Tonka Beam/Dipteryx odorata Absolute

Tonka Beam/Dipteryx odorata Absolute


Images of Dipteryx odorata/Tonka bean



The absolute of Tonka Bean brownish tinged golden crystaline mass(hence must be heated to mix with alcohol or carrier oils) displaying a rich,warm, suave intensely, sweet, powdery/coumarinic bouquet with a fine fruity/carmelic undertone possessing incredible tenacity and radiance.

Blends well with angelica root eo, co2 and abs; artemisia eo's; beeswax abs; benzoin resinoid and abs; cananga eo; cedar leaf eo; cascarilla eo; cassie eo and co2; celery seed eo, co2 and abs; cinnamon eo and co2; cistus eo and abs; citrus eo's; clary sage eo and abs; costus eo and co2; cubeb eo; davana eo, co2 and abs; fenugreek eo, co2 and abs; fir balsam abs and eo; fir silver eo; flouve eo and abs; frankincense eo, co2 and abs; galbanum eo, co2 and abs; hay absolute; ginger root eo, co2 and abs; helichrysum eo and abs; labdanum eo and abs; lavindin absolute and eo; lavender eo, co2 and abs; lovage root eo, co2 and abs; mace eo and co2; oakmoss abs; opoponax eo, co2 and abs; poplar bud eo and abs; nutmeg eo, co2 and abs; orange blossom abs; oregano eo and co2; orris root eo, co2 and abs; palmarosa eo; patchouli eo, co2 and abs; peru balsam eo, resinoid and abs; rose otto, co2 and abs(centifolia, bourboniana, damascena) sandalwood eo, co2 and abs; siamwood eo; styrax eo, resinoid and abs; spruce eo and abs; vanilla abs and co2; vetiver eo, co2 and abs; ylang eo and abs

In natural perfumery can be used in new mown hay, amber bases, musk bases, forest notes, chypre, fougere, high class florals, cologne, incense perfumes, russian leather, oriental bouquets, culinary creations



Was the fan really hers? Perhaps the parasol was hers too, the coral beads, the muff and tippet! All sorts of delightful possibilities whirled through her brain, as she tossed and tumbled the parcels in the chest out on to the floor. More bundles of pieces, some knitting-needles,[83] an old-fashioned pair of bellows (Mell did not know what these were), a book or two, a package of snuff, which flew up into her face and made her sneeze. Then an overcoat and some men's clothes folded smoothly. Mell did not care for the overcoat, but there were two dresses pinned in towels which delighted her. One was purple muslin, the other faded blue silk; and again she found her own name pinned on the towel,—"For my little Mell." A faint pleasant odor came from the folds of the blue silk dress. Mell searched the pocket, and found there a Tonquin bean, screwed up in a bit of paper. It was the Tonquin bean which had made the dress smell so pleasantly. Mell pressed the folds close to her nose. She was fond of perfumes, and this seemed to her the most delicious thing she ever smelt.
Nine Little Goslings, by Susan Coolidge

Fir Balsam/Abies Balsamea Absolute

Fir Balsam/Abies Balsamea Absolute

Images of Fir Balsam/Abies balsamea)

Fir Balsam Absolute is a very interesting study of how vastly different an absolute can be from an essential oil distilled from the same plant.

It is dark green,waxy plastic mass(hence must be heated before mixing with alcohol or carrier oils) with a full rich, sweet coumarinic, delectable fruity, suave balsamic odor of excellent tenacity and radiant strength. The radiant fresh sweetness carries deep into the dryout capturing something of the simple joy one feels when they go into the high mountains and takes deep breaths of pure, fresh air.

Blends beautifully with ambrette seed eom co2 and abs; angelica root eo, co2 and abs; anise seed eo and co2; aromoise eo; bay leaf eo and abs; benzoin resinoid and abs; birch, sweet eo; bergamot eo; cistus eo and abs; citrus oils; clove bud eo, co2 and abs; coriander eo, co2 and abs; cypress eo and abs; fennel eo and co2; fir balsam eo; frankincense eo, co2 and abs; galbanum eo, co2 and abs; guiacawood eo; hay abs; helichrysum eo and abs; juniperberry eo, co2 and abs; labdanum eo and abs; lavindin eo and abs; lavender eo, co2 and abs; nutmeg eo, co2 and abs; oakmoss abs; opoponax, resinoid and abs; patchouli eo, co2 and abs; popular bud eo and abs; rosemary eo, co2 and abs; sage clary eo and abs; seaweed abs; thyme eo, co2 and abs; spruce eo and abs; tonka bean abs; vanilla abs

In natural perfumery can be used in sacred perfumes, forest notes, incense compositions, holiday creations, fougere, chypre, new mown hay, fruit notes, amber notes

Laboriously wriggling his thinness and his coldness into the black
sheep's luxuriant, irresponsible fleece, a bulging side-pocket in the
wrapper bruised his hip. Reaching down very temperishly to the pocket
he drew forth a small lace-trimmed handkerchief knotted pudgily across
a brimming handful of fir-balsam needles. Like a scorching hot August
breeze the magic, woodsy fragrance crinkled through his nostrils.

