Treasures of Aromatic Literature-AN INDIAN TREASURE CASKET by Louis Revel

Sandalwood Carvers
Treasures of Aromatic Literature-AN INDIAN TREASURE CASKET by Louis Revel

FAR away in the past, somewhere in France, a great
seaport in an animated street....
near the quays where anchor
the big mail steamers from Asia, a modest little shop of
curios from the Far East. Among a crowd of exotic
objects, an eight-year-old boy is standing alone while his
parents on the threshold of the shop bargain with the
merchant for some precious souvenirs. In the dim light,
the child's eyes wander around and hardly distinguish
the faded gold of Buddhas plunged in metaphysical meditation,
the worn stuffs and shawls which doubtless at one
time enveloped the beautiful body of some far-away princess
in an Eastern palace, the grimacing dragons of jade
and ivory, the copper vessels, the ebony tables inlaid with
mother-of-pearl, the tiger skins...

The boy's eyes stray thoughtfully from one object
to another. Suddenly, they fasten upon a casket of carved
wood. He approaches it and gently opens it. A per-
fume of indescribable sweetness exhales from the box.
On the lid is carved a tree with spreading branches in the
shade of which people are sitting in an attitude of medi-
tation. The boy does not know why but he is mysteri-
ously drawn toward this casket. He gazes at it, touches
it, opens and closes it, and inhales its penetrating odour.
All at once, he hears the merchant saying to his parents,
indicating to them at the same time the object of his con-
templation: "There is a treasure box made of sandal wood
from India."

India! He remembers but this one word, India!
The boy's parents, attracted by other objets d'art.
leave him to his reverie. India! "The man said India,"
he thinks. His soul, without his being conscious of it,
is filled with deep and strange feelings. This word, so
striking for him, captures his imagination. It seems to
him that this treasure casket contains the whole of India
which he believes to know well from having read many
strange stories about that country of mystery. Now
India is before him, he touches it, he breathes its perfume
through the box which he holds in his hands. He is so
happy, without knowing why.

Inexpressible reminiscences! "To learn is to remember," Plato.
May it be that his child's soul remembers a time in the far past ?
It is for his inner life to respond, but the child himself is
plunged in a profound dream. He lives an intense hour.
He is not aware of it but he lives one of those hours the memory of
which can never be forgotten. He does not know that, the Indian
treasure box will remain in the recesses of his memory and
will very often emerge to haunt his youthful mind as well
as his matured life of a man.

. . . .There was a silence one of those silences experienced during
his years of adolescence. The soul needs
time to adapt itself to the body.

One day, while on a boat taking him to Algeria,
the youth, who is now sixteen years of age, sees in th?
distance a huge vessel. "It is the Mail from India'' the
captain tells him. India! Again this evoking word which
stirs his mind. He thinks that later on he also will steer
toward India, toward her shores. He had learned that
she was also named Aryavarta, the country of the Wise
Ones.

. . . .Again some years fly swiftly past. Years of
struggle, of work, of suffering, of hopes. A man's years.
ThT, count. But the soul of India watches over him.
She took possession of all his being in that little
curiosity shop buffeted by the wild sea wind and which smelled
so good of the East. His study of Hindu philosophy
only strengthened his belief in and reverence for India.

If he could not possess the famous treasure box of his
childhood, he received, instead, from a very dear being,
his son, "residing in India whom we will designate by the
letter C,  a wonderful Indian treasure casket all inlaid
with ivory, silver, and turquoise.

It was the herald of a great event.

Davana (Artemisia pallens) essential oil/India

Davana (Artemisia pallens) essential oil/India

Images of Davana herb


The amber colored essential oil of Davana which is distilled from the aerial parts of the herb Artemsia pallens grown extensively in South India radiates and intensely sweet, sharp, herbaceous, wine-like aroma with a delightful fruity-balsamic undertone. The tenacity is very good.


In perfumery works well in high class perfumery; incense bouquets; garland bouquets; herbal creations; chypres; fougere

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Davana (Artemisia pallens)

Olfatory Descriptiion of Essential Oils-"C"

Olfatory Descriptiion of Essential Oils-"C"

Cabreuva (Myrocarpus fastigiatus) essential oil/Paraquay

Cajuput (Melaleuca leucadendron) essential oil-Indonesia

Cade(Juniperus oxycedrus) essential oil-Spain

Calamus (Acorus calamus) essential oils/India

Cananga (Cananga odorata var. macrophylla) essential oil/Indonesia

Caraway seed(Carum carvi) esential oil/Hungary

Cardamom (Ellataria cardamomum) essential oil/Sri Lanka

Cardamom, Black (Amomum subulatum) essential oil/Indonesia

Carrot Seed(Daucus carrota) essential oil/India,France

Catnip (Nepata cataria) essential oil/Canada

Cassia (Cinnamomum cassia) essential oil/China, Vietnam

Cedarwood, Himalayan (Cedrus deodara) essential oil/India

Cedarleaf, Western Red (Thuja plicata) essential oil/Canada

Cedar Heartwood, Western Red Cedar (Thuja plicata)essential oil/Canada

Cedarwood, Virginia(Juniperus virginiana) essential oil/USA


Chamomile, English/Roman(Anthemis nobilis) essential oil/UK, South Africa

Chamomile, Wild(Ormenis multicaulis syn Ormenis mixta) essential oil/Morocco
Cedar, Atlas(Cedrus atlantica) essential oil/Morocco

Champa, White Leaf(Michelia alba) essential oil/China

Cinnamon bark, Indonesia(Cinnamomum burmannii) essential oil/Indonesia

Cinnamon bark, Sri Lankan(Cinnamomum zeylanicum) essential oil/Sri Lanka

Cinnamon leaf Sri Lankan(Cinnamomum zeylanicum) essential oil/Sri Lanka

http://blog.whitelotusaromatics.com/2011/02/cistuscistus-ladanifera-essential.html

Cistus(Cistus ladanifera) essential oil/Spain, Morocco

Citron(Citrus medica) essential oil/Sicily, Italy

Citronella(Cymbopogon nardus) essential oil/South Africa

Clementine(Citrus clementina) essential oil/South Africa

Clove Bud(Eugenia caryophylla, Syzygium aromaticum) essential oil/Indonesia, Madagascar

Coriander Seed(Coriandrum sativum) essential oil/Russia, Hungary, USA

http://blog.whitelotusaromatics.com/2011/02/coffeecoffee-arabica-essential.html

Cubeb (Piper cubeba) essential oil-Indonesia

Cumin(Cuminum cyminum) essential oil/India

Curry Leaf (Murraya koenigii) essential oil/India

Cypress, Alaska (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis, Callitropsis nootkatensis) essential oil/Canada

Cypress(Cupressus sempervirens) essential oil/Crete, Spain,France

Cypress(Cupressus sempervirens) essential oil/Crete, Spain,France

Cypress(Cupressus sempervirens) essential oil/Crete, Spain,France

Images for Cypress

Cypress essential oil is a pale white to pale yellow liquid displaying a fresh, green, resinous bouquet with a sweet, balsamic undertone

In natural perfumery used in sacred perfumes, incense bouquets, forest notes, fougere, colognes, chypre, amber accords

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Cypress (Cupressus sempervirens)

Cypress, Alaska (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis, Callitropsis nootkatensis) essential oil/Canada

Cypress, Alaska (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis, Callitropsis nootkatensis) essential oil/Canada


Images for Alaskan Cypress

Alaskan cypress essential oil is a reddish brown liquid displaying a fresh, dry, precious woods bouquet with a powdery resinous undertone

In natural perfumery used in precious woods accords, forest notes, sacred perfumes, incense bouquets


Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Cypress, Alaska (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis, Callitropsis nootkatensis)

Curry Leaf (Murraya koenigii) essential oil/India

Curry Leaf (Murraya koenigii) essential oil/India

Images of Curry Tree, Leaf and Flower

This transparent clear liquid displays a tantalizing pungent, green, sharp, spicy aroma with a fresh penetrating camphoraceous, cedar-like undertone. As one goes deep into the dryout the fresh camphoraceous note does a wonderful job of supporting the sharp, green, spicy note and the oil displays good tenacity

In natural perfumery used culinary creations; colognes; herbal bouquets; tea notes; spice accords

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Curry Leaf (murrya koenigii)

