook probably based at least partly on one from the 1st century CE, includes pepper in a majority of its recipes. Edward Gibbon wrote, in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, that pepper was "a favourite ingredient of the most expensive Roman cookery".
[edit] Postclassical Europe
Pepper was so valuable that it was often used as collateral or even currency. In the Dutch language, "pepper expensive" (peperduur) is an expression for something very expensive. The taste for pepper (or the appreciation of its monetary value) was passed on to those who would see Rome fall. It is said[by whom?] that Alaric the Visigoth and Attila the Hun each demanded from Rome a ransom of more than a ton of pepper when they besieged the city in 5th century. After the fall of Rome, others took over the middle legs of the spice trade, first the Persians and then the Arabs; Innes Miller cites the account of Cosmas Indicopleustes, who travelled east to India, as proof that "pepper was still being exported from India in the sixth century".[21] By the end of the Dark Ages, the central portions of the spice trade were firmly under Islamic control. Once into the Mediterranean, the trade was largely monopolised by Italian powers, especially Venice and Genoa. The rise of these city-states was funded in large part by the spice trade.
A riddle authored by Saint Aldhelm, a 7th-century Bishop of Sherborne, sheds some light on black pepper's role in England at that time:
I am black on the outside, clad in a wrinkled cover,
Yet within I bear a burning marrow.
I season delicacies, the banquets of kings, and the luxuries of the table,
Both the sauces and the tenderized meats of the kitchen.
But you will find in me no quality of any worth,
Unless your bowels have been rattled by my gleaming marrow.[22]
It is commonly believed that during the Middle Ages, pepper was used to conceal the taste of partially rotten meat. There is no evidence to support this claim, and historians view it as highly unlikely: in the Middle Ages, pepper was a luxury item, affordable only to the wealthy, who certainly had unspoiled meat available as well.[23] In addition, people of the time certainly knew that eating spoiled food would make them sick. Similarly, the belief that pepper was widely used as a preservative is questionable: it is true that piperine, the compound that gives pepper its spiciness, has some antimicrobial properties, but at the concentrations present when pepper is used as a spice, the effect is small.[24] Salt is a much more effective preservative, and salt-cured meats were common fare, especially in winter. However, pepper and other spices probably did play a role in improving the taste of long-preserved meats.
A depiction of Calicut, India published in 1572 during Portugal's control of the pepper trade
Its exorbitant price during the Middle Ages—and the monopoly on the trade held by Italy—was one of the inducements which led the Portuguese to seek a sea route to India. In 1498, Vasco da Gama became the first person to reach India by sailing around Africa; asked by Arabs in Calicut (who spoke Spanish and Italian) why they had come, his representative replied, "we seek Christians and spices". Though this first trip to India by way of the southern tip of Africa was only a modest success, the Portuguese quickly returned in greater numbers and eventually gained much greater control of trade on the Arabian sea. It was given additional legitimacy (at least from a European imperialistic perspective) by the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas, which granted Portugal exclusive rights to the half of the world where black pepper originated.
The Portuguese proved unable to maintain their stranglehold on the spice trade for long. The old Arab and Venetian trade networks successfully 'smuggled' enormous quantities of spices through the patchy Portuguese blockade, and pepper once again flowed through Alexandria and Italy, as well as around Africa. In the 17th century, the Portuguese lost almost all of their valuable Indian Ocean trade to the Dutch and the English who, taking advantage from the Spanish ruling over Portugal (1580–1640), occupied by force almost all Portuguese dominations in the area. The pepper ports of Malabar began to trade increasingly with the Dutch in the period 1661–1663.
Pepper harvested for the European trader, from a manuscript Livre des merveilles de Marco Polo (The book of the marvels of Marco Polo)
As pepper supplies into Europe increased, the price of pepper declined (though the total value of the import trade generally did not). Pepper, which in the early Middle Ages had been an item exclusively for the rich, started to become more of an everyday seasoning among those of more average means. Today, pepper accounts for one-fifth of the world's spice trade.[25]
It is possible that black pepper was known in China in the 2nd century BCE, if poetic reports regarding an explorer named Tang Meng (唐蒙) are correct. Sent by Emperor Wu to what is now south-west China, Tang Meng is said to have come across something called jujiang or "sauce-betel". He was told it came from the markets of Shu, an area in what is now the Sichuan province. The traditional view among historians is that "sauce-betel" is a sauce made from betel leaves, but arguments have been made that it actually refers to pepper, either long or black.[26]
In the 3rd century AD, black pepper made its first definite appearance in Chinese texts, as hujiao or "foreign pepper". It does not appear to have been widely known at the time, failing to appear in a 4th-century work describing a wide variety of spices from beyond China's southern border, including long pepper.[27] By the 12th century, however, black pepper had become a popular ingredient in the cuisine of the wealthy and powerful, sometimes taking the place of China's native Sichuan pepper (the tongue-numbing dried fruit of an unrelated plant).
Marco Polo testifies to pepper's popularity in 13th-century China when he relates what he is told of its consumption in the city of Kinsay (Hangzhou): "... Messer Marco heard it stated by one of the Great Kaan's officers of customs that the quantity of pepper introduced daily for consumption into the city of Kinsay amounted to 43 loads, each load being equal to 223 lbs."[28] Marco Polo is not considered a very reliable source regarding China, and this second-hand data may be even more suspect, but if this estimated 10,000 pounds (4,500 kg) a day for one city is anywhere near the truth, China's pepper imports may have dwarfed Europe's.