"These people certainly know how to play the game all right," he
reasoned whimsically, noting even the consistent little letter "M"
embroidered in one corner of the handkerchief.

Then, because he was really very sick and really very tired, he
snuggled down into the new blessed warmth and turned his gaunt cheek
to the pillow and cupped his hand for sleep like a drowsy child with
its nose and mouth burrowed eagerly down into the expectant draught.
But the cup did not fill.--Yet scented deep in his curved, empty,
balsam-scented fingers lurked--somehow--somewhere--the dregs of a
wonderful dream: Boyhood, with the hot, sweet flutter of summer woods,
and the pillowing warmth of the soft, sunbaked earth, and the crackle
of a twig, and the call of a bird, and the drone of a bee, and the
great blue, blue mystery of the sky glinting down through a
green-latticed canopy overhead.
Molly Make-Believe, by Eleanor Hallowell Abbott

Helichrysum italicum/Everlasting/Immortelle absolute

Helichrysum italicum


Helichrysum italicum/Everlasting/Immortelle absolute



The helichrysum absolute is a transparent gold plastic mass(hence must be heated to become a fluid at which point it can be mixed with alcohol or carrier oils) with an elegant honeyed, rich, spicy, powdery bouquet with an sweet, herbaceous, coumarinic, licorice-like undertone. As the dryout deepens a lovely, rich, heavy fruity note comes to the forefront.

It is a very complex essence and diluting it allows one to study the various dimensions of its personalities in a more complete way. As a pure absolute it is a solid waxy mass with much of its sublime aroma trapped within its solid composition. The tenacity is exceptional as is the case with many absolutes. In the process of preparing the concrete the pigments, resins, floral waxes, etc are extracted from the plant along with the volatile oil and when the concrete is converted to absolute the alcohol soluble constituents of the plant which includes a certain percentage of the lipophilic constitents remain in the final product. It is for this reason that a significant number of absolutes are solid at room temperature. The chemistry of the absolute and consequently its olfactory properties tends to be somewhat different than the same distilled essential oil of that specific plant(in the case of Helichrysum an essential oil is also produced) There are definitely some overlapping olfactory properties but there are also distinct differences. The absolutes tend to capture the heart and base notes of the flower beautifully whereas often times the top to heart notes are captured in the essential oil. It is for this reason that a combination of the essential oil and absolute give a more full spectrum aroma of the flower. And as mentioned above-many absolutes have superior fixative qualities. For those wishing to blend the helichrysum abs/fractionated coconut oil dilution in alcohol, it perfectly blends with 190% proof undenatured perfumers alcohol and presents itself is a transparent gold liquid.

Blends well with aglaia odorata abs; allspice eo, co2 and abs; ambrette seed eo, co2 and abs; aruacaria eo; bay leaf eo and abs; beeswax abs; benzoin resinoid and abs; bois de rose eo; boronia abs; broom/genet abs; cassia bark eo and co2; cassie abs; chamomile eo's and abs(roman/english, blue/german, moroccan)citrus eo's(tangerine, lime, lemon, orange, grapefruit);clary sage eo and abs; clove bud eo, co2 and abs; davana eo, co2 and abs; fir balsam abs; flouve eo and abs; guiacawood eo; gulhina attar; hay abs; honey abs; lavindin eo and abs; lavender eo, co2 and abs; lemongrass rhodinol rich; melilotus abs; melisa/lemonbalm eo, co2 and abs; mimosa abs; neroli eo; orange blossom abs; palmarosa eo;patchouli eo, co2 and abs; peru balsam eo, co2 and abs; rose eo and abs(bourboniana, centifolia and damascena); tolu balsam eo, resinoid and abs; tonka bean abs; verbena eo and abs; vetiver eo, co2 and abs

In natural perfumery it is wonderful in herbal bouquets, new mown hay, high class florals; culinary creations, roseaceous notes, tea blends, oriental bouquets

"Perhaps the herb everlasting (Helichrysum italicum), the fragrant immortelle of our autumn field, has the most suggestive odor to me of all those that set me dreaming. I can hardly describe the strange thoughts and emotions that come to me as I inhale the aroma of its pale, dry, rustling flowers. A something it has of sepulchral spicery, as it had been brought from the core of some great pyramid, where it was laid on the breast of some mummified Pharoh. Something, too, of immortality in the sad, faint sweetness lingering so long in its lifeless petals. Yet this does not tell why it fills my eyes with tears and carries me in blissful thought to the banks of asphodel that border the River of Life. "
--from Scent Memories by Francis Jacox

Black Currant(Ribes nigrum) absolute

Black Currant(Ribes nigrum) absolute


Images of Ribes nigrum

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Black Currant Absolute is a dark green grainy solid mass displaying an intense green, resinous, fruity odor with a spicy-woody undertone. In the dryout phase the resinous note melds beautifully with the spicy-woody note creating a soft sweet elegant landing for the absolute. For those who wish to do use this pourable form of Black Currant Abs/Fractionated coconut in alcohol based perfumes-it can be noted that it is fully soluble in 190% proof non-denatured perfumers alcohol creating a crystal clear green liquid.