Cumin(Cuminum cyminum) essential oil/India

Cumin(Cuminum cyminum) essential oil/India

Images of Cumin herb and seed

Cumin essential oil is a pale yellow liquid displaying a potent, green spicy bouquet
with a powdery, punguent spicy undertone with great diffusive radiance

In natural perfumery use in trace amounts in spice accords, culinary perfumes, Oriental bouquet, fine floral bases(mimosa, cassie, violet) fougere, precious wood accords, ambergris accords

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Cumin (Cuminum cyminum)

Cubeb (Piper cubeba) essential oil-Indonesia

Cubeb (Piper cubeba) essential oil-Indonesia

Images of Cubeb vine, flower and fruit

Cubeba essential oilis a clear to pale yellow oil displaying a fresh, warm spicy-peppery, camphoraceous bouquet with dry woody undertone

In natural perfumes used in culinary bases, spice accords, incense bouquets, apothecary blends

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Cubeb (Piper cubeba)

Coffee(Coffee arabica) essential oil/Brazil

Coffee(Coffee arabica) essential oil/Brazil

Images of Coffee tree, flower and berry

Coffee essential oil is a brown viscous liquid with a nutty, roasted, carmelic with an earthy spicy undertone

In natural perfumery used in culinary perfumes, amber bases, earthy accords

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Coffee(Coffea arabica)

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Coffee(Coffea arabica)

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Coffee(Coffea arabica)

Images of Coffee tree, flower and berry

Wikipedia

University of Purdue

The Flora Homoeopathica By Edward Hamilton

The Cultural history of plants By Mark Nesbitt

Pocket Guide to Herbal Medicine By Karin Kraft, Christopher Hobbs

Herb & Supplement Encyclopedia:

Herbal Medicine

HerbData

Clementine(Citrus clementina) essential oil/South Africa

Clementine Peel(Citrus clementina) essential oil/South Africa

Images of Clementine tree and fruit

Clementine peel essential oil is a yellow liquid displaying fresh sweet, juicy, fruity-citrus aroma with a delicate floral aroma

In natural perfumery used in citrus accords, colognes, gfougeres, chypre, culinary perfumes, topnote in high class florals

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Clementine(Citrus clementina)

Treasures of Aromatic Literature-Smell, The Fallen Angel by Helen Keller

Treasures of Aromatic Literature-Smell, The Fallen Angel by Helen Keller

SMELL, THE FALLEN ANGEL

For some inexplicable reason the sense of smell does not hold the high position it deserves among its sisters. There is something of the fallen angel about it. When it woos us with woodland scents and beguiles us with the fragrance of lovely gardens, it is admitted frankly to our discourse. But when it gives us warning of something noxious in our vicinity, it is treated as if the demon had got the upper hand of the angel, and is relegated to outer darkness, punished for its faithful service. It is most difficult to keep the true significance of words when one discusses the prejudices of mankind, and I find it hard to give an account of odor-perceptions which shall be at once dignified and truthful.

In my experience smell is most important, and I find that there is high authority for the nobility of the sense which we have neglected and disparaged. It is recorded that the Lord commanded that incense be burnt before Him continually with a sweet savor. I doubt if there is any sensation arising from sight more delightful than the odors which filter through sunwarmed, wind-tossed branches, or the tide of scents which swells, subsides, rises again wave on wave, filling the wide world with invisible sweetness. A whiff of the universe makes us dream of worlds we have never seen, recalls in a flash entire epochs of our dearest experience. I never smell daisies without living over again the ecstatic mornings that my teacher and I spent wandering in the fields, while I learned new words and the names of things. Smell is a potent wizard that transports us across a thousand miles and all the years we have lived. The odor of fruits wafts me to my Southern home, to my childish frolics in the peach orchard. Other odors, instantaneous and fleeting, cause my heart to dilate joyously or contract with remembered grief. Even as I think of smells, my nose is full of scents that start awake sweet memories of summers gone and ripening grain fields far away.

The faintest whiff from a meadow where the new-mown hay lies in the hot sun displaces the here and the now. I am back again in the old red barn. My little friends and I are playing in the haymow. A huge mow it is, packed with crisp, sweet hay, from the top of which the smallest child can reach the straining rafters. In their stalls beneath are the farm animals. Here is Jerry, unresponsive, unbeautiful Jerry, crunching his oats like a true pessimist, resolved to find his feed not good—at least not so good as it ought to be. Again I touch Brownie, eager, grateful little Brownie, ready to leave the juiciest fodder for a pat, straining his beautiful, slender neck for a caress. Near by stands Lady Belle, with sweet, moist mouth, lazily extracting the sealed-up cordial from timothy and clover, and dreaming of deep June pastures and murmurous streams.

The sense of smell has told me of a coining storm hours before there was any sign of it visible. I notice first a throb of expectancy, a slight quiver, a concentration in my nostrils. As the storm draws nearer, my nostrils dilate the better to receive the flood of earthodors which seem to multiply and extend, until I feel the splash of rain against my cheek. As the tempest departs, receding farther and farther, the odors fade, become fainter and fainter, and die away beyond the bar of space.

I know by smell the kind of house we enter. I have recognized an old-fashioned country house because it has several layers of odors, left by a succession of families, of plants, perfumes, and draperies.

In the evening quiet there are fewer vibrations than in the daytime, and then I rely more largely upon smell. The sulphuric scent of a match tells me that the lamps are being lighted. Later, I note the wavering trail of odor that flits about and disappears. It is the curfew signal; the lights are out for the night.

Out of doors I am aware by smell and touch of the ground we tread and the places we pass. Sometimes, when there is no wind, the odors are so grouped that I know the character of the country, and can place a hayfield, a country store, a garden, a barn, a grove of pines, a farmhouse with the windows open.

The other day I went to walk toward a familiar wood. Suddenly a disturbing odor made me pause in dismay. Then followed a peculiar, measured jar, followed by dull, heavy thunder. I understood the odor and the jar only too well. The trees were being cut down. We climbed the stone wall to the left. It borders the wood which I have loved so long that it seems to be my peculiar possession. But to-day an unfamiliar rush of air and an unwonted outburst of sun told me that my tree friends were gone. The place was empty, like a deserted dwelling. I stretched out my hand. Where once stood the steadfast pines, great, beautiful, sweet, my hand touched raw, moist stumps. All about lay broken branches, like the antlers of stricken deer. The fragrant, piled-up sawdust swirled and tumbled about me. An unreasoning resentment flashed through me at this ruthless destruction of the beauty that I love. But there is no anger, no resentment in nature. The air is equally charged with the odors of life and of destruction, for death equally with growth forever ministers to all-conquering life. The sun shines as ever, and the winds riot through the newly openedspaces. I know that a new forest will spring where the old one stood, as beautiful, as beneficent.

Touch sensations are permanent and definite. Odors deviate and are fugitive, changing in their shades, degrees, and location. There is something else in odor which gives me a sense of distance. I should call it horizon—the line where odor and fancy meet at the farthest limit of scent.

Smell gives me more idea than touch or taste of the manner in which sight and hearing probably discharge their functions. Touch seems to reside in the object touched, because there is a contact of surfaces. In smell there is no notion of relievo, and odor seems to reside not in the object smelt, but in the organ. Since I smell a tree at a distance, it is comprehensible to me that a person sees it without touching it. I am not puzzled over the fact that he receives it as an image on his retina without relievo, since my smell perceives the tree as a thin sphere with no fullness or content. By themselves, odors suggest nothing. I must learn by association to judge from them of distance, of place, and of the actions or the surroundings which are the usual occasions for them, just as I am told people judge from color, light, and sound.

From exhalations I learn much about people. I often know the work they are engaged in. The odors of wood, iron, paint, and drugs cling to the garments of those that work in them. Thus I can distinguish the carpenter from the ironworker, the artist from the mason or the chemist. When a person passes quickly from one place to another I get a scent impression of where he has been—the kitchen, the garden, or the sick-room. I gain pleasurable ideas of freshness and good taste from the odors of soap, toilet water, clean garments, woolen and silk stuffs, and gloves.

I have not, indeed, the all-knowing scent of the hound or the wild animal. None but the halt and the blind need fear my skill in pursuit; for there are other things besides water, stale trails, confusing cross tracks to put me at fault. Nevertheless, human odors are as varied and capable of recognition as hands and faces. The dear odors of those I love are so definite, so unmistakable, that nothing can quite obliterate them. If many years should elapse before I saw an intimate friend again, I think I should recognize his odor instantly in the heart of Africa, as promptly as would my brother that barks.