History of Black Pepper

International Pepper Community-History

Main constituents
Black pepper contains about 3% essential oil, whose aroma is dominated (max. 80%) by mono­terpene hydro­carbons: sabinene, β-pinene, limonene, furthermore terpinene, α-pinene, myrcene, Δ3-carene and mono­terpene derivatives (borneol, carvone, carvacrol, 1,8-cineol, linalool). Sesqui­terpenes make up about 20% of the essential oil: β-caryophyllene, humulene, β-bisabolone and caryophyllene oxide and ketone. Phenylether (eugenol, myristicin, safrole) are found in traces. Loss of monoterpenes due to bad storage conditions (especially for ground pepper) should be avoided.
The most important odorants organoleptically in black pepper are linalool, α-phellandrene, limonene, myrcene and α-pinene; furthermore, branched-chain aldehydes were found (3-methylbutanal, methylpropanal). The musty flavour of old pepper is attributed to the formation of heterocyclic compounds (2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine) in concentrations of about 1 ppb. (Eur. Food Res. Technol., 209, 16, 1999)
The essential oil of white pepper has received less attention; the content of essential oil is lower (1%), and the most abundant compounds are monoterpene hydrocarbons: limonene, β-pinene, α-pinene and α-phellandrene. Organoleptically most important are linalool (although occurring as a minor component), limonene, α-pinene and phenylpropanoids (eugenol, piperonal); furthermore, short-chain aldehydes and carboxylic acids have been found important. In overstored white pepper, scatole is formed (2 ppm) and imparts an disagreeable, faecal flavour. (Eur. Food Res. Technol., 209, 27, 1999)
The pungent principle in pepper is an alkaloid-analog compound, piperine; it is the amide of 5-(2,4-dioxymethylene-phenyl)-hexa-2,4-dienoic acid (piperinic acid) with azinane (piperidine); only the trans,trans conformer contributes to pepper’s pungency. Several piperine-analogs have been isolated from black pepper where the acid carbon backbone is partially hydrogenated (piperanine) or two carbon atoms longer (piperettine); amides of piperinic acid with pyrrolidine (piperyline) or isobutylamine (piperlongumine) have also been isolated. Total content of piperine-analogs in black pepper is about 5%.
Gernot Kater's Spice Pages

Chemistry of Black Pepper
GC–MS Analysis of the Essential Oils of Piper nigrum L. and Piper longum L.

