Sweet, green-herbal essences




Sweet, green-herbal essences

Essences in this group include basil eo, co2 and absolute, golden rod eo, tarragon eo and abs

Aromatic terms associated with individual essences in this group

Basil, camphor chemotype(Ocimum basilicum) eo- fresh, sweet,green, herbaceous, camphoraceous, anisic
Basil, methyl chavicol chemotype(Ocimum basilicum) eo- fresh, green, spicy, balsamic-woody undertone
Goldenrod(Solidago odora) eo-sweet, spicy, aromatic, herbaceous, green, herbaceous
Tarragon/Estragon(Artemisia dracunculus) eo- sweet, anisic, green, spicy

These essences blend well with-
Blends well with:
agarwood eo and co2
amber eo
amyris eo
anise seed eo and co2
angelica seed eo and co2
angelic root eo, co2 and abs
atryactylis root oil
basil eo and co2
benzoin abs
bergamot eo
birch sweet eo
blood orange eo
bois de rose eo
caraway seed eo and co
carrot seed eo, co2 and abs
cassia eo and co2
cascarilla eo
cinnamon bark eo, co2 and abs
clary sage eo and abs
clove bud eo, co2 and abs
copaiba balsam
coriander eo and co2
cubeb eo
cumin seed eo, co2 and abs
currant bud, black abs
davana eo, co2 and abs
dill eo and co2
elder flower co2 and abs
elemi eo and abs
estragon/tarragon eo and abs
fennel eo and co2
fir needle eo and abs
geranium eo and abs
ginger eo, co2 and abs
guaiacwood eo
hop eo and co2
jonquil abs
juniperberry eo, co2 and abs
lavender eo, co2 and abs
lavindin eo and abs
lime eo
lotus absolute
narcissus absolut
oakmoss abs
oregano eo and co2
pepper black eo, co2 and abs
pepper pink eo and co2
petitgrain eo
rose eo, co2 and abs
seaweed abs
spearmint eo and abs
tagete eo and abs
thyme eo, co2 and abs
tolu balsam eo and abs
tuberose absolute
vanilla co2 and abs
violet leaf absolute
ylang abs and eo
wintergreen eo
wormwood eo

Used in herbal bouquets, chypre, culinary perfumes, mythological creations, chypres,
crepe de chine. This group of essences can be used in trace amounts in high class floral like muguet, lilac, mimosa, ylang, cassie, frangipanni, jonquil, narcissus, tea rose, lotus, heather, freesia, tea and verbena

In perfumes, Sweet Basil oil has been a"classic" material in the "origan" type of perfumes and bases for several decades. In chypres, crepe de chines and certain modern-aldehydic and "green" perfume types, the oil can introduce very interesting effect."
Goldenrod eo "could find some use in perfumes of fougere type, chypre, l' origan, moss etc., or in trace amounts in lilac, muguent, etc
Estragon/Tarragon oil "is used in trace amounts in chypre, l' Origan types, fougere, lilac... baes, green floral bases

Grassy, Fresh, Lemon-like Essences




Grassy, Fresh, Lemon-like Essences

Lemon myrtle(Backhousia citriodora) eo-fresh, lemon-like, sweet-green undertone, clean
Eucalyptus staigeriana eo-sweet, fresh , fruity -lemony
Lemongrass(Cymbopogon citratus and C. flexuousus)-strong, fresh-grassy, lemon-like, herbaceous, tea-like, sweet
Lemon Tea Tree(Leptospermum petersoni) eo-stong, fresh, sweet, sharp, punguent
May chang(Litsea cubeba) eo-lemon-like, fresh, swweet, soft, sweet fruity
Lemon balm(Melissa officinalis) eo-pleasant, sweet, lemon-like, delicate floral, green herbaceoous
Verbena, Lemon(Lippia citriodora) eo-fresh, lemon-like, sweet and fruity bodynote
Verbena,Spanish(Thymus hiemalis) eo-powerful, fresh, lemon-like, herbaceous, rich and sweet, sage-like undertone

These essences blend well with:
amyris eo
bay leaf eo
benzoin abs
bergamot eo
blood orange eo
bois de rose eo
caraway eo and co2
cardamon eo, co2 and abs
carrot seed eo, co2 and abs
cassia bark eo and co2
cassie abs
citronella eo
clary sage eo and abs
clove bud eo, co2 and abs
clove leaf eo
coriander eo and co2
elemi eo and abs
fir needle eo's
galbanum eo, co2 and abs
geranium eo and abs
grapefruit eo and essence
hay abs
ho leaf eo
how wood eo
jasmine abs
lavender eo, co2 and abs
lemonbalm eo, co2 an abs
lemongrass eo
lemon eo and essence
lime eo and essence
litsea cubeba eo
mimosa abs
neroli eo
orange bitter eo
palmarosa eo
petitgrain eo's
tonka bean abs
vanilla bean abs and cow
verbena eo
violet leaf abs
yuzu eo and abs
ylang abs and eo

In natural perfumery used in colognes, soap perfumes rose bases, herbal accords, floral perfumes(top notes), chypres, after shave lotion


Perfume notes from Steffen Aratanders Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural origin-

Eucalyptus staigeriana-"The particular odor of this oil makes it immediately interesting for use in fresh-rosy type of soap perfume, detergent fragrances, etcBut its stability in soap is not particularly good.."

Lemon Tea Tree-"The power and diffusiveness or the oil is simply striking. It is an excellent base for detergents or soap-flake perfumes of the citronella or lemongrass-lemon type. In minute quantities, it will impart a sweet freshness to colognes, fougeres, lavenders for saop, air refreshners etc"

May Chang eo-"For use in perfumes, litsea cubeba oil could replace lemongrass to a certain degree, but the Chinese oil would probably find better use in artificial verbena bases, colognes, household sprays, air refreshners..."