Once, long ago, in a crowded railway station, a lady kissed me as she hurried by. I had not touched even her dress. But she left a scent with her kiss which gave me a glimpse of her. The years are many since she kissed me. Yet her odor is fresh in my memory.

It is difficult to put into words the thing itself, the elusive person-odor. There seems to be no adequate vocabulary of smells, and I must fall back on approximate phrase and metaphor.

Some people have a vague, unsubstantial odor that floats about, mocking every'effort to identify it. It is the willo'-the-wisp of my olf active experience. Sometimes I meet one who lacks a distinctive person-scent, and I seldom find such a one lively or entertaining. On the other hand, one who has a pungent odor often possesses great vitality, energy, and vigor of mind.

Masculine exhalations are as a rule stronger, more vivid, more widely differentiated than those of women. In the odor of young men there is something elemental, as of fire, storm, and salt sea. It pulsates with buoyancy and desire. It suggests all things strong and beautiful and joyous, and gives me a sense of physical happiness. I wonder if others observe that all infants have the same scent—pure, simple, undecipherable as their dormant personality. It is not until the age of six or seven that they begin to have perceptible individual odors. These develop and mature along with their mental and bodily powers.

What I have written about smell, especially person-smell, will perhaps be regarded as the abnormal sentiment of one who can have no idea of the "world of reality and beauty which the eye perceives." There are people who are color-blind, people who' are tone-deaf. Most people are smell-blind-and-deaf. We should not condemn a musical composition on the testimony of an ear which cannot distinguish one chord from another, or judge a picture by the verdict of a color-blind critic. The sensations of smell which cheer, inform, and broaden my life are not less pleasant merely because some critic who treads the wide, bright pathway of the eye has not cultivated his olfactive sense. Without the shy, fugitive, often unobserved, sensations and the certainties which taste, smell, and touch give me, I should be obliged to take my conception of the universe wholly from others. I should lack the alchemy by which I now infuse into my world light, color, and the Protean spark. The sensuous reality which interthreads and supports all the gropings of my imagination would be shattered. The solid earth would melt from under my feet and disperse itself in space. The objects dear to my hands would become formless, dead things, and I should walk among them as among invisible ghosts.

Coriander Seed(Coriandrum sativum) essential oil/Russia, Hungary, USA

Coriander Seed(Coriandrum sativum) essential oil/Russia, Hungary, USA

Coriander seed essential oil is a colorless to pale yellow liquid displaying a warm aromatic, woody-spicy bouquet with a green-spicy undertone

In natural perfumery is used spice accords, precious woods bases, culinary perfumes, high class florals, Oriental bouquets, colognes, mens fragrances

"In perfumery, it s warm and sweet notes blend equally well with sage clary and bergamot in colognes, with floral notes in jasmin, lilac, appleblossom, honeysuckle etc and with olibanum and Ceylon cinnamon it may produce highly interesting effects in perfumes of the Oriental type." Steffen Arctander

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Coriander(Coriandrum sativum)

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Clementine(Citrus clementina)

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Clementine(Citrus clementina)

Images for Clementine Tree and Fruit

Citrus Oils: By Giovanni Dugo, Luigi Mondello

Produce Pete

Daves Garden

Leslie Beck, RD

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Clove(Eugenia caryophyllata)

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Clove(Eugenia caryophyllata)

Wikipedia

The pharmacology of Chinese herbs, Volume 874 By Kee Chang Huang, Walter Michael Williams

Encyclopedia of Food and Color Additives, Volumes 1-3 By George A. Burdock

The Way of Ayurvedic Herbs: By Karta Purkh Singh Khalsa, Michael Tierra

International Collation of Traditional and Folk Medicine: Northeast Asia By Chung Ki Sung, Takeatsu Kimura, Paul P. H. But, Ji-Xian Guo

Herb & Supplement Encyclopedia:

HerbData

Himalayan Herbal HealthCare

Clove Bud(Eugenia caryophylla, Syzygium aromaticum) essential oil/Indonesia, Madagascar

Clove Bud(Eugenia caryophylla, Syzygium aromaticum) essential oil/Indonesia, Madagascar

Images of Clove Tree and Fruit

Clove Bud essential oil is a pale yellow liquid displaying a rich, sweet, fruity aromatic-spicy bouquet with a balsamic-woody undertone of good tenacity

In natural perfumery used in spice accords, incense perfumes, culinary creations, sweet florals


"In rose, honeysuckle and certain deep-sweet florals, clove bud oil lends a unique note of natural richness and body. The classic 'rondeletia' perfume type is based upon the combination of clove and lavender oils. Modern variations include the use of lavindin, sage clary, bergamot, bay leaf oil, pimenta berry oil, etc." Steffen Arctander

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Clove(Eugenia caryophyllata)

Essay on the Art of Perfumery by Edmond Roudnitska

There is a wonderful essay, Art of Perfumery by Edmond Roudnitska contained in the book-
Perfumes: art, science, and technology By P. M. Muller, Dietmar Lamparsky

The essay can be read at:
Art of Perfumery

One of the sections included in this essay is on How to Smell. It presents a complete technique for how the aspiring perfumer might develop their appreciation for the various essences that make up the perfumers palette.

This part of getting "to know" in an olfactory sense the complex characters of the different essential oils, absolutes, co2 extracts, etc that nature provides us with out of her abundant heart is a magical journey in itself, but it takes time and patience to cultivate that intimate relationship. By getting to know and appreciate the varied facets of each precious aromatic gem one is exploring one may gradually fine the key on how blend them into new fragrant creations that expresses the beauty one preceives in and around them.

Citron(Citrus medica) essential oil/Sicily, Italy

Citron(Citrus medica) essential oil/Sicily, Italy

Citron essential oil is a pale white liquid displaying a delicate, fresh, sweet lemon-lime like bouquet with a fine floral undertone

In natural perfume used in colognes, sacred perfumes, high class florals(top note), chypre

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Citron(Citrus medica)

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Citron(Citrus medica)

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Citron(Citrus medica)

Images of Citrus medica

University of Purdue

Citrus fruit: biology, technology and evaluation By Milind S. Ladaniya

Growing Citrus: The Essential Gardener's Guide By Martin Page

World spice plants By Johannes Seidemann

Flowers of Israel

Wikipedia

Citrus pages

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Cistus(Cistus ladanifer)

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Cistus(Cistus ladanifer)

Wikdipedia

Paghats Garden

Common fragrance and flavor materials: preparation, properties and uses By Horst Surburg, Johannes Panten

Leung's encyclopedia of common natural ingredients By Ikhlas A. Khan, Ehab A. Abourashed

Plant resins: chemistry, evolution, ecology, and ethnobotany By Jean H. Langenheim

Cistus ladanifer Crete

Cistus(Cistus ladanifera) essential oil/Spain, Morocco

Cistus(Cistus ladanifera) essential oil/Spain, Morocco

Images of Cistus shrub and flower

Cistus essential oil is a reddish colored liquid with a warm, resinous-herbaceous odor with a spicy, aromatic undertone.

In natural perfumery used in incense bouquets, colognes, spicy accords, ambre notes, Oriental bases

"...true cistus oil has an immense power in its topnote. It produces interesting effects in lavender bouquets, colognes, spicy after shave fragrances.." Steffen Arctander
Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Cistus(Cistus ladanifer)

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Cistus(Cistus ladanifera)

Cinnamon leaf Sri Lanka(Cinnamomum zeylanicum) essential oil/Sri Lanka

Cinnamon leaf Sri Lankan(Cinnamomum zeylanicum) essential oil/Sri Lanka

Images of Cinnamon tree and leaf

Cinnamon Leaf oil is yellow liquid diplaying a soft, sweet aromatic-spicy bouquet with a balsamic-vanillic undertone

In natural perfumery is used in Oriental bouquets, culinary perfumes, spice accords, incense bouquets, apothecary creations

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Cinnamon bark, Sri Lankan(Cinnamomum zeylanicum)

Cinnamon bark, Sri Lankan(Cinnamomum zeylanicum) essential oil/Sri Lanka

Cinnamon bark, Sri Lankan(Cinnamomum zeylanicum) essential oil/Sri Lanka

Cinnamon bark essential oil is a pale yellow liquid displaying and extremely rich, warm, aromatic-spicy with a delightful sweet powdery woody undertone with great diffusive power and tenacity

In natural perfumery can be used in Oriental bouquets, spice accords, incense perfumes, apothecary blends, culinary perfumes

"In perfumery, the oil blends well with Oriental-woody notes, and the combination with olibanum(frankincense) is known and often utilied. The warmth and dry spiciness, the immediate sweetness and tremendous diffusive power(or "radiation") induced by the addition of fractions of one persence of this oil in a perfume composition, is highly appreciated by certain perfumers." Steffen Arctander

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Cinnamon bark, Sri Lankan(Cinnamomum zeylanicum)

Treasures of Aromatic Literature-Scent of Orris from Tuscan feasts and Tuscan friends By Dorothy Nevile Lees

Treasures of Aromatic Literature-Scent of Orris from Tuscan feasts and Tuscan friends By Dorothy Nevile Lees

Although I had spent several springs in the neighbourhood of Florence, this was my first upon that side of the country, and I was therefore unaware that it was the district where most of the irises for the famous Florentine orris root was grown. Had I known this, I should have been prepared and expectant; as it was I stood breathless, silent, before so wonderful a sight.

