Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Indian frankincense/Boswellia serrata

Research Links for Aromatic Plants-Indian frankincense/Boswellia serrata


Phytochemicals and phytopharmaceuticals
By Fereidoon Shahidi, Chi-Tang Ho

Handbook of Nutraceuticals: Ingredients, Formulations, and Applications
By Yashwant Pathak

The People's Pharmacy Guide to Home and Herbal Remedies
By Joe Graedon, Teresa Graedon

Journal of forestry, Volume 17
By Society of American Foresters

Boswellia serrata: an ancient herb for arthritis, cholesterol, and more
Indian Frankincense

Indian Frankincense/Boswellia serrata absolute-India wild harvest

Indian Frankincense/Boswellia serrata absolute-India wild harvest

Images of Boswella serrata

The absolute of Indian frankincense is light yellow solid plastic mass((not pourable at room temperature hence must be heated before blending with alcohol or carrier oils) with a fresh, tangy, lemony, sweet, resinous bouquet with a delicate balsamic floral dryout

Blends well with agarwood eo and co2; aglaia odorata abs; amberi attar; amyris eo; araucaria eo; balsam copaiba eo; balsam peru eo and abs; balsam tolu eo and abs; benzoin abs; bergamot eo; cabreuva eo; cade eo; cananga eo; cardamon eo, co2 and abs; cassia eo and co2; cassie abs; cedar eo and abs; cistus eo and abs; citrus eo's(lemon, lime, tangerine, orange, yuzu, etc); clove bud eo, co2 and abs; coriander eo, co2 and abs; cubeb eo; cypress eo and abs; elecampane abs; elemi eo and abs; fir essential oils and abs; galbanum eo, co2 and abs; ginger eo, co2 and abs; guaicawood eo; gurjun balsam eo; jasmine abs and attars; juniperberry eo, co2 and abs; kewda eo and ruh; labdanum eo and abs; lawang eo; mastic eo and abs; myrrh eo, co2 and abs; musk, black attar; nagarmotha eo and co2; orange blossom abs; neroli eo; opoponax eo and abs; rose eo's, co2 and abs; sage clary eo and abs; sandalwood eo, co2 and abs; spruce eo and abs; styrax eo and abs; vanilla co2 and abs; vetiver eo, co2 and abs; verbena lemon eo and abs; ylang abs and eo

In natural perfumery it is useful in citrus colognes, incense perfumes, sacred blends, oriental notes, amber bases, high class florals, spice notes

Cinnamon bark/Cinnamomum cassia absolute/Vietnam

Cinnamon bark/Cinnamomum cassia absolute/Vietnam

Cinnamon bark absolute is a dark brown liquid with a war, fresh, sweet balsamic, spicy bouquet with a diffusive powdery, dry, precious woods undertone. It has good tenacity.

Blends well with agarwood eo and co2; aglaia odorata abs; allspice eo, co2 and abs; anise star eo and co2; ambari attar; ambrette eo, co2 and abs; amryis eo;araucaria eo; balsam copaiba eo; balsam peru eo and abs; balsam tolu eo and abs; benzoin abs and resinoid; bay leaf eo and abs; cade eo; calamus eo and co2; camphor eo; cardamom eo, co2 and abs; cascarilla eo; cassia eo and co2; cedarwood eo's and abs; champa attar and abs; cistus eo and abs; clove eo, co2 and abs; coriander eo, co2 and abs; costus eo and abs; cypress eo and abs; fennel eo and co2; fenugreek eo, co2 and abs; frankincense eo, co2 and abs; galangal eo; galbanum eo, co2 and abs; ginger eo, co2 and abs; guaicawood eo; gurjun balsam eo; juniper berry eo, co2 and abs; kewda attar and ruh; labdanum eo and abs; lovage root eo and abs; mace eo and co2; mastic eo and abs; musk, black attar; myrrh eo, co2 and abs; nutmeg eo, co2 and abs; oakmoss abs; opoponax eo and abs; orris root eo, co2 and abs; patchouli eo, co2 and abs; pepper eo, co2 and abs; poplar bud eo and abs; rose eo's, co2 and abs; sandalwood eo, co2 and abs; shamama attar; stryax eo and abs; tonka bean abs; turmeric eo, co2 and abs; valarian eo, co2 and abs; vanilla co2 and abs; vetiver eo, co2 and abs; white ginger lily attar

In natural perfumery is used in incense notes, oriental bouquets, culinary perfumes, apothecary perfumes, precious woods accords, amber notes

In perfumery the oil blends well with Oriental-woody notes, and the combination with olibanum/frankincense is known and often utilized. The warmth and dry spiceness, the immediate sweetness and tremendous diffusive power(or "radiation") induced by fractions of 1% of this oil in a perfume composition, is highly appreciated by certain perfumers...
Steffen Arctander-Flavor and Fragrance Materials of Natural Origin