Verbena, Lemon eo-"Verbena oil found some use in the "old-fashioned citrus colognes where it offered a delightful freshness and clean top note, superior to the effects that could be obtained with lemon oil 30-40 years ago. A special "Eau de Verveine" is still known and fairly popular in France and Central Europe, South America, etc. For this purpose the verbena oil was blended with citrus oils, neroli oil, palmarosa oil, heliotropine, iononees, nitromusks, aldehydes, spice oils, olibanum, tolu or elemi resinoid..."

Lemon, Spanish eo-"used in colognes, chypres, after shave lotion perfumes, etc"

Peppery Essences

Peppery Essences

Essences in this group include Atractylis eo and absolute; black pepper eo, co2 and abs;
pink pepper eo co2

Aromatic terms used to describe individual essences in this group

Black Pepper(Piper nigrum) eo-fresh, dry-woody, warm-spicy, punguent
Pink Pepper(Schinus molle) eo-fresh, woody-peppery, warm-spicy, sharp, dry, woody-smoky undertone
Atracytylis(Atractylis ovata)eo-woody-spicy, strong peppery, warm and dry, punguent

These essences blend well with:
Agarwood eo and co2
amber eo
ambari attar
ambrette seed eo, co2 and abs
anise eo and co2
amyris eo
angelica root eo, co2 and abs
araucaria eo
artemisia eo's
benzoin abs
birch tar eo
cabreuva eo
cade eo
calamus eo and co2
cardamom eo, co2 and abs
cassie abs
cedarleaf eo
choya nakh, ral and loban
cinnamon bark eo, co2 and abs
cinnamon leaf eo
cassia eo and co2
cascarill eo
cedarwood eo's and abs
cistus eo and abs
clove bud eo, co2 and abs
copaiba balsam eo
costus eo and co2
cubeb eo
elemi eo and abs
davana eo, co2 and abs
fennel eo and co2
fir eo's
frankincense eo, co2 and abs
galangal eo and co2
ginger eo, co2 and abs
hop eo and co2
jasmin abs and attar
juniperberry eo, co2 and abs
labdanum eo and abs
lotus abs
mace eo and co2
mastic eo and abs
mimosa abs
muhuhu eo
musk black attar
nagarmotha eo,co2 and abs
naricussu abs
guaicawood eo
opoponax eo and abs
orange blossom abs
parsley seed eo
patchouli eo, co2 and abs
pepper pink eo and co2
pepper black eo, co2 and abs
peru balsam eo and abs
pimento berry eo, co2 and abs
pine needle eo and abs
pimento leaf eo
poplar bud eo and abs
rose eo, co2 and abs
sage eo and co2
sandalwood eo, co2 and abs
shamama attar
siamwood eo
snakeroot/asarum canadensis eo
spikenard eo, co2 and abs
styrax eo and abs
sugi wood eo
tansy eo
tolu balsam eo and abs
tumeric eo, co2 and abs
valarian eo and co2
vetiver eo, co2 and abs
zeodoary eo
zradevtz eo and abs

In natural perfumery used in culinary perfumes, incense bouquets, spicy accords, Oriental bases, amber accords, precious wood bouquets, high class florals(gardenia, jasmin, carnation, honeysuckle, mimosa, narcissus, orange blossom, hawthorn, lily of the valley, rose) fougere


Perfumery uses as quoted from Steffen Arctander in Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin
Black pepper-"In perfumery the oils givses interesting effects with eugenol and isoeugenol. eg in carnation and rose bases, in Oriental fragrances, or in moednr, dry-aldhydic bases, ambers, etc. The effect in rose is particularly interesting...
Pink pepper-"Apart for its individual character and possible used in perfumery "for woody-spicy, warm and powdery notes"
"Atractylis oil is very useful in perfumery where its excellent fixative effect and surprising power can be utilized in heavy oriental bases, woody fragrances, spicy and dry ambra types..."

Sulphuraceous Essences




Sulphuraceous/Alliaceous Essences

In this group of essences are included garlic eo and co2 and asafoetida eo and abs.

Aromatic terminology connected with the individual essences

Asafoetida eo(Ferula assafoetida)-sharp, alliaceous, acrid, garlic-like, onion-like, powerful, raidant,punguent
Asafoetida absolute(Ferula assafoetida)-alliaceous, garlic-like, onion-like, rich and balsamic sweet undertone
Garlic eo(Allium sativum)-intense, sulfurous, odor. True odor delicate, diffusive powerful odor of garlic is masked by a putrid odor which may be a product of high heat during distillation
Garlic co2(Allium sativum)- the putrid odor found in the essential oil is not present in the co2 extract so when gets the full, potent, diffusive, sulfuraceous odor of fresh garlic


In natural pefumery work only the Asfoetida absolute is used in very low dilution. It can be used in certain floral bases, Oriental perfumes, spice accords, culinary perfumes. It is one of those special intense essences that can produce unique results in the hands of the creative perfumer

In natural perfumery blends well with:
Angelica root eo, co2 and abs
Anise star eo and co2
black musk attar
cardamom eo, co2 and abs
cinnamon bark eo, co2 and abs
camphor white eo
cananga eo
cascarilla eo
cassia eo and co2
cedarwood, red heartwood eo
cedarwood, virginia eo
celery see eo, co2 and abs
clove bud eo, co2 and abs
cumin eo, co2 and abs
fenukgreek eo, co2 and abs
frankincense eo, co2 and abs
galbanum eo, co2 and abs
ginger eo, co2 and abs
lovage root eo and co2
mace eo and co2
mastic eo and abs
myrrh eo and co2
nutmeg eo, co2 and abs
omanthus abs
opoponax eo and abs
pepper black eo, co2 and abs
pepper pink eo and co2
peru balsam eo and abs
pimenta berry eo and abs
rose eo, co2 and abs
ruh kewda
sage clary eo and abs
shammama attar
spikenard eo and co2
tolu balsam eo and abs
tonka bean abs
tuberose abs
turmeric eo and co2
vanilla co2 and abs
ylang abs and eo