The irises were all in flower. Up the long slopes and in the rounded hollows of the hills they stood in millions, close-growing; a carpet of pale purple ; an amethystine sea from which the olive-trees raised their silver foliage and twisted, moss-grown trunks. Erect upon its tall stalk each flower stood majestic, springing proudly from its sword-like leaves.

They broke in purple waves against the very walls of the little white farmhouses, and, as the breeze passed over them, it stirred their surface as the wind might ruffle the surface of a lake. They crept into the copses among the young oak-trees. The clusters of stone pines on their straight, slender stems, the groups of cypresses like sombre plumes, the thickets of bay and myrtle breaking the even flow of them, were but as rocks against which the water lapped. Even the patches of corn, usually supreme in a landscape, seemed as a mere embroidery upon this royal robe of purple, or as "the Islands of the Blessed" set in an enchanted sea.

It was a fit hour for such a vision, for all this loveliness lay outstretched beneath a pale blue sky, in the clear quiet air of early morning. This mystical world of lilac and pale silver, beautiful at any time, possessed a more indescribable charm, a more ethereal and appealing loveliness, in the austere light of the unsullied day.

All my life I have loved the scent of orris root. Many a time have I bought it down in the ancient jurinaria of Santa Maria Novella, where, though the picturesque Dominicans no longer, as in former days, distil and sell the perfumes, the old industry is still carried on. But I, like many another, had never traced the connection between final effects and fundamental causes, never speculated as to where the orris root came from, nor under what circumstances and in what surroundings it was grown; never pictured the fairness preceding the fragrance, nor imagined a scene so lovely as that of this shimmering veil of silver olives above the purple fields.

Florence is famous for its orris root perfumes. Indeed it is fitting that, as the giglio is the city's heraldic emblem everywhere blazoned, the essence of the giglio should be the city's characteristic scent. But although I had seen the lines of iris bordering the banks and watercourses in many a podere, or fringing the walls along the country roads; had gathered them, gold and purple, in the olive gardens or beside little rippling streams, these had been but scattered companies. Here they held full sway; dominated the landscape; ruled by the power of numbers and of perfect loveliness.

It was very still at that early hour. The silvery peal of the Ave Maria of dawn floated down from little churches high upon the hills. The only human being in sight was the postman, who passed along the path beneath the terrace on his way to the distant village to fetch the letter-bags. In his shabby uniform he was a prosaic figure in such surroundings, but he greeted me civilly enough, observing, though without enthusiasm, that the weather promised well.

There is nothing of the Mercury, the winged messenger of the gods, about our postman. I am sure that the poetical side of his high office has never struck him for a moment. He does not realise that he is the harbinger of joy and sorrow, the bearer of those news from far countries which a wise man has said are as water in a thirsty land. He does not stop to think that hearts beat the faster for his coming, that he is the link between those severed by half the world, and that, in some humble way, he has his share in that benediction, "beautiful upon the mountains are the feet of those that bring good news of peace." He is a prosaic and entirely unromantic individual of forty, who tramps the country under an enormous green umbrella, loaded with letter-bags and all kinds of miscellaneous goods. For he is parcel as well as letter carrier, and often appears hung around with packages, bags, and baskets like a veritable Father Christmas. I cannot say that he manifests any burning zeal in the discharge of his high mission, having a provoking habit, if the letters do not seem sufficient in number to justify his making the long circuit to pass by the Villa, of committing them to chance peasants or school children who may be going that way. Of course such conduct is most reprehensible, and any complaint at headquarters would doubtless bring Giovanni into serious trouble. But who would have the heart to make it? Certainly not I, as I sit in a cool, darkened room while the outer world is hushed, save for the ceaseless whirr of the cicale, before the golden pomp of noonday, and think of Giovanni, like a large green mushroom, trudging along the unsheltered roads beneath the blazing sun. down upon the step of a half-ruined shrine which bore the legend—

By-and-by I wearied of being a mere spectator from the terrace. I wanted to be among the irises, to feel them on every side of me; to put out, as it were, from shore into that purple sea; so I left the garden by a side gate, following the invitation of the white road towards the higher slopes.

Presently, as I wandered up the hill, I heard a clear voice singing:—

"Volesse Iddio che fossi un rondino,
Avessi 1' ale e potessi volare,
Vorrei volar sull' uscio del mulino
Dove sta lo mio amore a macinare:
E gli vorrei volare intorno,
E ci vorrei restar la notte e il giorno,"

and came upon a young girl busy gathering sheaves of irises, while she alternately sang her stornelli and took bites at a large hunch of coarse dark bread.

She was a charming little figure in her faded green skirt and blue bodice; her apron was red, and she wore a red and yellow scarf knotted around her neck. Her black curling hair was uncovered, and she looked at me with dusky brown eyes like those of some woodland creature. So picturesque was she that I could not make up my mind to go farther, and sitting "Gesu; Giuseppe, Maria,
Siete sempre in mia compagnia,"

I soon found her willing enough to talk.

She was gathering flowers to sell in the town, she told me. Tonino, her brother, went down every day to take them, and she was up at dawn to pick them, so that they might still be fresh when they reached the shops.

Was it not hard >to get up so early? I questioned; but she shook her head with -a little laugh. "We peasants go to bed early and rise early, Signorina," she answered; "and" (quoting one of the Tuscan proverbs) "the morning has gold in its mouth."

Later on, she explained, when the irises had all flowered, would be the time for getting up and peeling the roots, and that was a long business; but if the Signorina was still at the Villa, then she would see for herself when and how the work was done.

Never having had any experience of this charming industry I was fired with interest at the prospect, and as a kind fate ordained that I should be at the Villa again in August, I was able to see the whole process for myself.

The growing of irises in a good year is a profitable business; but when prices are low it is sometimes hardly worth the labour of getting them up and preparing them for the market, so small are the returns.

As a rule the digging up begins in July, when all the flowers have had plenty of time to dry off. From the principal root of each plant some small suckers are cut off and planted in fresh ground, so as to yield a future crop. As the young plants will not produce good roots until the second year at the earliest, it is of course necessary to have alternate pieces of land in which to take up the plants of one season and set those for two or three years ahead.

The orris root industry is, like all agricultural industries in Tuscany, a picturesque one. Indeed in this blessed land the most common acts of life—so it be in the country, or at least off the track of the tourist—are possessed of some peculiar charm.

Early, very early, in the summer mornings, while the light is still grey and chilly, the men are out in the fields to dig up roots for the day's peeling, and these, after the old leaves have been cut away and the new shoots carefully laid aside for future planting, are carried down on carts to the fattoria to be weighed. They are then given over to the peasant girls of the place—supplemented, if the crop be a large one, by girls hired from neighbouring villages, who come and stay from the Monday till the Saturday of each week until the work is done.

The peasants themselves peel their own small crops at home in their spare time; but the padrone's crops are peeled in some shed or outhouse belonging to the Villa, and dried upon long tables set up on the terrace near the house.

For nearly six weeks the work continued, and every morning a party of eighteen or twenty girls gathered under a roof of fir branches and heather—a cool retreat in those hot, drowsy days of August, when Messer lo frate Sole beats pitilessly down.