In natural perfumery blends well with anise star eo and co2; agarwood eo and co2; ambrette eo, co2 and abs; angelica root eo, co2 and abs; angelica seed eo and co2; arnica abs; artemisia eo's(annua, alba vulgaris, etc); asoetida abs; basil eo, co2 and abs; birch, sweet eo; blood orange eo; bucchu leaf eo and abs; calamus eo and co2; cardamon eo, co2 and abs; cassia eo and co2; cedarleaf eo; chamomile eo, co2 and abs; cistus eo and abs; costus eo and co2; davana eo, co2 and abs; elemi eo, resinoid and abs; fennel eo and co2; fenugreek eo, co2 and abs; fir balsam abs; frankinense/olibanum eo, co2 and abs; galbanum eo, co2 and abs; geranium eo and abs; hop eo and co2; hyssop eo and co2; jasmin absolutes(grandiflorum, auriculatum and sambac) jonquil abs; juniper berry eo, co2 and abs; kewda attar and ruh; labdanum eo and abs; laurel leaf eo and abs; lovage root eo, co2 and abs; lovage leaf eo; mace eo, co2 and abs; mango leaf abs; marigold abs; mate eo; myrtle eo; oregano eo and co2; nagarmotha eo and co2; opoponax eo, resinoid and abs; narcissus abs; osmanthus abs; orris root eo, co2 and abs; patchouli eo, co2 and abs; pennyroyal eo; pimpinella eo and abs; rue eo; popular bud eo and abs; sage eo and co2; seaweed abs; spikenard eo and co2 tagetes eo and abs; tansy blue eo; tarragon eo and abs; tonka bean abs; vanilla abs and co2; violet leaf abs; yarrow eo and co2; ylang eo and abs

In natural perfumery can have a wide range of applications in providing unique notes to amber bases; ambergris re-creations; new mown hay; herbaceous perfumes; incense notes; oriental notes; tea perfumes; culinary creations; in high class florals as an accent note; forest bouquets. It is one of those unique absolute that can infuse a special life into a perfume creation. A little bit can have a profound effect on any perfume into which it is incorporated

"At first he thought that only the flowers had perfume, but he soon
found this was a mistake. By taking more careful notice he perceived
that leaves as well as flowers were sometimes scented, as in the musk
plant, the geranium, and even those of black-currant bushes.
Woodside, by Caroline Hadley

New Aromatic Absolute Products from White Lotus Aromatics

New Aromatic Absolute Products from White Lotus Aromatics

Today I am beginning a new set of blogs on absolutes in 33% dilution in fractionated coconut oil. For 10 plus years now I have been working with absolutes in their pure form but the problem is from a packing vantage point is that many are very difficult to work with because they are solid waxy, granular or plastic masses at room temperature. So each and every time a customer orders even a sample of one of these types of absolutes, one needs to first gently heat the container in which it is kept until it becomes a flowable liquid and then one has to pour it into glass jars of various sizes according to what has been ordered. Then the absolute again solidifies and when the customer receives it, they have to go through the same process of melting it, and then mixing it with different carrier oils, essential oils, perfumers alcohol etc.

In this process many times customers who were not acquainted with the various physical properties of absolutes(thinking that they might somehow be like most fluid essential oils) were surprised when they received the solid absolutes and had to go through the process of learning to work with them. Considering all these things, I decided that the time had come to offer the difficult to work with absolutes in dilution so that customers could receive them and begin their creative work without the delays created by getting such absolutes into a fluid form.


Over the years I have worked with many different carrier oils(jojoba, baobab, almond, apricot seed, tamanu, rose hip, etc) each possessing its own unique virtues. But of them all I felt that fractionated coconut oil possessed the best virtues for diluting the absolutes in that the oil has not order of its own, has a nice velvety texture, and has a very long shelf life. I decided on using a 33% dilution of the absolutes in the fractionated coconut oil because the essence could be totally absorbed into it and yet remain a pourable liquid. It would also give the user a potent perfume strength dilution of the absolute which could be further diluted depending on the application.