Black and white peppercorns
Black pepper is produced from the still-green unripe drupes of the pepper plant. The drupes are cooked briefly in hot water, both to clean them and to prepare them for drying. The heat ruptures cell walls in the pepper, speeding the work of browning enzymes during drying. The drupes are dried in the sun or by machine for several days, during which the pepper around the seed shrinks and darkens into a thin, wrinkled black layer. Once dried, the spice is called black peppercorn. Black peppercorn is considered spicier than white peppercorn.
[edit] White pepper
White pepper consists of the seed of the pepper plant alone, with the darker colored skin of the pepper fruit removed. This is usually accomplished by a process known as retting, where fully ripe peppers are soaked in water for about a week, during which the flesh of the pepper softens and decomposes. Rubbing then removes what remains of the fruit, and the naked seed is dried. Alternative processes are used for removing the outer pepper from the seed, including decortication, the removal of the outer layer through mechanical, chemical or biological methods.[6]
White pepper is sometimes used in dishes like light-colored sauces or mashed potatoes, where ground black pepper would visibly stand out. They have differing flavor due to the presence of certain compounds in the outer fruit layer of the drupe that are not found in the seed.
Green pepper, like black, is made from the unripe drupes. Dried green peppercorns are treated in a way that retains the green color, such as treatment with sulfur dioxide, canned or freeze-drying. Pickled peppercorns, also green, are unripe drupes preserved in brine or vinegar. Fresh, unpreserved green pepper drupes, largely unknown in the West, are used in some Asian cuisines, particularly Thai cuisine.[7] Their flavor has been described as piquant and fresh, with a bright aroma.[8] They decay quickly if not dried or preserved.
Ground black pepper and a plastic pepper shaker
A product called orange pepper or red pepper consists of ripe red pepper drupes preserved in brine and vinegar. Ripe red peppercorns can also be dried using the same color-preserving techniques used to produce green pepper.[9] Pink pepper from Piper nigrum is distinct from the more-common dried pink peppercorns, which are the fruits of a plant from a different family, the Peruvian pepper tree, Schinus molle, and its relative the Brazilian pepper tree, Schinus terebinthifolius.
Peppercorns are often categorised under a label describing their region or port of origin. Two well-known types come from India's Malabar Coast: Malabar pepper and Tellicherry pepper. Tellicherry is a higher-grade pepper, made from the largest, ripest 10% of fruits from Malabar plants grown on Mount Tellicherry.[10] Sarawak pepper is produced in the Malaysian portion of Borneo.
Lampung pepper on Indonesia's island of Sumatra. White Muntok pepper is another Indonesian product. Vietnam peppers are white and black pepper and come from Ba Ria - Vung Tau, Chu Se and Binh Phuoc.[11]

Spice Description
Pepper comes from several species of a vinous plant, the spice being the fruit, called peppercorns. Black pepper is the dried, unripe berry. The corns are wrinkled and spherical, about 5 mm (1/8 in) in diameter. Malabar and Tellicherry pepper are both considered top quality due to size and maturity, with only 10% of the largest corns being graded as Tellicherry. White pepper starts out the same as the black, but are allowed to ripen more fully on the vine. The outer shell is then removed by soaking the berries in water until the shell falls off, or are held under flowing spring water, yielding a whiter, cleaner pepper. Green pepper is from the same fruit but is harvested before they mature. Pink pepper, which is not a vinous pepper, comes from the French island of Reunion. Pink peppercorns have a brittle, papery pink skin enclosing a hard, irregular seed, much smaller than the whole fruit.
Bouquet: aromatic, pungent
Flavour: Black pepper is very pungent and fiery. Hotness Scale: 8
White pepper is less pungent. Hotness Scale: 7
Green pepper is milder with a cleaner, fresher flavour. Hotness Scale: 3
The EPI Center

Preparation and Storage
Pepper is best purchased whole, as freshly ground pepper is vastly superior to the ready ground powder. Whole peppercorns keep their flavour indefinitely but quickly loses its aroma and heat after it has been ground. Peppercorns are very hard but easily ground in a peppermill. Cracked pepper is the partially broken corns, crushed using a mortar and pestle or with a rolling pin. Dried green peppercorns can be reconstituted for mashing into a paste by soaking in water. Peppercorns should be stored in airtight containers, away from sunlight.
The EPI Center