"A low concentration of Asafoetida Absolute can introduce very intriguing notes in rose bases and heavy, Oriental perfumes"-S. Arctander

Thuja Group(Green, medicinal, herbaceous)



Thuja Group(Green, medicinal, herbaceous)


Artemisia alba-bitter , herbaceous, powerful , green, medicinal
Artemisia vulgaris-powerful, fresh-camphoraceous, green, bitter-sweet, medicinal cedarleaf-like top note and sage-rosemary-like body note. Dryout-pleasant, sweet-herbaceous, tealike
Cedarleaf(Thuja plicata and Thuja orientalis)-sharp, fresh, camphoraceous, sweet undertone, minty, herbaceous
Wormwood(Artemisia absinthium)-intensely green herbacoues, warm, deep, sharp and fresh topnote, leather-like, tenacious, dry-woody

These essences blend well with
agarwood eo and co2
amber eo
amyris wood eo
anise star eo and co2
armoise eo
arnica eo and abs
basil eo, co2 and abs
benzoin absolute
birch tar eo
birch sweet eo
bois de rose eo
bucchu leaf eo and abs
cade eo
calamus eo, co2 and abs
caraway seed eo and co2
carrot seed eo, co2 and abs
cassia bark oileo and co2
cedarleaf oil western red
cedarwood,atlas eo
cedarwood oil himalaya eo
cedarwood oil texas eo
cedarwood oil virginia eo
choya nakh, ral and loban
cistus eo and abs
citronella eo
clove bud eo, co2 and abs
clove sweet abs
costus eo and co2
cubeb eo
cyperus/nagarmotha eo, co2 and abs
cypress eo and abs
eucalyptus eo and abs
davana eo, co2 and abs
dill eo and co2
fennel eo and co2
fir balsam eo and absolute
frankincense eo, co2 and abs
geranium eo and abs
guaiacwood e0
hemlock spruce blue eo
henna leaf abs and co2
hibawood eo
ho leaf eo
ho wood eo
huon pine wood eo
hyssop eo and co2
juniper berry eo, co2 and abs
labdanum eo and abs
lavandin eo and abs
lavender absolute, eo and co2
marigold abs
mastic eo and abs
opoponax eo and abs
oregano eo and co2
palmarosa eo
patchouli eo, co2 and abs
petitgrain eo,s(mandrin, combava, bigarade, bergamot and lemon)
rose leaf absolute
rosemary oil
sage oil eo cand co2
spearmint eo, co2 and abs
sugi wood eo
tansy flower eo
tarragon eo and abs
tea, black abs
tea green abs
tonka bean absolute
vetiver eo,co2 and abs
wintergreen eo

In natural perfumery can be used in sacred blends; incense perfumes, fougere, chypre, forest notes, colognes, herbal bouquets

Artemisia alba-"The 'greeness' in odor type and the peculiar bitter aroma of this oil makes in an intereting item for chypre, fougere, 'forest' notes, after shave colognes, etc."
Artemisia vulgaris-"The essential oil is used in perfumery to add freshness and warmth to lavender colognes, chypres, fougeres, pine fragrances, etc. The oil shows great power and diffusiveness and is stable in soaps."

Cedarleaf(Thuja plicata and Thuja orientalis)-"Its green, sweet-herbaceous, although medicinal and camphoraceous-minty note blends well with pine needle oils, citrus oils, lavandin and rosemary in chypre or fougere bases. The oil has even been used as a piquant top note in high class perfumes."

Bitter, Herbaceous, Phenolic or Medicinal group of essences



Bitter, Herbaceous, Phenolic or Medicinal group of essences


Aromatic terms related to individual essences in this group:

Betel essential oil-phenolic, tar like, smoky

Calendula abs(Calendula officinalis)-intense bitter, green herbacous

Mate absolute(Ilex paraguanyensis)-rich-herbaceous, green, dry-leafy, woody-foliage like, phenlolic, smoky, medicinal

Oregano eo(Origanum vulgare)-powerful, refreshing, green-camphoraceous spicy-herbaceous, medicinal, phenolic, dry-woody


Blends well with
ajowan eo
agarwood eo and co2
aglaia odorata seed abs
amberi attar
ambrette seed eo, co2 and abs
amyris eo
anise eo
anise star eo and co2
angelica root eo, co2 and abs
angelica seed eo and co2
araucaria eo
arnica abs
artemisia eo's
balsam gurjum eo
benzoin abs
bergamot eo
betel eo
birch, sweet eo
black currant abs
bois de rose/rosewood eo
cabreuva eo
calamus eo and co2
camphor eo
cananga eo
carrot seed eo, co2 and abs
cascarilla eo
cassia bark eo, co2 and abs
cedarwood eo's(viriginia, himalayan, atlas)
cedarleaf eo
champaca abs
cinnamon bark eo, co2 and abs
cistus eo and abs
clary sage eo and ab
copaiba balsam eo
costus root eo and co
clover sweet abs
cypress eo ad abs
feneel sweet eo
frankincense eo, co2 and abs
hay abs
ho leaf eo
ho wood eo
hyssop eo
juniperberry eo, co2 and abs
labdanum eo and abs
laurel leaf eo and abs
lovage leaf eo
lovage root eo, co2 and abs
marigold abs
marjoram eo and co2
mate abs
myrrh eo, co2 and abs
muhuhu eo
musk black attar
nagarmotha eo, co2 and abs
nigella damascena eo and abs
nigella sativa eo and abs
oakmoss abs
opoponax eo and abs
oregano eo, co2 and abs
patchouli eo, co2 and abs
peru balsam abs and eo
pimpinella eo
pine eo's and abs
poplar bud eo and abs
rosemary eo, co2 and abs
sage eo and co2
sandalwood eo, co2 and abs
savory eo
seaweed abs
shamama attar
siamwood eo
spikenard eo and co2
spurce eo's and abs
styrax eo and abs
tansy eo
thyme eo, co2 and abs
tolu balsam abs
tonka abs
valarian eo and co2
vanilla co2 and abs
vetiver eo, co2 and abs
wintergreen eo
wormwood eo
ylang eo, co2 and abs


In natural perfumery used in colognes, new mown hay, fougere, herbal accords, fougere, chypres, forest notes.