There from sunrise till sunset they sat, a gay party, singing choruses and stornelli, telling stories, laughing and chatting blithely, as with sharp sickle-bladed knives they peeled busily, their swift,practisedfingersadding momentarily to the pile of cool, fragrant roots, ready to be carried to the Villa when the sun went down.

Of course Bianca Maria wanted to have her share in all these labours, and—with a blunt knife—achieved the elementary scraping of many roots, which were afterwards (secretly, that her pride might not be wounded) finished off in workman-like manner by sharper blades and more experienced hands.

Evening after evening, as the sun went down in a blaze of glory behind the mountains, writing in symbols of gold and crimson the " finis" of another working day, Orlando used to appear upon the great terrace with a cart drawn by a sage and elderly pony, and unload the sacks full of freshly peeled roots to add to the piles already drying upon the stole or cane mats.

These roots on their arrival were fresh and fat, crisp as young radishes, pure white and fragrant, with a cool dampness which made them very agreeable to clasp in a hot hand, as Bianca Maria and I agreed. Their shapes, too, were eccentric and often comical, especially those of some years' growth, resembling, as they did, stately long-necked geese, grotesque little dwarfs, and all kinds of queer creatures; and each evening it was a fresh excitement for Bianca Maria to look over the new consignment and see what funny figures she could find.

Day and night the roots were left upon the stoie, as the moonlight is supposed by the Tuscan peasant to have some mysteriously beneficial effect upon them, though in reality it is the dew which does the good.

But as the days passed the plump and wellproportioned pieces shrivelled to half their original bulk, lost their scent, and became hard as bits of wood; and each day's consignment, so soon as it attained to this desirable condition, was carried off and stored away, ready to be ground to powder to supply the Florentine and the far - off London and Parisian shops.

All over the world goes the Florentine orris root, but it has other uses besides that to which it is put by the scent and soap makers, and one of these is the supplying of " fingers," which are cut from the roots; these fingers being given to babies to aid them, instead of the old-established coral, in that tedious process of tooth-cutting, through which, though we retain no memory of it, we have all, with tears and tribulation, passed.

But of course the primary object in the growth of orris remains its value as a perfume; and as that, for those who love Tuscany, it must always have a peculiar attraction, make a particular appeal.

Few things quicken memories like perfumes. The sense of smell is one of the most potent in calling up and recreating a vanished past. A wreath of vegetable smoke from a bonfire blows across our path, and we are back in the moorland farm where we spent a long past summer; as by magic a thousand half-forgotten details rise before our mind. Or it is a handful of dried lavender, which recalls to us some quaint old English garden where the hot air quivers above the many coloured flowers, where the fruittrees clothe the mellow-tinted walls and the great bushes of purple-grey flowers fill with their spicy odour all the happy, sheltered place. Or the scent of a violet, a freezia, a lily, steals across to us. We start involuntarily; our hearts beat faster, our faces pale. We had believed that the old wound was quite healed, that the grass of utter forgetfulness grew upon the grave where that old sorrow was buried. But the violets, the lilies, yet remember; they have passed on the secret from one generation to another; they will never cease to remind us of that past of which we would fain be rid until we pass into the land where all things are forgotten—that quiet country where regret shall trouble us no longer, where even remorse shall at last be lulled to sleep.

But from the memories which the fragrance of the orris stirs for me I desire no deliverance—they are too beautiful; for whenever a breath of its perfume blows across my way, I see again these pale purple lakes, wind-ruffled beneath the clinging silver mist of the olives; recall once more those still summer nights when the air was full of the scent of the drying roots, and in the profound silence, while the fire-flies wove their magical embroidery above the cornfields, the rising moon poured its pale gold upon the country, and the stars looked down upon the sleeping land.

Cinnamon bark, Indonesia(Cinnamomum burmannii) essential oil/Indonesia

Cinnamon bark, Indonesia(Cinnamomum burmannii) essential oil/Indonesia

Images of Indonesian Cinnamon Trees and bark

Indonesian cinnamon bark oil is a golden yellow liquid displaying a rich, aromatic-spicy bouquet with a woody-balsamic-vanillic undertone of good tenacity

In natural perfumery used in incense perfumes, apothecary blends, ayurvedic blends, Oriental bouquets, culinary creations

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Cinnamon bark, Indonesia(Cinnamomum burmannii)

Champa, White Leaf(Michelia alba) essential oil/China

Champa, White Leaf(Michelia alba) essential oil/China

Images of White champa tree

White Champa Leaf essential oil is a pale yellow liquid displaying a soft, sweet, fruity-herbaceous-flora bouquet of good tenacity.

In natural perfumery it has wide applications due to its soft sweet aroma and tenacity.
Works very nicely in high class florals, Oriental bouquets, fruit accords, garland perfumes

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Champa, White (Michelia alba)/China

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Chamomile, Wild(Ormenis multicaulis syn Ormenis mixta) /Morocco

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Chamomile, Wild(Ormenis multicaulis syn Ormenis mixta) /Morocco


Flowers of Israel


Chamomile, Wild(Ormenis multicaulis syn Ormenis mixta) essential oil/Morocco

Chamomile, Wild(Ormenis multicaulis syn Ormenis mixta) essential oil/Morocco

Images for Wild Chamomile

The essential oil of Wild chamomile is a pale yellow liquid displaying a sweet fruity, balsamic,, herbacoeus bouquet with a honeyed, ambery, powdery undertone of good duration

In perfumery would find use chypre, fougere, citrus cologne, herbaceous cologne, ambre bases, floral-herbaceous creations, geographical perfumes

"The oil finds application in citrus-colognes, ambre, chypre and fougere-bases, as well in in a multitude of other bases where a fresh modification of ambre-herbaceous notes are called for(lavender, pine, etc) Even trace amounts of this oil may introduce a delightful topnote in herbaceous or herbaceous-floral fragrance."
Steffen Arctander

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Chamomile, Wild(Ormenis multicaulis syn Ormenis mixta) /Morocco

Chamomile, English/Roman(Anthemis nobilis) essential oil/UK, South Africa

Chamomile, English/Roman(Anthemis nobilis) essential oil/UK, South Africa

Images of English Chamomile

English chamomile essential oil is a clear to pale blue liquid displaying a delicate, fresh sweet, herbaceous bouquet with a fruity, balsamic undertone

In natural perfumery used in herbaceous notes, high class florals, apothecary blends, colognes, fougere, chypre

"It imparts a warm, yet fresh note and a natural depth which is difficult to obtain by other means" Steffen Arctander

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Chamomile, English/Roman(Anthemis nobilis)

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Chamomile, Blue/German(Matricaria chamomilla, M.recutita) essential oil/Nepal

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Chamomile, Blue/German(Matricaria chamomilla, M.recutita) essential oil/Nepal

Images for Blue Chamomile


Blue chamomile oil is a blue to greenish blue liquid displaying a sweet, herbaceous, coumarinic bouquet with a warm fruity, balsamic undertone of good tenacity

In natural perfumery used in fruit accords, herbaceous bouquets, high class florals, apothecary blends

"True chamomile oil is usedin very small percentages in high-class perfumes to introduce a warm, rich undertone which lasts through all stages of evaporation." Steffen Arctander

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Chamomile, Blue/German(Matricaria chamomilla, M.recutita)

Cedar, Atlas(Cedrus atlantica) essential oil/Morocco

Cedar, Atlas(Cedrus atlantica) essential oil/Morocco

Images for Atlas Cedarwood

Atlas Cedarwood oil is a yellow to orange yellow liquid, sometimes deep amber, displaying a oily-precious woods bouquet with a delicate sweet soft sweet undertone

It is used widely in perfumery for its fixative qualities especially in floral-woody bouquets, incense perfumes, precious woods accords, forest notes

"Atlas Cedarwood is widely used in perfumery for its fixative effect and unique odor which seems to blend so well with labdanum products and with all the woody and woody-floral types of perfume materials." Steffen Arctander

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Cedar, Atlas(Cedrus atlantica)

Cedarwood, Virginia(Juniperus virginiana) essential oil/USA

Cedarwood, Virginia(Juniperus virginiana) essential oil/USA

Images for Viginia cedarwood

Virginia cedarwood oil is a brownish red liquid(clear liquid if rectified) displaying a sweet, balsamic, precious woods bouquet with a dry, resionous undertone

In natural perfumery used in forest notes, incense bouquets, diffuser blends, mosquito repellents, precious wood accords, sacred perfumes