Cardamom/Elettaria cardomomum Absolute-India

Cardamom/Elettaria cardomomum Absolute-India

Images of Cardamom


The absolute of cardamom is a olive green with an elegant, warm, sweet, spicy bouquet with a radiant, dry, diffusive, powdery, punguent undertone. The tenacity is excellent

Blends well with agarwood eo and co2; allspice eo, co2 and abs; ambrette seed eo, co2 and abs; amberi attar; angelica root eo and abs; anise star, eo and co2; asafoetida abs; basil eo, co2 and abs; bergamot eo; black currant abs and co2; calamus eo and co2; cananga eo; cascarilla eo; cedarwood eo and abs; champaca abs and attar; cinnamon eo, co2 and abs; cistus eo and abs; clove bud eo, co2 and abs; coriander eo, co2 and abs; costus eo and co2; fennel, sweet eo and co2; fenugreek eo, co2 and abs; frankincense eo, co2 and abs; galangal eo; ginger eo, co2 and abs; kapor kachri eo and co2; kewda attar and ruh; labdanum eo and abs; lovage root eo and abd; mace eo, co2 and abs; musk black attar; myrte eo; nagarmotha eo, co2 and abs; nutmeg eo, co2 and abs; opoponax eo and abs; orris root eo, co2 and abs; peru balsam eo and abs; osmanthus abs; rose eo, co2 and abs; saffron co2 and attar; spikenard eo and co2; tarragon eo and abs; tolu balsam eo and abs; turmeric eo, co2 and abs; vetiver eo, co2 and abs; ylang abs and eo

In natural perfumery is used in incense notes, oriental bouquets, chypre, colognes, rose bases, high class florals

Ambrette Seed Absolute/Abelmoschus moschatus/India wild harvest

Ambrette Seed Absolute/Abelmoschus moschatus/India wild harvest

Images of Abelmoschus moschatus

The absolute of Ambrette Seed is a pourable yellowish-brown liquid displaying a rich, deep, musky/floral odor with a dry leathery/fruity/hay-like undertone with good tenacity. In my opinion the absolute has more of a deep, rich, musky/animalic odor than the essential oil which has a distinctly sweeter aspect to it.

Blends well with agarwood eo and co2; agalia odorata seed abs; ambari attar; angelica root eo, co2 and abs; angelica seed eo, co2 and abs; bois de rose/rosewood eo; bergamot eo; carrot seed eo, co2 and abs; cassie abs; cedarwood eo's and abs; cistus eo and abs; coriander see eo, co2 and abs; costus eo and co2; cypress eo and abs; fir balsam abs; frankincense eo, co2 and abs; galbanum eo, co2 and abs; guaicawood eo; gurjun balsam eo; ho wood eo; juniper berry eo, co2 and abs; labdanum eo and abs; lavandula eo and abs; lavender eo, co2 and abs; mastic eo and abs; mimosa abs; myrrh eo, co2 and abs; opoponax eo, resinoid and abs; orris root eo, co2 and abs; patchouli eo, co2 and abs; pine eo's aabs; rose eo's, co2's and abs; sandalwood eo, co2 and abs; sage clary eo and abs; shamama attar; spruce eo's and abs; styrax eo and abs; tonka bean abs; vetiver eo, co2 and abs

In natural perfumery used in musk bases; amber accords; high class florals; oriental bouquets, forest notes, leather notes, new mown hay, incense notes, precious woods notes

Ambrette seed(oil or absolute) are known for the "exalting" effect which they impart to perfumes, and flavors...
Steffen Arctander

Balsam Peru/Myroxylon balsamum pereirae absolute Wild harvest/South America

Balsam Peru/Myroxylon balsamum pereirae absolute Wild harvest/South America


The absolute of Balsam Peru(33% absolute in 67% fractionated coconut oil) is a flowable amber colored liquid displaying a suave, rich sweet balsamic bouquet with a spicy/vanilla like undertone with excellent tenacity

Blends well with agarwood eo and co2; ambrette seed eo, co2 and abs; amberi attar; benzoin abs and resinoid; cassia eo and co2; cascarilla eo; cinnamon bark eo, co2 and abs; cocoa abs; cistus eo and abs; frankincense eo, co2 and abs; guaicawood eo; labdanum eo and abs; mastic eo and abs; melilot abs; myrrh eo, co2 and abs; nutmeg eo, co2 and abs; opoponax eo, resinoid and abs; orris root eo, co2 and abs; poplar bud eo and abs; petitgrain oils(mandarin, combava, bigarade, etc); patchouli eo, co2 and abs; sandalwood eo, co2 and abs; tonka bean abs; vanilla co2 and abs; vetiver eo, co2 and abs; ylang abs and eo