Quotations on perfumery uses taken from Steffen Arctander's Perfume and Flavor Material of Natural Origin

Marigold absolute-"Its very peculiar note and intense color, however, limits the use of marigold absolute to fancy perfume types, modern aldehydic-herbaceous types where the green "crush-stalk" note may be called for and it gives interesting effects with oakmoss, mate extract, tea leaf extract, cypriol, iso cycle citral, etc Traces of the absolute can be useful in hyacinth, lilac, gardenia, reseda, moss-bases, etc"

Mate absolutes are" used in perfumery to introduce a pronounced greeness in floral bouquets. The green notes of mate are free of the sharpness which usually accompanies the "green" odor materials...In the reproduction of natural fragrance or substitutes for natural perfume materials, mate absolute can often add the missing notes to the match(duplication). In fougeres, new mown hay or meadowsweet fragrances, it lends a rich body and herbal undertone of unique tenacity...."

Oregano eo-"Trace amounts of origanum oil are useful for top note effects in citrus colognes, fougeres, forest note, chypres, lavender-colognes, spicy-herbacous after shave fragrances and lotions etc..."

Sweet, Spicy, Powerful and Warm Essences




Sweet, Spicy, Powerful and Warm Essences

In this group of essences we have cardamon eo, co2 and abs; lovage herb eo

Aromatic terms used to describe individual essences in this group:

Cardamon eo, co2 and abs(Elettaria cardamomum)-warm, spicy, aromatic, penetrating, camphoraceous-cineole like, medicinal, balsamic-wody, sweet, delicate floral undertone

Lovage herb/leaf eo(Levisticum officinale)-powerful diffusive, warm, sweet-aromatic, sweet floral, green herbaceous, celery-like

This group blends well with the following essences

agarwood eo and co2
amber eo
ambari attar
amyris eo
angelica root eo, co2 and abs
atractylis root eo and abs
bay leaf eo
beeswax abs
cabreuva eo
cananga eo
cascarilla eo
cassia eo and co2
caraway eo and co2
cardamon abs, co2 and eo
cedarwood eo's and absolutes
cinnamon bark eo, co2 and abs
cinnamon leaf eo
cistus eo and abs
clary sage eo and abs
clove bud eo, co2 and abs
copaiba balsam eo
coriander eo, co2 and abs
cubeb eo
cypress eo, co2 and abs
elder flower abs
fir needle eo's and abs
elemi eo and abs
estragon/tarragon eo and abs
frankincense eo, co2 and abs
galbanum eo, co2 and abs
ginger eo, co2 and abs
gurjun balsam eo
hay abs
hemlock spruce eo and abs
ho wood eo
how leaf eo
hyssop eo and co2
juniperberry eo, co2 and abs
labdanum eo and abs
lavindin eo and abs
lavender eo, co2 and abs
mace eo, co2 and abs
mastic eo and abs
mimosa abs
muhuhu eo
myrrh eo, co2 anda bs
nutmeg abs, eoc and co2
oakmoss abs
opoponax eo, co2 and abs
patchouli eo, co2 and abs
pepper black eo and co2
peru balsam eo and abs
pimento berry eo, co2 and abs
pine needle eo and abs
rose otto, co2 and abs
rosemary eo, co2 anda bs
sage eo and co2
sandalwood eo, co2 and abs
spikenard eo and co2
tansy eo and abs
tea tree eo
tolu balsam eo and abs
tonka bean abs
turmeric eo and co2
vanilla abs and co2
vetiver eo, co2 and abs
ylang eo and abs
zeodary bark eo


In natural perfumery these essences can be used in incense perfumes spice accords, Oriental bases, chypre, amber bases, culinary creations, musk accords. In high class floral perfumery blends nicely with jasmin, orange blossom, rose and ylang

Cardamom oil-"in perfumery, the oils will not only impart spiciness, but also a warm, sweet note which fits into floral bases such as muguet and rose....The oil imparts warm in Oriental perfume bases, chypres and face powder perfumes."

Fresh, Spicy, Woody Essences




Fresh, Spicy, Woody Essences

In this category are included cascallia eo; laurel leaf eo and abs; mace eo and co2; marjoram, sweet eo and co2; myrtle eo; nutmeg eo, co2 and abs

Aromatic terms associated with the individual essences in Fresh, Spicy, Woody essence group-

Cascarilla eo(Croton eluteria)-strong, spicy, aromatic, warm-woody, peppery, unusual diffusiveness and power
Laurel leaf eo and abs(Laurus nobilis)-fresh, strong, sweet, aromatic-camphoraceous, spicy medicinal
Mace eo and co2(Myristica fragrans) fresh, spicy, warm, rich, balasmic
Marjoram, sweet(Origanum majorana)-warm, spicy, aromatic, camphoracous, woody
Nutmeg eo and co2-fresh, warm-spicy, aromatic, terpeny topnote(essential oil)