"Virginia Cedarwood oil is used extensively in perfumery, particulary in soap perfumery, as a fixative and cost reduceer for vetiver, sandalwood oil, patchouli oil or even in the comparatively cheap guaicawood oil. The dry-woody character and the fixative effect of cedarwood oil make it almost universally applicable" Steffen Arctander

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Cedarwood, Virginia(Juniperus virginiana)

New Essential Oil and Absolutes arrival-week of Febuary12-19th,2011

New Essential Oil and Absolutes arrival-week of Febuary12-19th,2011

Dear Friends-
New consignments of the following essential oils and absolutes have arrived this week-
Essential oils:

Helichrysum italicum Corsica organic
Helichrysum italicum Bosnia wild harvest
Artemisia herba alba Tunisia wild harvest
Frankincense(Boswellia carteri) UK distilled Somalia wild harvest
Galbanum(Ferula galbaniflua)) UK distilled Iran wild harvest
Opoponax(Commiphera guidotti) UK distilled wild harvest
Lavender(Lavanula angustifolia) UK
Peppermint(Mentha piperita) UK
Hyssop(Hyssopus offinalis) UK
Neroli(Citrus aurantium var. amara) Tunisa/Morocco

Absolutes

Osmanthus absolute China

Christopher

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Cedarwood, Virginia(Juniperus virginiana)

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Cedarwood, Virginia(Juniperus virginiana)

Wikipedia

Native Plant Database

University of Purdue

AGIS MPNADB Dabase -- Taxon : Juniperus virginiana, Tribal Uses

Eastern Red Cedar

Cedar Heartwood, Western Red Cedar (Thuja plicata)

Cedar Heartwood, Western Red Cedar (Thuja plicata)

Western Red Cedar heart wood is a reddish brown liquid displaying a strong, aromatic, woody bouquet with a sweet, dry, resinous undertone of good tenacity

In natural perfumery, used in incense bouquets, sacred perfumes, precious woods notes and general fixative in a wide number of perfume categories

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Cedar, Western Red (Thuja plicata)

Cedarleaf, Western Red (Thuja plicata) essential oil/Canada

Cedarleaf, Western Red (Thuja plicata) essential oil/Canada

Western Cedarleaf oil is pale yellow to colorless liquid displaying an intense, sweet, green, resinous bouquet with a soft, woody, balsamic undertone

In natural perfumery used in chypre, fougere, green notes, sacred perfumes, forest bouquets

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Cedar, Western Red (Thuja plicata)

Cedarwood, Himalayan (Cedrus deodara) essential oil/India

Cedarwood, Himalayan (Cedrus deodara) essential oil/India

Himalayan cedarwood essential oil is a pale yellow liquid displaying a suave, balsamic, sweet, precious woods bouquet. The aforementioned notes last deep into the lengthy dryout

In natural perfumery can be used in sacred perfumes, incense notes, Oriental bouquets, forest notes, amber bases and is valued for its fixative effects in floral compositions particularly of the woody-floral type

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Cedar, Himalayan (Cedrus deodara)

Fragrance of the Earth in Literature

Fragrance of the Earth in Literature

When I first began to actively pursue the path of exploring the ancient and modern fragrant traditions of India, I was deeply intrigued about a perfume or attar which I had heard was still made in India- Mitti or Gil Attar. Attars in general intrigued me but I found in fascinating that perfumers had conceived the idea of making a perfume distilled from earth.

When I first contacted Ramakant Harlalka, and he asked me where I would like to start our aromatic explorations together- I told him that I would really love to visit the ancient attar center of production-Kannaum. So he kindly consented and the first journey we made together was there. It was a most incredible experience for me and remains vivid in my mind to this day.

During that first visit we were invited to explore many of the attar distilleries that were still functioning. We had as our guide a really lovely person named Mr. Avasthi.
He remains an intregal part of the attar project that was initiated at that time. Through Ramakant's help and guidance he was able to establish a small traditional attar distillery in his home in Kannauj(where he has lived all his life) and continues to make traditional sandalwood based attars for us there as well as in other parts of North India where he travels during different seasons of the year where particular aromatic plants are in bloom. Recently he has begun making a traditional Mitti Attar based on vetiver instead of sandalwood the first consignment which should reach here within a month or so.

Those who wish to understand a bit more about the process of preparing Mitti Attar might like to read an earlier newsletter on this subject

Mitti Attar

Reading the article on conjunction with viewing the video of the process will make the subject more understandable-

Mitti Attar Video

With these few thoughts in mind I decided to put together a selection of quotes which concern the fragrance of the earth.

Now, put your face in the earth and smell. Breathe in the fragrance of the living being that she is. The earth breathes, taking in air to fill her pores. And she breathes out, exhaling bits of herself that communicate her state of health or disease, her level of vitality.
Take a walk through the woods or a park. Periodically, bend down and smell the earth. How does the smell change under trees? In the grass? What does the earth smell where it is hard and dry and compacted. Soft and fetile? Can you notice different soil types, different histories. How does your garden smell?
The Earth Path: Grounding Your Spirit in the Rhythms of Nature
By Starhawk

The fragrance, O earth, that has arisen upon thee, which the plants and the waters hold, which the Gandharvas and the Apsaras have partaken of, with that make me fragrant : not any one shall hate us !
The hymns of the Atharvaveda

THE SMELL OF RAIN-WET EARTH.

THE smell of rain-wet earth upon the air,
And rose leaves, wet and flashing:
The fragrance floats me back, all unaware,—
I see that love-white face divinely fair
Again—and drooping head with braided hair—
Half know the fountain plashing,
The smell of rain-wet earth upon the air,
And rose leaves wet and flashing.
Wind-harp songs
By John William Lloyd

Somewhere in that scent of sea and plant life, somewhere at the bottom of it, like a bass note, was the scent of the earth. I went upstairs and opened a window so that scent could drift into the house while I slept.
The Earth Moved: On the Remarkable Achievements of Earthworms
By Amy Stewart

The following are the opening and closing paragraphs of an essay entitled " The Smell of Earth," by G. Clarke Nuttall. Notice how well they fit together.

A bright fine evening after a day of rain is one of Nature's compensations. The air is peculiarly fresh and sweet, as though the rain had washed all evil out of it. The mind, relieved from the depressing influence of continuous rain, is exhilarated, and, above all, the strong smell of the earth rises up with a scent more pleasing than many a fragrant essence. In the town, indeed, this earthy smell is often obscured by the bricks and mortar which cover the land, and by the stronger, less wholesome odors of human life; but in the country it has full sway, and fills the whole air with its presence. Even a slight shower, particularly after drought, is sufficient to bring out the sweet familiar smell of the land and thrust it upon our notice.

This, then, is the history of the smell of earth as scientists have declared it unto us, and its recital serves further to point the moral that the most obvious, the most commonplace things of everyday life — things that we have always taken simply for granted without question or interest — may yet have a story hidden beneath them. Like signposts in a foreign land, they may be speaking, though in a language not always comprehended by us, of the most fascinating regions — regions we may altogether miss to our great loss, if we neglect ignorantly the directions, instead of learning to comprehend them.
English for secondary schools
By William Franklin Webster

The rain had ceased, the clouds that had blanketed the sky two hours before had been pushed and packed away into a low bank in the West, and a crescent moon was swung high in the mid-heaven. And whether it was that by miraculous dispensation my cold, which for days had inhibited the powers of sense and taste, stood away from me for a moment, or whether certain smells are perceived, not by the clumsy superficial apparatus of material sense, but by some inward recognition, I drank in that odour which is among the most significant things that can be conveyed to the mortal sense, the smell of the damp fruitful earth touched once again with the eternal spell of life. You can often smell damp earth on summer mornings or after summer rain, when it is coupled with the odour of green leaves or flowers, or on an autumn morning, when there is infused into it the stale sharp scent of decaying foliage, but only once or twice in the year, and that when the first feather from the breast of spring falls to the ground, can you experience that thrill of promise that speaks not of what is, but of what is coming. It is just damp earth, but earth which holds in suspense that which makes the sap stream out to the uttermost finger-tips of the trees, and burst in squibs of green. Not growth itself, but the potentiality of growth is there. The earth says, "Behold, I make all things new!" and the germs of life, the seeds and the bulbs, and all that is waiting for spring, strain upwards and put forth the green spears that pierce the soil But earth, young everlasting Mother Earth, must first issue her invitation; says she, "I am ready," and lies open to the renewal of life. . . .
Up and down
By Edward Frederic Benson

FROM THE DUST of the earth to the soul of man there is no absolutely odorless thing in the universe. Who has not noticed the glad, fresh smell of the dry dust when wet with rain? The odor is not due to the rainwater, for distilled water, sprinkled on the parched earth, will give forth the same smell.
ODORS AND THE SOUL OF MAN
BY RUTH EVERETT

When I dig I'm not tired at all. I like to smell the earth when it's turned up."