Another great advantage to the diluted absolutes is that it gives the user a chance to study it in a decompressed form. Absolutes are highly concentrated aromatic entities and in order to get some sense of their unique personalities one needs to dilute them so that that one has a place via which one can more easily make their acquaintance. 33% is of course a very high concentration of essence but one can easily dilute the absolute further if they wish.

Some of the absolutes that we will be offering only in dilution are Black Currant, Cedarwood(White), Fir Balsam, Galbanum, Hay, Mimosa, Sage(clary), Spruce(Blue Hemlock) Tonka Bean. I will now start adding other absolutes which I was reluctant to carry because of the difficulties inherent in melting and pouring. These will include Angelica Root, Arnica, Broom/Genet, Calendula, Chrysathemum, Frankincense(India) Lentisque/Mastic, Chamomile(blue), Chamomile(Moroccan), Cistus, Elemi, Eucalyptus(I recently received a sample of Eucalyptus absolute and it is a wonderful unique material), Lovage Root, Marigold, Mango Leaf, Mate, Melilotus(Sweet Clover), Myrrh, Opoponax, Orris Root, Peru Balsam, Rose Leaf, Tolu Balsam, Styrax, etc

Vetiver/Tuberose(Polianthes tuberosa) codistilled essential oil

Vetiver/Tuberose(Polianthes tuberosa) codistilled essential oil

Images of Tuberose
More lovely images of Tuberose

The codistilled oil of Vetiver and Tuberose is pale yellow in color and displays a suave, sweet, rich honeyed/balsamic, floral bouquet with a delicate spicy undertone. The overall aroma of tuberose(which is very intense in its pure form) becomes more accessible in the codistilled oil. The sweetness, richness, and power of the floral notes of the Tuberose are unique and as one studies the aromatic life of the oil on the perfumers strip one is drawn deep into its aromatic aura which pervades all around room in which the essence is being studied. As with the Vetiver/Jasmin sambac codistillation the Tuberose also dominates over any of the earthy notes that are part of the vetiver bouquet.

Blends well with ambrette eo, co2 and abs; anise star eo and co2; beeswax abs; benzoin abs and resinoid; boronia abs; broom/genet abs; chamomile eo, co2 and abs; champaca golden abs and attar; champaca white co2 and abs; citrus oils(lime, lemon, yuzu); cardamon eo, co2 and abs; coriander eo, co2 and abs; fir balsam abs; frankincense eo, co2 and abs; hay abs; helichrysum eo and abs; kewda ruh and attar; magnolia lily co2; lemon balm eo, co2 and abs; lemongrass rhodinol rich; lentisk/mastic eo and abs; nigella damascena abs; opoponax eo, resinoid and abs; osmanthus abs; rose eo, attar and abs; sandalwood eo, co2 and abs; styrax eo, abs and resinoid; tonka abs; vanilla abs and co2; verbena abs and eo; white ginger lily abolute; ylang absolute and eo;

In natural perfumery is used in garland perfumes, oriental bases, sweet florals, tropical bouquets, sacred perfumes

And the jessamine faint, and the sweet tuberose,
The sweetest flower for scent that blows;
And all rare blossoms from every clime
Grew in that garden in perfect prime.
---Percy Bysshe Shelley

Vetiver/Jasmin(Jasminum sambac) codistilled essential oil

Vetiver/Jasmin(Jasminum sambac) codistilled essential oil

Images of Jasminum sambac

More lovely images of Jasmin sambac

The codistilled essential oil of Vetiver and Jasmin sambac is gold in color displaying a rich, exotic, rounded, sweet, floral/fruity bouquet very reminiscent of the aroma of the flowers when they begin to open in the evening and disperse their fragrance on the night air. Their is a delicate tea-like undertone. The sweet floral /fruity bouquet remains on the perfume strip for well over 24 hours with only a trace of an earthy note intermingling with its fine aroma. The sultry, somewhat indolic note that is present in the absolute is almost nonexistent in the codistilled oil. Those who have enjoyed the wonderful radiant intoxicating aroma that radiates from the floral garlands created from jasmin sambac buds and are offered in the temples of South India will find in the codistilled oil a lovely remembrance of such unforgettable occasions.