This group blends well with the following essences

agarwood eo and co2
amber eo
ambari attar
amyris eo
angelica root eo, co2 and abs
atractylis root eo and abs
bay leaf eo
beeswax abs
cabreuva eo
cananga eo
cascarilla eo
cassia eo and co2
caraway eo and co2
cardamon abs, co2 and eo
cedarwood eo's and absolutes
cinnamon bark eo, co2 and abs
cinnamon leaf eo
cistus eo and abs
clary sage eo and abs
clove bud eo, co2 and abs
copaiba balsam eo
coriander eo, co2 and abs
cubeb eo
cypress eo, co2 and abs
elder flower abs
fir needle eo's and abs
elemi eo and abs
estragon/tarragon eo and abs
frankincense eo, co2 and abs
galbanum eo, co2 and abs
ginger eo, co2 and abs
gurjun balsam eo
hay abs
hemlock spruce eo and abs
ho wood eo
how leaf eo
hyssop eo and co2
juniperberry eo, co2 and abs
labdanum eo and abs
lavindin eo and abs
lavender eo, co2 and abs
mace eo, co2 and abs
mastic eo and abs
mimosa abs
muhuhu eo
myrrh eo, co2 anda bs
nutmeg abs, eoc and co2
oakmoss abs
opoponax eo, co2 and abs
patchouli eo, co2 and abs
pepper black eo and co2
peru balsam eo and abs
pimento berry eo, co2 and abs
pine needle eo and abs
rose otto, co2 and abs
rosemary eo, co2 anda bs
sage eo and co2
sandalwood eo, co2 and abs
spikenard eo and co2
tansy eo and abs
tea tree eo
tolu balsam eo and abs
tonka bean abs
turmeric eo and co2
vanilla abs and co2
vetiver eo, co2 and abs
ylang eo and abs
zeodary bark eo


In natural perfumery this group of essences is used in spice note, incense bouquets, Oriental perfumes, precious woods accord, culinary creations, culinary creations


Notes on perfumery uses from Steffen Artanders Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origi

Cascarilla oil-"The very complex note of spiceneness and the warm, woody undertone has intrigued many perfumers to use cascarilla oil in high class perfumes. It was even claimed that l'origan contained this as one of its'key' ingredients(if one can uses such an expression at all about a creation)But the oil does present interesting notes in chypre bases, tabac-types, Oriental perfumes, men's fragrances, fantasy colognes, etc"
Laurele eo-"In perfumes, the fresh and warm camphoraceous noes blend well with citrus oils, spice oils, bay leaf oil, pine needle oils, juniperberry oils, cypress, sage clary, rosemary, etc. It produces interesting notes with olibanum, labdanum and lavender. The oil also finds use in aldehydice types of air freshners, and as a modifier or 'twist" note in men's colognes , after shaves,etc
Mace eo-"In perfumery, mace extract finds some use along with other spicy and warm-aromatic materials for men's colognes, after-shaves, fougeres, chypres, in modern fantasy lotion perfumes etc."
Marjoram, sweet-"in perfumery introuces a fresh, slightly medicinal-aromatic, warm note to fougeres, colognes, Oriental bases.."
Nutmeg eo-"The oil has found increasing use in perfumery lately for the modern "spicy" perfumes and for "men's frangrances in after shaves and other lotions. Small additions in fantasy bouquets or aldehydic perfumes, florals, chypres, etc and have interesting effects
Nutmeg abs- used "in old fashioned types of Oriental perfume where in produces delightful effects in combination with sandalwood, vetiver, cypriol, sage clary, oakmoss, lavender absolute, tonka absolute, labdanum extracts, bergamot oil, pachouli oil, geranium oil etc. Minute additions of nutmeg extract can have very interesting effects in rose bases etc."

Caraway-type Essences



Caraway-type Essences

Essences in this group include Caraway seed eo and co2; dill eo and co2; spearmint eo and abs

Aromatic terms associated with individual essences in this group are:

Caraway seed eo and co2(Carum carvi)-, sweet, sharp, pungent, warm,aromatic, "rye" bread-like

Dill Seed eo and co2(Anethum graveolens)- powerful, fresh, peppery, aromatic, warm-spicy

Spearmint eo, co2 and abs(Mentha spicata)-warm, sharp, green-herbaceous, penetrating, powerful

This group of oils blends well with-
amyris eo
anise seed eo
basil eo, co2 and abs
benzoin abs
bergamot eo
birch sweet eo
blood orange eo
bois de rose eo
carrot seed eo
cassia bark eo and co2
cedrela wood eo
clary sage eo and abs
clove bud eo, co2, and abs
cumin seed eo, co2 and abs
cubeb eo
currant black abs
dill seed eo and co2
fir balsam abs
geranium eo and abs
gurjun balsam eo
ho leaf eo
ho wood eo
hops eo and co2
hyacinth abs
juniper berry eo, co2 and abs
lavender eo, co2 and abs
mimosa abs
orange bitter eo
orange sweet eo
patchouli eo, co2 and abs
petitgrain eo's
rose abs
rosemary eo, co2 and abs
thyme eo and abs
tonka bean abs
tuberose abs
verbena eo and abs
violet leaf abs
ylang eo and abs

In natural perfumery the caraway type essences can be used to good effect in trace amounts in spice bases, amber perfumes, colognes, fougeres, chypre, precious wood notes, herbal bouquets, Oriental accords, culinary creations


Spearmint oil-"In perfumery the oil finds some use for its peculiar herbaceous-green effect in lavender-fougere or even in Jasmin compositions. The chief constituent of spearmint oil, Carvone, blends well with certain notes of the jasmin complex. The oil has a good and powerful effect in soap perfumes and is surprisingly stable stable in soap.."