"The tenacity in odor of this oil is outstanding making it one of the best fixatives among all essential oils. Its suave odor makes Peru Balsam oil a very versatile perfume material which can be incorporated in almost any type of perfume base or perfume in concentrations of from less than one percent up to more than five per cent. For delicate floral fragrances such as muguet, lilac, appleblossom, etc, this oils blends excellently with floral as well as with balsamic or spicy notes. With araucaria oil or sandalwood oil it blends to a delightfully sweet "precious wood" type like cabreuva oil. In gardenian, longoza, tuberose and carnation bases or duplications it forms and important part of the long-lasting undertone with undecanolide, nonanolide, ylang-ylang and other heavy and sweet floral notes. It imparts depth, and natural spicy sweetness to a rose and warm, balsamic body in ambre or Oriental bases, "powder" type fragrances, etc....
Steffen Arctander-Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin

Styrax/Liquidamber styraciflua absolute Honduras Honduras/wild harvest

Styrax/Liquidamber styraciflua absolute Honduras Honduras/wild harvest
Images of Liquidamber styraciflua/Styrax

The absolute of Stryax is solid golden plastic mass(hence must be heated to become pourable in order to mix with alcohol or carrier oils) presenting a rich, rounded, sweet, floral- balsamic bouquet with a spicy/gardenia-like undertone.
The tenacity is outstanding

Blends well with agarwood eo and co2; allspice eo, co2 and abs; amberi attar; anise, star eo and co2; angelica seed eo, co2 and abs; angelica root eo, co2 and abs; benzoin abs and resinoid; bois de rose/rosewood eo; carnation abs; cardamon eo, co2 and abs; cassie abs;cinnamon abs, co2 and eo; cistus eo and abs; elemi eo, resinoid and abs; fir needle eo and abs; galangal eo; galbanum eo, co2 and abs; guiacawood eo; gurjun balsam eo; hay abs; helichrysum abs and eo; jonquil absolute; juniperberry eo, co2 and abs; labdanum eo and abs; lavender eo, co2and abs mace eo and co2; mastic eo and abs; melilot abs; mimosa abs; muhuhu eo; myrrh eo, co2 and abs; nutmeg eo, co2 and abs; opoponax eo and abs; patchouli eo, co2 and abs; pine needle eo's and abs; peru balsam eo and abs; rose eo, co2 and abs; rosemary eo, co2 and abs; sandalwood eo, co2 and abs; sage, clary eo and abs; shamama attar; tolu balsam eo and abs; valerian eo and abs; tuberose absolute; tonka bean absolute; vetiver eo, co2 and abs; violet leaf abs; ylang abs and eo

In natural perfumery is used in chypre, fougere, high class florals, incense bouquets, oriental perfumes

Styrax oil is used in numerous types of floral perfumes, e.g. lilac, hyacinth, appleblossom, carnation, etc. In spite of its deep sweetness, its dry floral note makes it suitable for cassie, mimosa, violet, carnation, hawthorn(spicy notes), lavender and fougere,(sweetness and tenacity), rose, etc.
Steffen Arctander-Perfume and Flavor Materials or Natural Origin

Fragrance in Literature-Five Nights, by Victoria Cross

Fragrance in Literature-Five Nights, by Victoria Cross

On this afternoon a sort of rapture fell upon us both as we went down
that winding road. The call of the cuckoo resounded from side to side,
clear and sonorous like a bell, it echoed and re-echoed across our
path under the luminous dome of the tranquil sky and over the hedges
of flowering thorn, snow-white and laden with fragrance.

After tea we went out to explore our new and temporarily acquired
territory, and found there was another flower garden at the side of
the house. This, like the one in front, was hedged round with lilac
laden with glorious blossom of all shades, from deepest purple through
all the degrees of mauve to white. Every here and there the line was
broken by a May-tree just bursting into bloom that thrust its pink or
white buds through the lilac. A narrow path paved with large, uneven,
moss-covered stone flags led down the centre and on through a little
wicket gate into the kitchen garden beyond, so that altogether there
was quite an extensive walk through the three gardens, all
flower-lined and sweetly fragrant. We passed slowly along the path
down to the extreme end of the kitchen garden where there was a seat
under a broad-leaved fig-tree. By the side of the seat stood an old
pump, handle and spout shaded by a vine that half trained and half of
its own will trailed and gambolled up the old red brick garden wall. A
flycatcher perched on the pump handle and thrilled out its gay
irresponsible song.

When we retraced our steps the whole garden was bathed in rosy light
and the lilac stood out in it curiously and poured forth a wonderful,
heavy fragrance as we passed.

When we reached our room, the window was wide open as we had left it
and the room seemed full of soft violet gloom, heavy with fragrance of
the lilac that shewed its pale mauve stars through the shadows.