Blends well with aglaia odorata abs; ambrette seed eo, co2 and abs; atractlylis abs; beeswax abs; benzoin resinoid and abs; carnation abs; cassie abs; clary sage eo and abs;; citrus oils(bergamot lime, yuzu, sweet orange, blood orange tangerine);
coriander eo, co2 and abs; davana eo, co2 and abs; fennel eo and co2; fir balsam abs; henna leaf co2 and abs; lavender eo, co2 and abs; mate absolute; melilot abs; neroli eo; night queen attar and abs; orange blossom flower water abs; orange blossom abs; petitgrain eo's(mandarin, bigarade, combava); rose abs, co2's and eo's(bourboniana, centifolia, damascena, alba); tea, black and green abs and co2; tonka bean abs; tuberose abs; vanilla abs and co2; violet leaf abs; ylang abs and eo

In natural perfumery is used in garland perfumes, sacred essences, tropical bouquets, oriental bases, high class florals

The First Jasmines
by Rabindranath Tagore
(This poem is from The Crescent Moon by Tagore)

AH, these jasmines, these white jasmines!
I seem to remember the first day when I filled my hands
with these jasmines, these white jasmines.
I have loved the sunlight, the sky and the green earth;
I have heard the liquid murmur of the river
through the darkness of midnight;
Autumn sunsets have come to me at the bend of the road
in the lonely waste, like a bride raising her veil
to accept her lover.
Yet my memory is still sweet with the first white jasmines
that I held in my hands when I was a child.
Many a glad day has come in my life,
and I have laughed with merrymakers on festival nights.
On grey mornings of rain
I have crooned many an idle song.
I have worn round my neck the evening wreath of
BAKULAS woven by the hand of love.
Yet my heart is sweet with the memory of the first fresh jasmines
that filled my hands when I was a child.

Vetiver/Edward Rose(Rosa bourboniana) codistilled essential oil

Vetiver/Edward Rose codistilled essential oil

Images of Rosa bourboniana/Edward Rose
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The codistilled essential oil of Vetiver and Edward Rose(Rosa bourboniana) is a golden-brown liquid displaying a suave, roseaceous, green, ambery top/heart note intermingled with the earthy/rooty heart/base note created by the vetiver. Deep in the dryout phase a very unique, sweet, powdery, resinous/earthy note establishes itself and radiates for many hours after that.
As with all the codistilled vetiver/floral oils, this essence requires continued study as it reveals delightful facets of its aromatic personality with the passage of time.
Each of the codistillations has maintained its aromatic intergrity on the perfumer's strip for well over 24 hours. I dip the perfumers strip into the oil and then afix it to a clip which is on a stand next to where I sit so as I work at the computer I can study the life of the essence over time. There is the overall radiation of the oil which one can smell as they go in and out of the room and also the nuances of it as one studies it close up on the strip. The two experiences together give a nice sense of the overall qualities in each essence. The close up study reveals the complex beauty of the aforementioned roseaceous, dry-ambery, green top/heart note living amidst the fine rooty earthiness of the vetiver. The room itself is permeated by the radiation of the combined aroma of the two oils presenting a vision of an ancient perfume tradition which is distinctly Indian in its exotic richness and Eastern atmosphere. There is something about the combination of rose with vetiver that captures this atmosphere in a profound way.

Blends well with agarwood attar and co2; aglaia odorata abs; amberi attar; ambrette seed eo, co2 and abs; araucaria eo; arnica abs; basil holy eo; beeswax abs; boronia ab; bucchu leaf eo and abs; cade eo; carrot seed eo, co2 and abs; cedarwood eo and abs; cedrela odorata eo; clove bud eo, co2 and abs; cubeb eo; elderflower eo, co2 and abs; fir balsam abs; frankincense eo, co2 and abs; geranium eo and abs; guiacawood eo; hay abs; jasmin sambac and jasmin auriculatum abs; labdanum eo and abs; lawang eo; melilotus abs; musk, black attar; narcissus abs; nagarmotha eo and co2; oakmoss abs; patchouli eo, co2 and abs; popular bud eo and abs; rose leaf abs; rosewood eo; sage clary eo and abs; sandalwood eo, co2 and abs; seaweed abs; shamama attar; tonka bean abs


In natural perfumery finds use in amber bases, garland perfumes, sacred essences, chypre, fougere, oriental bases, literary perfumes

Vetiver/White Ginger Lily codistilled essential oil

Vetiver(Vetiveria ziazaniodes)/White Ginger Lily(Hedychium coronarium) codistilled essential oil

Images of White Ginger Lily/Hedychium coronarium

The codistilled essential oil of Vetiver/White Ginger Lily is an orange-tinted liquid displaying a intense, warm, exotic, sweet-floral,with a fine spicy/earthy undertone. As the dryout deepens the sweet floral notes recede and the warm, earthy, sweet, spicy notes come to the forefront. As with all the vetiver/floral codistillations, the tenacity is excellent.