Sweet, Aromatic, Licorice-like Essences



Sweet, Aromatic, Licorice-like Essences

Included in this category of essences are anise seed eo and co2; fennel, sweet eo and co2; star anise eo and co2

Aromatic terms used to describe the essences in this group

anise seed eo and co2(Pimpinella anisum)- intense, sweet, soft, mild, clean, 'licorice like"
anise star eo and co2(Illicium verum)-intense, sweet, warm, licorice-like, spicy, aromatic
fennel, sweet(Foeniculum vulgare)-sweet, clean, aromatic, spicy, licorice like


Blends well with:
agarwood eo and co2
amber eo
amyris eo
angelica seed eo and co2
angelic root eo, co2 and abs
atryactylis root oil
basil eo and co2
benzoin abs
bergamot eo
birch sweet eo
bois de rose eo
caraway seed eo and co
caroot seed eo, co2 and abs
cassia eo and co2
cascarilla eo
cinnamon bark eo, co2 and abs
clove bud eo, co2 and abs
copaiba balsam
coriander eo and co2
cubeb eo
davana eo, co2 and abs
dill eo and co2
elder flower co2 and abs
elemi eo and abs
estragon/tarragon eo and abs
fir needle eo and abs
geranium eo and abs
ginger eo, co2 and abs
guaiacwood eo
hop eo and co2
juniperberry eo, co2 and abs
lavindin eo and abs
oregano eo and co2
pepper black eo, co2 and abs
pepper pink eo and co2
seaweed abs
spearmint eo and abs
tagete eo and abs
thyme eo, co2 and abs
tolu balsam eo and abs
vanilla co2 and abs
wintergreen eo


In natural perfumery used in apothecary perfumes, incense bouquets, forest notes, culinary notes, chypre, fougere, spice notes, cologne, high class florla. Very minute amounts must be used with extreme care in perfume compositions as the intense, sweet notes can easily dominate a composition. When well dosed can give a wonderful delicate lift to many types of compositions. Acacia, freesia, carnation, clover, freesia, hawthorn, honeysuckle, linden blossom, rose, sweet pea, tuberose and wallflower bouquets can all benefit from trace amounts of this group of essences

Mild, Sweet, Woody Essences




Mild, Sweet, Woody Essences

Aromatic terms describing individual essences in this group

Amyris(Amyris balsamifera)-mild, woody, oily-sweet, balsamic, occasionally displays a light peppery note. Many subtle differences exist in this oil depending on age of heartwood at time of distillation, age of heartwood etc
Araucaria(Neocallitropis pancheri)-delicate, woody, rich , sweet, floral undertone
Copaiba balsam(Copaifera species)-mild, sweet, creamy, balsamic, faint peppery undertone
Guaiacwood eo(Bulnesia sarmienti)This oil is a solid waxy mass at room temperature. Delicate, sweet, rosy, woody, balsamic, creamy, slightly smoky
Gurjun balsam(Dipterocarpus species)-mild , woody, sweet, balsamic, great tenacity

This group of essences blends well with:
agarwood eo and co2
amber eo
ambrette seed co2 , eo and abs
amyris wood eo
angelica root eo, co2 and abs
armoise eo
atractylis eo and abs
bay leaf eo and abs
beeswax abs
benzoin abs
blood orange eo
bois de rose eo
cabreuva eo
cananga eo
carrot seed eo, co2 and ab
cassia eo and co2
cedarwood oils(atlas, himalayan, virginia, etc)
cedarleaf eo
cedrela eo
cinnamon bark eo, co2 and abs
cistus eo and abs
clary sage eo and abs
clove bud eo, co2 and abs
copaiba eo
elemi eo and abs
fir balsam eo and abs
frankincense eo, co2 and abs
galbanum eo, co2 and abs
ginger eo, co2 and abs
helichrysum eo and abs
juniperberry eo, co2 and abs
labdanum eo and abs
gurjun balsam eo
guaiacwood eo
ho wood eo
ho leaf eo
mace eo, co2
myrrh eo, co2 and abs
nutmeg eo, co2 and abs
oakmoss abs
orange peel eo
patchouli eo, co2 and abs
palmarosa eo
pepper black eo and co2
peru balsam eo
pimento berry eo, co2 and abs
pine needle eo and abs
sandalwood eo, co2 and abs
tansy eo
tolu balsam eo and abs
tonka bean abs
valerian eo, co2 and abs
vetiver eo, co2 and abs

Amyris finds extensive application as a mild blender in numerous types of perfume, particularly in soap perfumes
Araucaria oil is an excellent fixative..
Copaiaba balsam-its main use is is a blender-modifier
Guaiawood eo- a good low cost fixative, an excellent blender in woody-floral perfumes, in soap compounds as well as high-class perfumes..
Gurjun balsam- good fixative, modifier and odor depressant material in woody or Oriental fragrances in soap compounds where its great tenacity and mild uniform odor is an advantage.

In natural perfumery uses in forest notes, woody bases, violet perfumes, spice fragrances, rose bases, incense notes, Oriental fragrances, sacred perfumes, fougere
These essences can be used as blender-modifiers in acacia, carnation, champa, hawthorn,
jonquil, rose bouquets

Wine-Sweet-Floral Essences




The Wine-Sweet-Floral Group of Essences includes Ambrette Seed eo, co2 and abs and Nigella damascena eo and abs

Aromatic terms associated with:

Ambrette seed eo, co2 and abs
-rich, sweet, floral-musky, wine-like, brandy-like, tobacco-like, overripe fruit, tenacioius, possess a roundness of bouquet seldom found in any other materia
Nigella damascena eo and abs-sweet, fruity, winy, brandy-like, fruity note compared to that of strawberies