Medical Uses of Black Pepper
Berries and leaves from Piper nigrum contain many compounds that exhibit beneficial properties for humans. Methanolic extracts, terpenes, alkaloids, flavonoids, and sterols are just some of the compounds that have been extensively studied by researchers in pursuit of medicinal discoveries. Studies have shown that extracts prepared from P. nigrum exhibit strong parasite inhibiting qualities as well as the promotion of tissue health through a handful of pathways.
Testing has yielded extensive evidence that black pepper is a fierce weapon against many notable parasites. Extracts prepared from P. nigrum are capable of reducing or eliminating infection from such notable parasites as malaria (genus Plasmodium), Leishmania, and sleeping sickness (genus Trypanosoma).
Other evidence has been shown that reinforces some long standing historical claims to the medicinal value of black pepper. Evidence of use as an antiinflammatory, analgesic (painkiller), and antioxidant dates back as early as ancient Indian and Egyptian cultures more than 3,000 years ago. Extracts from P. nigrum have also shown anti-cancerous / cytotoxic facilitation in recent studies. Piperene is a potent chemical which in addition to the aforementioned properties, also promotes thermogenesis in humans. Thermogenesis is the heat producing catabolism (breakdown) of fats in the body

As medicine
Like many eastern spices, pepper was historically both a seasoning and a medicine. Long pepper, being stronger, was often the preferred medication, but both were used.
Black Pepper (or perhaps long pepper) was believed to cure illness such as constipation, diarrhea, earache, gangrene, heart disease, hernia, hoarseness, indigestion, insect bites, insomnia, joint pain, liver problems, lung disease, oral abscesses, sunburn, tooth decay, and toothaches.[29] Various sources from the 5th century onward also recommend pepper to treat eye problems, often by applying salves or poultices made with pepper directly to the eye. There is no current medical evidence that any of these treatments has any benefit; pepper applied directly to the eye would be quite uncomfortable and possibly damaging.[30] Nevertheless, Black pepper either powdered or its decoction is widely used in traditional Indian medicine and as a home remedy for relief from sore throat, throat congestion, cough etc.
Pepper is known to cause sneezing. Some sources say that piperine, a substance present in black pepper, irritates the nostrils, causing the sneezing;[31] Few, if any, controlled studies have been carried out to answer the question. It has been shown that piperine can dramatically increase absorption of selenium, vitamin B, beta-carotene and curcumin as well as other nutrients.[32]
As a medicine, pepper appears in the Buddhist Samaññaphala Sutta, chapter five, as one of the few medicines allowed to be carried by a monk.[33]
Pepper contains small amounts of safrole, a mildly carcinogenic compound.[32] Also, it is eliminated from the diet of patients having abdominal surgery and ulcers because of its irritating effect upon the intestines,[34] being replaced by what is referred to as a bland diet. However, extracts from black pepper have been found to have antioxidant properties[35] and anti-carcinogenic effects, especially when compared to chili.[36]
Piperine present in black pepper acts as a thermogenic compound. Piperine enhances the thermogenesis of lipid and accelerates[37] energy metabolism in the body and also increases the serotonin and beta-endorphin production in the brain.
Piperine and other components from black pepper may also be helpful in treating vitiligo,[38] although when combined with UV radiation should be staggered due to the effect of light on the compound.[39]