Blends well with allspice eo, co2 and abs; amberi attar; ambrette seed eo, co2 and abs; bakul/maulshri attar; bay leaf eo and abs; benzoin abs; anise eo and co2; champaca abs and attar; cinnamon eo, co2 and abs; clary sage eo and abs; clove bud eo, co2 and abs; coriander eo and co2; frangipani abs; ginger eo, co2 and abs; jasmine absolutes(sambac, auriculatum and grandiflorum); jonquil abs; kewda eo and ruh; mace eo and co2; myrtle eo; narcissus abs; musk black attar; nutmeg eo, co2 and abs; opoponax eo and abs; orange flower abs; osmanthus abs; peru balsam eo and abs; shamama attar; styrax eo and abs; tuberose attar and abs; vetiver eo, co2 and abs; ylang eo, co2 and abs; yuzu eo and abs

In natural perfumery can be used effectively in tropical bouquets; oriental perfumes; amber bases; sacred perfumes; high class florals; garland bouquets

"To the White Ginger Lily

Oh, Ginger sweet on the mountain side,
So fragrant and white and pure,
How you lure me up on a summer's day
To climb the heights, and roam the paths
Where the gently cooling zephyrs play.

How I love at night by the moon's soft light
To rest neath the sparkling sky,
White the odor sweet of the ginger flower
Takes my heart to days gone by.

Oh Ginger flower in your quiet nook
Hidden sometimes like the souls of us,
How the world if it knew of your sweetness rare,
Would come to worship and cherish and love
The ginger blossoms on Tantalus."

"A song of Hawaii" by Lewis Edwin Capp

Vetiver/Frangipani codistilled essential oil

Vetiver(Vetiveria ziazaniodes)/Frangipani(Plumeria alba) codistilled essential oil

Images of frangipani(Plumeria alba)
Vetiver images

Today I will be commencing a series on the codistilled vetiver essential oils which we stock. This project of codistillation of vetiver with a variety of fragrant flowers of India began when Ramakant Harlalka, the man with whom I traveled many times in India, saw that the traditional attar industry which has existed for hundreds of years could not be sustainable in the years to come due to the high cost of sandalwood which is the base of all traditional attars. So he decided to develop his own codistillation methods using vetiver as the base for this new type of "attar." Vetiver is a renewable resource and his son, in fact, is responsible for the growing and distillation of vetiver in the state of Chittisgarh where they have a large piece of property. Other distillation units near Haridwar in the foothills of the Himalayas, and north of Mumbai where many fragrant flowers are grown locally(frangipani, lotus, tuberose, jasmin, white ginger lily, etc) makes it possible to offer a fine selection of these precious coextractions. Over the last two years many improvements have been made in the codistillation process with the result these essences have become exquisite aromatic jewels.

Vetiver/Frangipani codistilled essential oil is a golden mobile liquid which captures the high, sweet, fresh ethereal/fruity notes of the frangipani flower. As with all the vetiver/flower codistillations there is a very fine pleasing earthy/rooty undertone which the vetiver roots impart to the oil. It compliments very well the flowers which are codistilled with it. Due to the fine fixative effects possessed by vetiver, the oil continues to radiate its gentle beauty for many hours on the perfumery strip.
My experience with the codistilled vetiver/flower oils is that this technique is superb for capturing the head to heart note spectrum of aromas that are present in the flowers whereas the absolute of the same flower produced by extracting the essence with hexane/alcohol captures the heart to base notes present in the flower. In my experience of frangipani absolute(which I greatly appreciate and love) this ethereal topnote which is in the vetiver/frangipani is seldom present to any great degree.

Vetiver/frangipani essential oil possesses sufficient strength to be used in creative perfumery work. It blends well with ambrette seed eo, co2 and abs; boronia abs; cassie abs; citus eo's; davana eo and co2; fir balsam abs; ginger eo, co2 and abs; galanga eo and co2; gulhina attar; hyacinth abs; jasmine absolutes(auriculatum, sambac, grandiflorum); jasmin sambac co2; massoia bark eo and co2; melilotus abs; mimosa abs; neroli eo; orange blossom abs; osmanthus abs; petitgrain oils(combava, bergamot, lemon, bigarade, mandarin); sage clary eo and abs; sandalwood eo, co2 and abs; siamwood eo; tuberose abs; vanilla abs and co2; white ginger lily abs; ylang eo and abs; zdravetz eo and co2

In natural perfumery can be used in tropical bouquets, oriental florals, sacred perfumes, sweet floral bouquets

An indescribably sweet odour hung in the air, an odour which seemed to be the very essence of all sweet flowers; and which turned out mainly the scent of frangipani and allamanda.
The Cruise of the Shidzuoka by Gregory Mason

It was a delicious morning, but it was getting too hot for comfort out of doors, even in the shade of the orange trees; and it was pleasant to sit in the cool green light of the shaded room, and listen to the music of bird and bee and childish laughter, floating in with the scent of frangipani and mignonette through the open windows.
MacMillans Magazine-March 1899