This small group blends well with:

agarwood eo and co2
amber eo
amberi attar
amyris eo
angelica root eo, co2 and abs
angelica seed eo
bakul attar
beeswax abs
bergamot eo
bois de rose eo
boronia abs
broom abs
cabreuva eo
calamus eo and co2
carrot seed eo, co2 and abs
cassie abs
citron eo
cistus eo abd abs
clover sweet abs
coconut abs
coriander eo, co2 and abs
costus eo and co2
cubeb eo
cypress eo and abs
elderflower abs and co2
elecampane root eo and abs
fir balsam abs
frankincense eo, co2 and abs
galbanum eo, co2 and abs
guaiacwood eo
gurjun balsam eo
hay abs
helichyrsum eo and abs
ho wood eo
ho leaf eo
jasmin sambac abs and ruh
jasmin grandiflorum abs and ruh
jasmin auriculatum abs and ruh
jasmin flexile abs
kewda ruh and attar
labdanum eo and abs
lavender eo, co2 and abs
lemon eo and essence
lime eo and essence
mastic eo and abs
mimosa abs
myrrh eo, co2 and abs
musk attar
oakmoss abs
nagarmotha eo, co2 and abs
opoponax eo and abs
orange blossom abs
orris root eo, co2 and abs
patchouli eo, co2 and abs
peru balsam eo and abs
poplar bud abs
pine needle eo and abs
osmanthus abs
rosa damascena eo eo and abs
rosa centifolia abs
sage clary eo and abs
sandalwood eo, co2 and abs
seaweed abs
siamwood eo
spruce eo and abs
tonka bean abs
vetiver eo, co2 and abs
styrax eo and abs
vanilla co2 and abs

In natural perfumery used in amber bases, incense perfumes, musk accord, forest notes, high class floral, fougere, chypre, Oriental bases, precious woods notes


Nigella damascena eo and abs can be "used in perfumery, not only in lipstick perfumes where it produces interesting modifications of the conventional strawberry-peach-pineabbple type of fruity perfumes but also in many floral bases, e.g. gardenia, honeysuckle, jasmin, liclac, neroli, etc...It is a comparatively powerful and penetrating material which can be used effectively at concentrations belows on per cent.."-Steffen Arctander

Incense-Resinous-Ambery essences




Incense-Resinous-Ambery essences
In this group of essences we find frankincense/olibanum eo, co2 and abs; cistus eo and abs; labdanum eo and abs; popular bud eo and abs

Aromatic terminology for individual essences in the Incense-Resinous-Ambery essences group


Frankincense/Olibanum eo, co2 and abs-fresh, balasmic, lemony-green, dry, resinous, fruity-green, tenacious(the absolute and co2), diffusive, fresh-terpeny, sweet-woody,
Labdanum eo and abs-deep, sweet-balsamic, herbaceous, amber-like, rich, suave
Cistus eo and abs-powerful, tenacious, warm, sweet, dry, ambre-like, animalic, spicy, herbaceous
Popular bud eo and abs-cinnamic, coumarininc, sweet, balasmic

General aromatic terms used to describe this group of essences may include words like powerful, rich, deep, tenacious, warm, sweet, dry,resinous, incense-like, animalic, warm-herbaceous, herbaceous-balsamic, fresh-balsamic, wine-like, fruity-green, green-lemon-like, ambra-like, fresh-terpeny, coumarinic-cinnamic

Blends well witth
agarwood eo and co2
amber eo
amberi attar
ambrette seed eo, co2 and abs
amyris eo
angelica root eo, co2 and abs
araucaria eo
atractylis eo and abs
bay leaf eo and abs
benzoin abs
bergamot eo
birch sweet eo
birch tar eo
bois de rose/rosewood eo
cabreuva eo
calamus eo and co2
camphor eo
cardamon seed eo, co2 and abs
carrot seed eo, co2 and abs
cascarilla bark eo
cassia eo, co2 and abs
cassie abs
cedarleaf eo
cedarwood atlas eo
cedarwood viriginia eo
cedarwood himalaya eo and abs
cedarwood western red cedar eo
cinnamon bark eo, co2 and abs
cinnamon leaf eo
cistus eo and abs
clary sage eo and abs
clove bud eo, co2 and abs
copaiba balsam eo
coriander seed eo and abs
costus eo and co2
cubeb eo
currantbud absolute black
elemi eo and abs
eucalyptus eo's
fir eo's and abs
frankincense eo, co2 and abs
galangal eo
galbanum eo, co2 and abs
ginger eo, co2 and abs
guaicawood eo
gurjun balsam eo
hay abs
helichrysum eo and abs
howood eo
holeaf eo
jasmin sambac abs and ruh
jasmin grandiflorum and ruh
jasmin auriculatum abs
juniperberry eo, co2 and abs
kewda ruh and attar
lavender eo, co2 anda bs
labdanum eo and abs
lemon eo and essence
lemon balm eo, co2 and abs
litsea cubeba eo
mace eo and co2
marjoram sweet eo and co2
mimosa abs
musk attar
myrrh eo, co2 and abs
nutmeg eo, co2 and abs
oakmoss abs
opoponax eo and abs
orange blossom abs
orange bitter eo
orange sweet eo
patchouli eo, co2 and abs
peru balsam and abs
pimento berry eo, co2 and abs
pine needle eo and abs
rose otto and abs
sandalwood eo, co2 and abs
shamama attar
spikenard eo and co2
spruce eo and abs
styrax eo and abs
tolu balsam eo and abs
tonka abs
turmeric eo, co2 and abs
valerian eo and co2
vanilla abs and co2
verbena eo and abs
vetiver eo, co2 and abs
ylang eo and abs
yuzu eo

In natural perfumes may be used in
lavender bouquets, amber bases, oriental perfumes, colognes, incense bouquets, sacred perfumes, high class floral perfumes, temple bouquets

Special notes from Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin by Steffen Arctander

cistus "used in modern aldehydic or ambre types of perfumes, in Oriental bases and in numerous fantasy bouquets where it will lend tenacity, warm tonalities and an intriguingly spicy-animal note...Its great solublity makes it interesting for colognes where it blends extremely well with citrus oils, sage clary and oakmoss products."

labdanum absolute from concrete " is used extensively in perfumery, partly as an excellent fixative, partly to introduce a rich , suave sweetness, a natural undertone, which blends well with citrus colognes, lavender colognes, all kinds of oriental bases, chpres, ambre bases, pine and forest blends..."