"Treevor, Treevor," came in Suzee's voice; and I bent over the little
scarlet bundle, lifted her up, and pressed my lips on her hair. It
smelt of roses, just as it had done in the tea-shop at Sitka, and
carried me back there on the wings of its fragrance, as scents alone
can do.

That night I could not sleep. The window stood open, and the room was
filled with the soft mysterious twilight of the summer night with its
thousand wandering perfumes, its tiny sounds of bats and whirring
wings.

The cherry bloom thrust its long, white, scented arms into the room. I
lay looking towards the white square of the window wide-eyed and
thinking.

When I arrived in San Francisco, it was one of those strange days when
the sea-fog comes in to visit the town. It rolled in great thick
billows down the streets from the sand dunes, obscuring everything,
damping everything, filling the air with the salt scent of the open
sea.

As she bent near us over the little table a strange sensation of
delight came over me, a faint scent of roses reached me from the
little buds behind her ear. The blue stones in the long gold earrings
swung against her neck of cream as she set out the tea things.

So curtains were really white! how strange it seemed. In town they are
always grey or brown, and the air was light and thin with a sweet
scent, and the sky was blue!!!

It was six o'clock, the light was mellowing, and a thrush singing with
all its own wonderful passion and rapture on the lawn. The scent of
the lilac, intensely sweet, came in at the window and filled the room.

The next day was delicious, too, and the next, but on the fourth we
were quite ready to go. We had drained the cup of joy which that
particular place held for us and it had no more to offer. The
cherry-tree pleased us still, but it did not give us the ecstatic
thrill of the first view of it. The lilac scent streamed in, but it
did not go to the head and intoxicate us as when we came straight from
the air of Waterloo; the thrush gurgled as passionately on the deep
green lawn, but the gurgle did not stir the blood. All was the same,
only the strange spell of novelty was gone.


We passed through a narrow, little hall smelling of new oilcloth into
a fair-sized room which possessed one of the casements we had seen
from outside and through which came the white glow and scent of the
cherry bloom and the song of a thrush.

I went on slowly, and after a time found myself close to the church
again. I went in, for the interior interested me, and found service
was being held. A Russian priest, wholly in white clothing, stood
before the altar, the cross light from the aisle windows falling on
the long twist of fair hair that lay upon his shoulders. The whole air
was full of incense that rose in white clouds to the domed roof. I sat
down near the door and listened while the priest intoned a Latin hymn.
The figure of the young priest at the altar attracted me. I thought I
should like a sketch of it; but I hesitated to take one of him in the
church, even surreptitiously, so I fixed the picture of him as he
stood there on my eyes as far as I could, and then, in a convenient
pause of the service, quietly slipped outside.

Allspice Berry/Pimenta dioica Absolute/West Indies

Allspice Berry/Pimenta dioica Absolute/West Indies

Images of Allspice/Pimenta dioica


The absolute of Allspice berries is a dark green liquid displaying a rich, fresh, suave, sweet spicy/balsamic aroma(containing elements of clove, ginger, bay, nutmeg) with a dry-woody undertone. Beautifully balanced, mellow and rich material.

Blends well with agarwood eo and co2; amberi attar; anise, star eo and co2; artemisia eo's; basil eo, co2 and abs; bay leaf eo and abs; cade eo; calamus eo and co2; cananga eo; cardamom eo, co2 and abs; cascarilla eo; cassie abs; cedar eo's and abs; choya nakh; choya ral; champaca abs and attar; choya loban; cistus eo and abs; cinnamon eo, co2 and abs; clove bud eo, co2 and abs costus eo and co2; cypress eo and abs; davana eo and co2; elecampgne eo and co2; fennel eo and co2; fenugreek eo, co2 and abs; fir eo's and abs; frankincense eo, co2 and abs; galangal eo; ginger eo, co2 and abs; geranium eo and abs; guiacawood eo; helichrysum abs; juniper berry eo and co2; labdanum eo and abs; lavender eo, co2 and abs; lovage eo, co2 and abs; mace eo, co2 and abs; mimosa abs; myrtle eo; nagarmotha eo and co2; nutmeg eo, co2 and abs; opopoponax resinoid, abs and eo; orris root eo, co2 and abs; patchouli eo, co2 and abs; pimpinella eo and abs; poplar bud eo and abs; rose eo, co2 and abs; sage clary eo, co2 and abs; sandalwood eo, co2 and abs; shamama attar; styrax eo, resinoid and abs; tarragon eo and abs; tonka bean abs; tumeric eo, co2 and abs; vanilla abs and co2; vetiver eo, co2 and abs; ylang eo and abs; zdravetz eo, co2 and abs

In natural perfumery works well in colognes, spice notes, fougeres, culinary perfumes, incense bouquets, oriental perfumes, high class florals