Black pepper - traditional medicine
Black peppercorns feature as remedies in Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani medicine in South Asia. In Ayurveda the fruits are valued for a range of properties including its hot, light and anti-flatulent effects. It is most frequently used to treat problems associated with the digestive system, particularly to eradicate parasitic worms and as an appetizer. Some of its traditional uses are supported by scientific evidence.
Black pepper remedies
In Ayurvedic medicine black pepper has been used to aid digestion, improve the appetite, treat coughs, colds, breathing and heart problems, colic, diabetes, anaemia and piles. Stomach ailments such as dyspepsia, flatulence, constipation and diarrhoea are all treated with black pepper, which may be mixed with other substances such as castor oil, cow's urine or ghee.
Black pepper has been prepared in the form of pills as a remedy for cholera and syphilis, sometimes combined with other substances. It has also been used in tooth powder for toothache and an infusion of black pepper has been described as a remedy for sore throat and hoarseness. Alternatively black pepper could be chewed to reduce throat inflammation.
External application
Externally it has been applied in paste form to boils and to treat hair loss and some skin diseases. Oil of pepper is reputed to alleviate itching. A mixture of sesame oil and powdered black pepper is described as an application for areas affected by paralysis. A mixture of black pepper and honey is regarded as a remedy for night blindness. In comatose patients black pepper has been given by inhalation. It is also believed to be useful in hepatitis, urinary and reproductive disorders. In Ayurveda and Siddha medicine, a paste is made using white pepper is applied to treat some eye diseases.
Unani medicine
In Unani medicine, black pepper has been described as an aphrodisiac and as a remedy to alleviate colic. A preparation called 'jawa rishai thurush' is composed of pepper, ginger, salt, lemon juice and the plants vidanga (Embelia ribes) and mint (Menthaspecies). It has been prescribed to alleviate indigestion and stomach acidity.
Plant Cultures-Kew

Ethno-botanical info

Plant: The plant is used in many Asian countries as a stimulant, for the treatment of colic, rheumatism, headache, diarrhoea, dysentery, cholera, menstrual pains, removing excessive gas in system and increasing the flow of urine (Wee, 1992). Also used in folk medicine for stomach disorders and digestion problems, neuralgia, scabies. In Indian medicine, it is used in arthritis, asthma, fever, cough, catarrh, dysentery, dyspepsia, flatulence, haemorrhoids, hiccoughs, urethral discharge, and skin damage. In Chinese medicine, it is used for vomiting, diarrhea, gastric symptoms; homeopathically for irritation of mucous membrane and galactorrhea (Gruenwald et al, 2000). Heavy dose of pepper with wild bamboo shoots said to cause abortion (Duke and Ayensu, 1985). In Assam, a method of birth control includes Cissampelos pareira in combination with Piper nigrum, root of Mimosa pudica and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (Tiwari et al., 1982).
Leaf: For urinary calculus. Used as a poultice for the treatment of headache (Duke and Ayensu, 1985).
Fruits: To remove excessive gas in system, increase flow of urine, treat colic, rheumatism, headache, diarrhoea, dysentery, cholera, menstrual pains (Wee and Hsuan, 1990). White pepper for cholera, malaria, stomachache, and black pepper for abdominal fullness, adenitis, cancer, cholera, cold, colic, diarrhoea, dysentery, dysmenorrhea, dysuria, furuncles, headache, gravel, nausea, poisoning due to fish, mushrooms or shellfish (Duke and Ayensu, 1985).
ICS Trieste

Medicinal uses of Black Pepper-Modern

Culinary Importance of Black Pepper
Throughout human history, the struggles of food acquisition, preservation, and flavor enhancement have shaped the prevelance of spices and food additives such as Piper nigrum in the human diet. Black pepper is possibly the first organism to be used regularly as a food additive and preservative. Although salt proves a more effective preservative due to the ability to cure and dry out organic material, the antimicrobial potential of black pepper.
The berries of pepper, as it is commonly known, can be utilized either ground or whole in conjunction with foods. Peppercorns are commonly used whole in soups and stews or to coat the surface of meats before being heated. Ground peppercorns are the most widely used form of the plant, and can be found incorporated into almost every style of food worldwide.
Piperine is a chemical present in high quantities within fresh peppercorns. This spicy antimicrobial chemical is responsible for the easily recognizable heat and flavor of black pepper. Piperine is highly concentrated in both the outer coating and inside the peppercorn itself. Piperene is volatile, and once the peppercorns are ground any exposure to the air for long periods greatly reduces the amount and potency of the chemical.