"It's rare good for thee," he said, nodding his head wisely. "There's naught as nice as th' smell o' good clean earth, except th' smell o' fresh growin' things when th' rain falls on 'em. I get out on th' moor many a day when it's rainin' an' I lie under a bush an' listen to th' soft swish o' drops on th' heather an' I just sniff an' sniff. My nose end fair quivers like a rabbit's, mother says."
The Secret Garden
By Frances Hodgson Burnett

Online Videos of Attar Distillation, Vetiver Harvest, Patchouli Harvest

Online Videos of Attar Distillation, Vetiver Harvest, Patchouli Harvest

14 years ago I started visiting India regularly for the study of the ancient and modern fragrance industry of India. Ramakant Harlalka kindly agreed to be my guide and mentor for these aromatic explorations of India's vast botanical wealth and their use in preparing essential oils, co2 extracts, hydrosols, absolutes and attars.

During the course of our journeys together we visited many farms, distilleries, scientific institutions dedicated to aromatic and medicinal plant research, extracting units, etc and gradually, with his kind assistance I was able to get, some idea of the vibrant fragrance industry that existed in the past and was and is emerging in current times.

At the time of my first meeting with him and our first trip together in 1997, his sons, Nishant and Nikunj were quite young, but now 14 years later, they have both become very active in the family business. Nikunj, the older son, is married and managing their organic family farms in the state of Chittisgarh and involved in growing vetiver, patchouli, lemongrass, palmarosa, basil and other crops on a large scale. He also manages their distilling units in that area as well.

Nishant, the younger son, is pursuing his career in perfumery and is also managing their distillation and extraction projects north of Mumbai. He is doing a lot of creative work with codistillations of vetiver and flowers that were traditionally used in making attar.

Ramakants wife, Urmilla, is managing the flower enfluerage project which focuses on using jojoba as a base oil for capturing the fragrance of champa, jasmine and other flowers.

Ramakant travels extensively throughout India to manage aromatic projects in different parts of the country but spends most of his time at their distillery near Haridwar in the foothills of the Himalayas. From there he travels into the surrounding mountains to assist farmers with the growing of geranium, rosa damascena and other aromatic crops.

His brother Laxmikant and his two sons, Sandeep and Sanjay, and their families are actively involved in running various aspects of the family business.

Very early in my explorations of India it became apparent that an indepth documentation should be done of the the growing, harvest and distillation of the various crops used for making natural essences. Towards that end a lot of documentation was done by still photography which can be found in the Image Archive of White Lotus Aromatics.
http://whitelotus.smugmug.com/

But it was also my wish that eventually much more could be done with video documentation of this fascinating world. Now that Ramakant's sons are growing up, they are beginning to manage this side of things very well. Over the next few years many new video clips will be added to YouTube so that those who cannot travel to India can get an even better idea of how various aromatic crops are grown, harvested, distilled and extracted.

Here is are the first few links for the videos they are makin:

Growing and harvesting of Patchouli in Chittisgarh


Making of Mitti attar(Earth) in Kannauj

Wild Vetiver Harvest(which is used for making Ruh Khus)


Traditional Attar Making


Making of Sesame Seed/Jasmin Enfluerage(by ancient method)

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Cedar, Western Red (Thuja plicata)

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Cedar, Western Red (Thuja plicata)

Images of Western Red Cedar

Wikipedia

Gymnosperm Databas

AltMD

The essential guide to herbal safety By Simon Mills, Kerry Bone

Montana--native plants and early peoples By Jeff Hart, Jacqueline Moore

http://www.tryonfarm.org/share/node/390

HerbMed

Washington Native Plant Society

Plants for a future

Native Plants of the Northwest

Catnip (Nepata cataria) essential oil/Canada

Catnip (Nepata cataria) essential oil/Canada

Catnip essential oil is an amber colored liquid displaying a complex, fresh, minty-herbaceous bouquet with a sweet, woody-spicy undertone

In natural perfumery used in herbaceous accords, colognes, apothecary blends

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Catnip (Nepata cataria)

Cassia (Cinnamomum cassia) essential oil/China, Vietnam

Cassia (Cinnamomum cassia) essential oil/China, Vietnam

Cassia essential oil is a yellow liquid of displaying a warm, rich, intensely sweet, aromatic-spicy-balsamic bouquet with a balsamic-vanillic undertone

In natural perfumery used in culinary creations, incense notes, Oriental perfumes, spice accords, apothecary notes, ayurvedic preparations


Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Cassia/Cinnamomum cassia syn. C. aromaticum

Carrot Seed(Daucus carrota) essential oil/India

Carrot Seed(Daucus carrota) essential oil/India

Carrot Seed oil is a pale yellow oil displaying an earth-woody-rooty bouquet with a fresh, mild, sweet top note and a heavy, leathery-spicy undertone. Tenacity is good making it useful as a fixative in certain perfume types

In natural perfumery used in chypres, fougeres, Oriental perfumes, fantasy creations, earth accords, leather notes

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Carrot (Daucus carota)

Caraway seed(Carum carvi) esential oil/Hungary

Caraway seed(Carum carvi) esential oil/Hungary

Caraway seed oil is a pale yellow liquid dispalying a warm, sweet, spicy-minty aroma with a soft balsamic undertone

In natural perfumery is used in ayurvedic creations, apothecary perfumes, culinary notes, spice accords, resinous notes. It would be an interesting accent material used in trace amounts it floral perfumes if used with great discretion

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Caraway (Carum carvi)

Cananga (Cananga odorata var. macrophylla) essential oil/Indonesia

Cananga (Cananga odorata var. macrophylla) essential oil/Indonesia

Cananga essential oil is a pale yellow liquid displaying fresh sweet, balsamic, floral bouquet with a delicate, green, honeyed undertone of good tenacity.

Many people refer to this oil as an inferior type of Ylang(as it belongs to the same genus as species) but I feel it should be appreciated on its own merits. It is certainly cheaper in price than ylang but it has its own laudible olfactory qualities.

In natural perfumery serves well in a great many types of floral type perfumes, colognes, tropical bouquets, Oriental bases

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Cananga (Cananga odorata var. macrophylla)

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Cananga (Cananga odorata var. macrophylla)

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Cananga (Cananga odorata var. macrophylla)

Images of Cananga Tree and Flower

Common fragrance and flavor materials: preparation, properties, and uses By Kurt Bauer, Dorothea Garbe, Horst Surburg

Encyclopedia of food and color additives, Volume 1 By George A. Burdock

Aromatic Plants: Vol.01. Horticulture Science Series By Baby P.Skaria

Leung's encyclopedia of common natural ingredients By Ikhlas A. Khan, Ehab A. Abourashed

AgroForestryTree Database

Calamus (Acorus calamus) essential oils/India

Calamus (Acorus calamus) essential oils/India

Calamus oil is a pale yellow liquid displaying a smooth, warm , woody-earthy-spicy bouquet with a milky, sweet undertone of very good tenacity

In natural perfumery used in Oriental bouquets, ambre bases, leather accords, incense notes, ayurvedic preparations

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Calamus Root (Acorus calamus)

Cade(Juniperus oxycedrus) essential oil-Spain

Cade(Juniperus oxycedrus) essential oil-Spain

Cade(rectified) essential oil is a dark brown, almost black liquid with an intense tar-like, smoky, phenlic odor with a dry, warm, woody-resinous undertone

In natural perfumery it is used in leather bases, fougere, amber, musk accords, forest notes, men's perfumes


Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Cade(Juniperus oxycedrus)

Cajuput (Melaleuca leucadendron) essential oil-Indonesia

Cajuput (Melaleuca leucadendron) essential oil-Indonesia

Images of Cajeput Tree

Cajuput essential oil is pale yellow liquid displaying a strong, fresh, camphoraceous-spicy aroma with a fine mild, sweet fruity, woody undertone

In natural perfumery used in apothecary blends, ayurvedic creations, diffuser blends

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Cajeput(Melaleuca leucadendron)-Indonesia

Cabreuva (Myrocarpus fastigiatus) essential oil/Paraquay

Cabreuva (Myrocarpus fastigiatus) essential oil/Paraquay

Images of Cabreuva wood and tree

Cabreuva essential oil is a pale yellow liquid displaying a delicate, suave, sweet woody bouquet with a balsamic, floral undertone of good tenacity

In natural perfumery can be used in a wide range of perfume compositions due to its soft, round, delicately sweet bouquet. It is highly valued as a low cost fixative.