frankincense/olbinaum absolute is "used as a fixative with its distinct lemony-green, dry, fresh-balsamic note as a special effect. In combination with spice oils, particulary high grade cinnamon bark oil, olibanum absolute creates quite surprising complexes. A typically "powdery"-effect in fragrance is obtained with combinations of olibanum, cinnamon bark, cinnamic alcohol, nitromusks, and coumarin or courmarin derivatives...A truly "Oriental" note can be created basically with sandalwood oil, vetiver oil, olibanum absolute and cinnamon bark oil for further perfumery work."

frankincense/olibanum oil is "used in fine perfumery for the notes described above in the monograph on olibanum absolute. It gives delightful effect in citrus colognes where it modifies the sweetness of bergamot and orange oils. A similar effect is obtained in the rather difficult "fresh" perfume notes such as verbena, citrus, etc where olibanum and citral form useful bases for further modifying work...

Phenolic Leather Essences




Essences in the Phenolic Leather category include crude amber oil, birch tar(rectified), cade eo, choya loban, choya nakh and choya loban

Aromatic terms used in connection with individual essences of this category

birch tar-phenolic, tar-like, charred wood, smoke, penetrating, diffusive, sweet-oily undertone,
cade- tar-like, phenolic odor, dry, warm, lathery
amber oil, crude-smoky, tar-like, resinous, leathery

Terms to describe the aromatic properties of these oils are burnt-woody, camphoric, styrenic, smoky, tar-like, smoky-leathery, smoky-phenolic, penetrating, diffusive, charred. In great dilution these oils display some unique qualities which may be sweet, resionous, oceanic, ambery etc depending on the oils

Blends well with
ajowan eo
agarwood eo and co2
aglaia odorata seed abs
amberi attar
ambrette seed eo, co2 and abs
amyris eo
anise eo
anise star eo and co2
angelica root eo, co2 and abs
angelica seed eo and co2
araucaria eo
arnica abs
artemisia eo's
balsam gurjum eo
benzoin abs
bergamot eo
betel eo
birch, sweet eo
black currant abs
bois de rose/rosewood eo
cabreuva eo
calamus eo and co2
camphor eo
cananga eo
carrot seed eo, co2 and abs
cascarilla eo
cassia bark eo, co2 and abs
cedarwood eo's(viriginia, himalayan, atlas)
cedarleaf eo
champaca abs
cinnamon bark eo, co2 and abs
cistus eo and abs
clary sage eo and ab
copaiba balsam eo
costus root eo and co
clover sweet abs
cypress eo ad abs
feneel sweet eo
frankincense eo, co2 and abs
hay abs
ho leaf eo
ho wood eo
hyssop eo
juniperberry eo, co2 and abs
labdanum eo and abs
laurel leaf eo and abs
lovage leaf eo
lovage root eo, co2 and abs
marigold abs
marjoram eo and co2
mate abs
myrrh eo, co2 and abs
muhuhu eo
musk black attar
nagarmotha eo, co2 and abs
nigella damascena eo and abs
nigella sativa eo and abs
oakmoss abs
opoponax eo and abs
oregano eo, co2 and abs
patchouli eo, co2 and abs
peru balsam abs and eo
pimpinella eo
pine eo's and abs
poplar bud eo and abs
rosemary eo, co2 and abs
sage eo and co2
sandalwood eo, co2 and abs
savory eo
seaweed abs
shamama attar
siamwood eo
spikenard eo and co2
spurce eo's and abs
styrax eo and abs
tansy eo
thyme eo, co2 and abs
tolu balsam abs
tonka abs
valarian eo and co2
vanilla co2 and abs
vetiver eo, co2 and abs
wintergreen eo
wormwood eo
ylang eo, co2 and abs

In natural perfumery used in russian leather bases, colognes, musk bases, amber notes, fougeres, forest notes, ambergris bases, oriental bouquets, incense notes, oceanic creations
Trace amounts of the above essences can work wonders in many types of perfume

Specific notes on perfumery uses of individual essences in this category from Steffen Artanders Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin

Cade-"Its use in perfumery is limited to situations where a smoky-leathery, woody-phenolic, dry and warm note is called for: forest notes, leather-bases, fougeres, pine for "mens frangrances", etc"

Birch Tar- To the perfumer, the "heart" fraction of birch tar oil is the true and highly appreciated sweet and powerful "leather" odor for fougeres, chypres, "men's fragrances", after shave lotions, modern fantasy bases.

Amber oils crude-"men's colognes, after shaves

Thyme Group of Essences

Essences in the Thyme group include Ajowan eo; Thyme eo; Savory eo

Aromatic terms used to describe these essences are fresh, powerful, punguent intense, sharp, warm, medicinal, terpeny, phenolic, aromatic, herbaceous, green, spicy, green-cuminic.

Blends well with;
ajowan eo
arnica abs, co2 and eo
betel eo
black currant abs
boldo leaf eo
cajuput eo
calmintha eo
camphor eo
cardamon eo, co2 anda abs
chenopodium eo
citrus eo's
cubeb eo
eucalytus eo
fennel eo and co2
fir needle eo
lavindin eo and abs
laurel leaf eo and abs
lavender eo, co2 and abs
lovage leaf eo
mace eo and co2
marjoram eo and co2
mate abs
myrtle eo
niaouli eo
nutmeg eo, co2 and abs
oakmoss abs
oregano eo and co2
pepper pink eo and co2
pine needle eo and abs
ravintsara eo
ravensara eo
rosemary eo, co2 and abs
sage eo and abs
savin eo
savory eo
seaweed eo
thyme eo, co2 and abs
turpentine eo

In natural perfumery trace amounts of the thyme group of essences can be used very effectively in fougere, chypres, cologne, after shave lotions etc.