Pepper gets its spicy heat mostly from the piperine compound, which is found both in the outer fruit and in the seed. Black pepper contains between 4.6% and 9.7% piperine by mass, and white pepper slightly more than that.[40] Refined piperine, by weight, is about one percent as hot as the capsaicin in chili peppers. The outer fruit layer, left on black pepper, also contains important odour-contributing terpenes including pinene, sabinene, limonene, caryophyllene, and linalool, which give citrusy, woody, and floral notes. These scents are mostly missing in white pepper, which is stripped of the fruit layer. White pepper can gain some different odours (including musty notes) from its longer fermentation stage.[41]
Pepper loses flavor and aroma through evaporation, so airtight storage helps preserve pepper's original spiciness longer. Pepper can also lose flavor when exposed to light, which can transform piperine into nearly tasteless isochavicine.[41] Once ground, pepper's aromatics can evaporate quickly; most culinary sources recommend grinding whole peppercorns immediately before use for this reason. Handheld pepper mills (or "pepper grinders"), which mechanically grind or crush whole peppercorns, are used for this, sometimes instead of pepper shakers, dispensers of pre-ground pepper. Spice mills such as pepper mills were found in European kitchens as early as the 14th century, but the mortar and pestle used earlier for crushing pepper remained a popular method for centuries after as well.[42]

I’m here with a report on Indonesia’s black pepper crop. This is one of the key regions from which McCormick sources its black pepper. The harvest is in full swing from July through August, during which farmers are hard at work in the fields. In this installment of the Spice Buyer’s Journal, I’m excited to give you a behind the scenes look at America’s most popular spice.

Historical Treasure to Modern Day Staple

Ask a spice buyer to name the most important spice in his daily monitoring, and the answer will be a resounding, “black pepper.” Black pepper’s importance has been historically documented, as well. Known as “king of the spices,” black pepper once was used as money to pay taxes, tributes, dowries, and rent. Peppercorns were weighed like gold and used as a common medium of exchange. Black pepper was even used as ransom when the Visigoths captured Rome in 410 A.D.

Famous explorers, including Vasco de Gama and Christopher Columbus, sought India’s Malabar Coast in hopes of gaining access to pepper’s source. Later, American clipper ships traveled the high seas to far away tropical lands to buy black pepper and other spices in order to meet the rapidly increasing demand at home.

McCormick spice buyers still travel directly to the source to purchase the finest black pepper. Fortunately, today instead of taking a month or more to get there, we can reach the heart of most major growing areas in less than 30 hours. Black pepper has indeed become a staple in the American pantry. It is the number one selling spice in the United States, representing nearly 10 percent of all retail spice sales.

Exploring Indonesian Pepper

Indonesian black pepper, called Lampung Pepper, is named for the area in which it grows: the Lampung province in southern Sumatera. Lampung is viewed as one of the finest pepper varieties because of its burning pungency, taste and aroma. To reach the growing fields, one must fly to the port city of Bandar Lampung, then travel north to Kotabomi, which is the major collection point in the Indonesian pepper supply chain. Although it is only about 40 miles from Bandar Lampung to Kotabomi, at this time of year the drive takes four hours. Enormous potholes and a steady stream of traffic — including buses, trucks, cattle, sheep, and people — render the narrow road a virtual obstacle course. Farmers and small spice dealers work the street to find the best price for their pepper. This process provides our first peek into crop and price projections.

After dining on satay and a spicy dish called rendang at a small sidewalk café, my local guide and I travel another two hours north to the heart of the pepper growing area. The roads here are less congested and I have the opportunity to relish the beauty of the Indonesian countryside. Magnificent green flora surrounds us on all sides and gorgeous volcanic peaks are visible in the distant background.

When we finally reach the farms, we see rows upon rows of slender trees, about 20 feet tall, supporting well-developed pepper vines. Between the rows, farmers are perched upon tripod-like ladders, handpicking pepper spikes one at a time. Each spike holds 30-70 pepper berries.

Once harvested, the berries are spread out on grass mats in front of the farmers’ houses to sun dry. During this drying process, which lasts about seven to 10 days, the berries are turned frequently and are brought inside every night for safekeeping. When berries are fully dried and have turned black, they are stored inside the farmer’s house until he is ready to sell them. The lag time can be a few days or, in some cases, many months. One farmer, who invited us in to his home, is a perfect example of the latter. Treating us like old friends, he showed us a sack of pepper that he’s kept hidden under his bed since last year’s harvest. He explained that it was his savings account and the best way he knew to keep his crop from disappearing in the very competitive market.
McCormick Black Pepper Field Report