Berona is a toy territory in the far
Western Hemisphere. It is a fair
realm of feathery foliage and flaming
flowers. Bright-hued birds flit among
the starry blossoms in the purple
shadows of lime and palm, and bril-
liant creeping things flash like jewels
on the broad green leaves of the low-
growing tree-ferns or stud the dun
earth with flying points of fire. The
heavy scent of frangipani and wild
stephanotis, blent with a million lesser
odours, seems wonderfully attuned to
the endless, melancholy plash of the
sea-waves on the silver sand.
THE ROGUES' PARADISE.
EDWIN PUGH


I visited the Temple of the Tooth at the time of the evening
service, half-past six. Worshippers were crowding in. Each
went first to a fountain within the temple wall, where he poured
water on his feet and hands, and then bought flowers from vend-
ors who stood near by with baskets laden with them. These
flowers are, first, the rich and fragrant charapac, or frangipani,
the flower of the temple-tree, and, second, the blossom of the
ironwood, or na-tree. They are all white, with a slight dash of
pink. Their perfume fills all the sacred spaces. The air hangs
heavy, and surfeits one with the combined fragrance.
"Indika: The Country and the People of India and Ceylon"
John Fletcher Hurst

Zdravetz/Geranium macrorrhizum CO2 Total Extract

Zdravetz/Geranium macrorrhizum CO2 Total Extract

Images of Geranium macrorrhizum/Zdravetz

Zdravetz is the name given to the plant, Geranium marcorrhizum, a wild growing herbaceous perennial to be found in rocky locations at high and medium altitudes in Bulgaria. The meaning of Zdravetz in the Bulgarian language is "health" and it is very easy to see why the plant and its unique aroma is given that name. Smelling the co2 extract one experiences the rich, wild, delightful aroma of the untamed countryside from which the plant is harvested.

The CO2 Total extract of the aerial parts of the plant produces a solid waxy, greenish yellow(non pourable at room temperature) mass, with a sweet, green-earthy-herbaceous odor with delicate roseacous/woody undertone of excellent tenacity. It is a highly complex aroma which radiates out from a earthy-rooty heartnote which permeates every part of the bouquet. In my experience it is deeply connected with the type of aroma one smells when the first rains are received by dry earth and the subsequent growth of richly aromatic crops the follow the arrival of the monsoon season.

In natural perfumery zdravetz can be appreciated for its excellent fixative qualities which blend well with a wide range of materials including agarwood/oud eo and co2; angelica eo, co2 and abs; arnica abs; aruacaria eo; bergamot mint eo; bergamot eo; cananga eo; champaca, golden abs; cedarwood eo's and abs; cistus eo and abs; clary sage eo and abs; costus eo and co2; genda attar; fenugreek eo, co2 and abs; frankincense eo, co2 and absolute; geranium eo and abs; guiacawood eo; henna leaf abs and co2; kewda attar and ruh; labdanum eo and abs; lavender eo, co2 and abs; lovage root eo, co2 and abs; mate abs; marigold abs; mitti attar; nagarmotha eo and co2; neroli eo; opoponax eo and abs; osmanthus abs; pimpinella eo; petitgrain bigarade eo; petitgrain combava eo; petitgrain lemon eo; petitgrain mandarin eo; rosa damascena eo, co2 and absolute; rose de mai abs; rosa bourbonia abs; rose leaf abs; sage eo and co2; sandalwood eo, co2 and abs tagetes and abs; tea black abs; white ginger lily abs; verbena lemon eo and abs; vetiver eo and co2; ylang eo and abs; yuzu eo

In natural perfumery could be very effectively used in oriental bases, fougeres, chypres, colognes, apothecary perfumes, forest compositions, monsoon perfumes, herbaceous bouquets

Elder Flower/Sambucus nigra CO2 Select Extract

Elder Flower/Sambucus nigra CO2 Select Extract

Images of Elder Tree/Sambucus nigra

The co2 extract of the Elder Flowers harvested for Sambucus nigra tree in Bulgaria produces a light yellow liquid with a rich sweet-floral-herbaceous-woody odor with a anisic, waxy, honey-like undertone. It is a topnote to heartnote essence in terms of its olfactory life

In natural perfumery it blends well with aglaia odorata abs; ambrette seed eo, co2 and abs; anise seed co2 and eo; aruacaria eo; basil eo, co2 and abs; beeswax abs; bergamot eo; black currant abs; boronia abs; broom/genet abs; cananga eo; carnation abs; carob abs; carrot seed eo, co2 and abs; cassie abs; champaca abs; clove bud eo, co2 and abs; fennel eo and co2; galbanum eo, co2 and abs; geranium abs and eo; guiacawood eo; henna flower/gulhina attar; helichrysum eo and abs; hop eo and co2; jonquil abs; magnolia lily co2; mimosa abs; narcissus abs; oakmoss abs; saffron eo, co2 and abs; spikenard eo and co2; tarragon eo, co2 and abs; tonka bean abs; vetiver eo, co2 and abs; violet leaf abs ylang abs and eo