"Although very delicated and apparently faint, the odor of Cabreuva oil is often under-estimated in its effect of freshness and suave floral notes. In rose, lily of the valley, cassie, ambre and in woody-oriental perfumes, Cabreuva lends teancity and distinct notes of 'precious wood' with a background of slightly green, dry floralness, a combination rarely found in synthetic perfume materials.." Steffen Arctander

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Cabreuva(Myrocarpus fastigiatus)/Paraquay

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Cajuput (Melaleuca leucadendron)-Indonesia

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Cajeput(Melaleuca leucadendron)-Indonesia

Wikipedia

Modern Herbal

The vegetable materia medica of western India By William Dymock

Encyclopedia of Food and Color Additives, Volumes 1-3 By George A. Burdock

Dr. K.M. Nadkarni's Indian Materia Medica., Volume 2 By K. M. Nadkarni

Reference guide for essential oils By Alan Higley

Olfactory Description of Essential Oils(A-B)

Olfactory Description of Essential Oils(A-B)

Agarwood/Oud(Aquilaria agallocha) essential oil/Assam, India

Agarwood/Nagarmotha(Aquilaria agallocha/Cyperus rotundus) essential oil/India

Allspice/Pimenta Berry(Pimenta diosca) Essential Oil/Jamaica

Ambrette Seed(Abelmoschus moschatus) essential oil/India

Amyris(Amyris balsamifera) essential oil/Haiti

Angelica Seed(Angelica archangelica) Essential oil/Hungary

Angelica Root(Angelica archangelia) Essential Oil/Hungary

Angelica glauca root essential oil/India

Angelica archangelica var. himalaica/Himalayas, India

Anise, Star (Illicium verum) essential oil/China

Araucaria (Callitropis araucarioides/Neocallitropsis pancheri) essential oil/New Caledonia

Artemisia annua/Sweet Annie essential oil India

Artemesia ludoviciana/White Sagebrush essential oil/USA

Artemisia herb alba/White Sage essential oil/Morocco

Balsam copaiba (Copaifera officinalis, C.langsdorfii)essential oil/Brazil

Balsam Peru(Myroxylon balsamum var. pereirae) essential oil/Brazil

Balsam gurjun (Dipterocarpus turbinatus) essential oil/Indonesia

Basil, Holy (Ocimum sanctum) essential oil/India

Basil, sweet chemotype Methyl-chavicol(Ocimum basilicum) essential oil-India

Basil chemotype linalol(Ocimum basilicum) essential oil-Nepal and India

Bay leaf, West Indian(Pimenta racemosa) essential oil/Jamaica

Bergamot(Citrus bergamia) essential oil/Calabria, Italy

Bergamot, mint((Mentha citrata) esssential oil/India

Birch, Sweet (Betula alleghaniensis) essential oil/USA

Birch tar (Betula pendula) essential oil(rectified)/Europe

Bucchu (Agathosma crenulata) essential oil/South Africa

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Cabreuva(Myrocarpus fastigiatus)/Paraquay

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Cabreuva(Myrocarpus fastigiatus)/Paraquay

The volatile oils, Volume 2 By Eduard Gildemeister, Friedrich Hoffmann

366. Myrocarpus Balsam Oil Or Cabureiba Balsam Oil

What Is Cabreuva?

Alpaca S.A.

Bergamot, mint((Mentha citrata) esssential oil/India

Bergamot, mint((Mentha citrata) esssential oil/India

Images of Mentha citrata

Bergamot essential oil is a colorless to pale yellow liquid displaying a fresh, fruity, herbaceous bouquet with a delicate minty undertone

In natural perfumery it is used in colognes, herbaceous notes, fougere, after shave lotions, and topnote material in light florals

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Bergamot Mint(Mentha citrata)

Birch tar (Betula pendula) essential oil(rectified)/Europe

Birch tar (Betula pendula) essential oil(rectified)/Europe

Birch Images

Rectified Birch Tar Essential Oil is a brown liquid displaying a potent, penetrating, phenolic, smoky(charred wood, tar-like) with bouquet with a sweet ambery-balsamic-resinous undertone of very good tenacity

In natural perfumery is used in leather accords, amber notes, musk accords, incense perfumes, woody compositions, fougere, chypre, spice accords, after shave lotions

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Birch tar (Betula pendula) essential oil/Europe

Bergamot(Citrus bergamia) essential oil/Calabria, Italy

Bergamot(Citrus bergamia) essential oil/Calabria, Italy

Images for bergamot

Bergamot essential oil is an olive green liquid displaying a fine, rich, juicy, sweet,
fruity bouquet with an elegant herbaceous, balsamic undertone

In natural perfumery used as a topnote in high class perfumes, herbal bouquets, colognes, fougeres, chypres


Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Bergamot/Citrus aurantium var. bergamia

Birch, Sweet (Betula alleghaniensis) essential oil/USA

Birch, Sweet (Betula alleghaniensis) essential oil/USA

Birch Tree Images

Sweet Birch oil is a colorless liquid with an intensely sweet, crisp, minty-creamy odor of outstanding tenacity

In natural perfumery is used in apothecary blends, culinary creations, herbal notes
and can add a unique penetrating sweetness to a wide variety of creations including high class florals when used in trace amounts

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Birch, Sweet (Betula alleghaniensis)

Bay leaf, West Indian(Pimenta racemosa) essential oil/Jamaica

Bay leaf, West Indian(Pimenta racemosa) essential oil/Jamaica

Images for Bay Leaf

West Indian Bay Leaf is light brown in color displaying a complex sweet, spicy-woody aroma with a delicate vanillic- balsamic undertone of good tenacity

In natural perfumery is used in bay rum perfume, men's after shave lotions, colognes, space accords, incense notes, amber accords, musk accords

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Bay leaf, West Indian(Pimenta racemosa)

Basil chemotype linalol(Ocimum basilicum) essential oil-Nepal and India

Basil chemotype linalol(Ocimum basilicum) essential oil-Nepal and India

Then a little breeze brings the aroma of the blossoming bergamot, wild mint, basil and catnip, filling the air with a spicy fragrance.
Some Summer Days in Iowa, by Frederick John Lazell


Images of Basil plant

Basil chemotype linalol is a clear to pale yellow liquid displaying a soft, rich, green, sweet spicy-herbaceous odor with a delicate balsamic undertone of good tenacity

In natural perfumery used in chypre, green accords, culinary perfumes, herbal bouquet, sacred perfumes

"In perfumes, Sweet Basil oil has ben a 'classic' material in the 'Origan' type of perfumesand bases for several decades. IN chypres, crepe de chines and certain modern aldehydic and 'green' perfume types, the oil can introduce very interesting notes" Steffen Arctander

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Basil, Sweet (Ocimum basilicum)

Basil, sweet chemotype Methyl-chavicol(Ocimum basilicum) essential oil-India

Basil, sweet chemotype Methyl-chavicol(Ocimum basilicum) essential oil-India

Images for Sweet Basil


Sweet Basil(chemotype Methyl chaviol) essential oil is a clear white liquid displaying a fresh green, herbaceous-anisic aroma with a long lasting sweet, spicy undertone

In natural perfumery is used in chypres, herbal bouquets, culinary perfumes, green accords

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Basil, Sweet (Ocimum basilicum)

Basil, Holy (Ocimum sanctum) essential oil/India

Basil, Holy (Ocimum sanctum) essential oil/India

Holy Basil Images

Holy Basil essential oil is a clear white liquid displaying a soft, sweet, green, spicy-herbaceous bouquet with a fine balsamic, woody undertone. Tenacity is very good

In natural perfumery is used in fougere, chypre, herbal bouquets, spice accords, sacred perfumes, garland essences, green notes

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Basil, Holy (Ocimum sanctum)