In natural perfumery may be used in apothecary compositions, sacred perfumes, new mown hay, herbal bouquets, high class florals(in trace amounts), chypre, literary perfumes

As June was peculiarly the month of music and
flowers, July is the harvest month of the early fruits ;
and though the man of feeling would prefer the last
month, the present certainly offers the most attractions
to the epicure. Strawberries are in their ripest abun-
dance, and fill the air with fragrance even more delicious
than their fruit. While these are becoming scarce, the
raspberry bushes that embroider the walls and fences,
hang out their ripe red clusters of berries, where the
wild rose and the elder flower scent the air with their
healthful fragrance.
Studies in the field & forest (1857) by Wilson Flagg

Another sweet perfume, but that I know well,
'Tis the Elder-Flower's lucious and honey-rich smell.
Twamley

A much more agreeable, yet rather heavy and in-
toxicating fragrance, is that of the elder-flower, which
is abundant towards the middle of June.
THE SYLVAN YEAR.
LEAVES FROM THE NOTE-BOOK OF
RAOUL DUBOIS.

The hedges about the villages of Picardy were white with
elderflower and drenched with scent. It was haymaking
time and French women and children were tossing the
hay on wooden pitchforks during hot days which came
between heavy rains. Our men were marching through
that beauty> and were conscious of it, I think» and glad
of life.
Now It Can be Told by Phillip Gibbs

Linden Blossom(Tilia cordata) CO2 Select Extract

Linden Blossom(Tilia cordata) CO2 Select Extract

Images of Tilia cordata

Linden Blossom essence in a pure and natural form has been a challenge to locate from the very beginning of our business over 10 years ago. At one time we were able to procure a true Linden Blossom absolute but in its pure form it was a solid plastic mass which was almost impossible to work with and so we abandoned carrying it. The only other Linden Blossom essences we could locate were ones created by combining natural and synthetic isolates, essential oils and absolutes to simulate the aroma of the Linden blossoms. Sometimes these were sold as pure absolutes. So when our colleagues in Bulgaria were able to successfully extract the essence of the blossoms using co2, producing a flowable liquid I felt it would be worthwhile offering it on a regular basis as many people have asked for it over the years.

The Linden Blossom co2 extract is a clear flowable liquid which successfully captures the delicate, fresh, warm, sweet floral, honey-fruity top notes of the flower. There is a fine delicate green, coumarinic, herbaceous undertone. I feel that this co2 extract is more of a topnote to heartnote essence. On a perfumers smelling strip its delicate fine odor is perceiveable for 6 hours or more but it becomes progressively softer in odor as the time passes. Although it becomes softer in odor in maintains a balanced complexity through all stages of its dryout. One very interesting aspect of its olfactory impact in the environment in which its aromatic molecules is being dispersed is that even though there is a sublime complex delicacy in studying it on the smelling strip, if one leaves the room and re-enters the space after some time, one finds that the entire atmosphere is charged with its radiation

In natural perfumery it blends well with beeswax abs; bergamot eo; blood orange eo; bois de rose eo; carrot seed eo, co2 and abs; cassie abs; chamomile eo's, co2's and absolutes; clary sage eo and abs; coriander eo, co2 and abs; geranium eo and abs; helichrysum eo and abs; hay abs; hop eo and co2; hyssop eo; jonquil absolute; lavender co2, eo, and absolute; lavandin eo and abs; lime eo and essence; lemon eo and essence; mimosa abs; neroli eo; orange blossom abs; petitgrain eo; petitgrain sur fleur eo; rosa damascena eo, co2 and abs; rose de mai abs; rosa bourbonia abs; sandalwood eo, co2 and abs; tonka bean abs; tuberose abs; vanilla co2 and abs; ylang eo and ab

In perfumery can be used in high class floral perfumes; herbal bouquets; literary compositions; culinary creations; chypre; fougere; sacred perfumes

"We will take the linden, lime, or basswood, tree--for it has all three of these names--this evening," she continued, "and there are nine or ten species of the tree, which are found in America, Europe and Western Asia. It is a very handsome, regular-looking tree with rich, thick masses of foliage that make a deep shade. The leaves are heart-shaped and very finely veined, have sharply-serrated edges and are four or five inches long. The leaf-stalk is half the length of the leaf. It blooms in July and August, and the flowers are yellowish white and very fragrant; when an avenue of limes is in blossom, the whole atmosphere is filled with a delightful perfume which can hardly be described."

"'The linden has in all ages been celebrated for the fragrance of its flowers and the excellence of the honey made from them. The famous Mount Hybla was covered with lime trees. The aroma from its flowers is like that of mignonette; it perfumes the whole atmosphere, and is perceptible to the inhabitants of all the beehives within a circuit of a mile. The real linden honey is of a greenish color and delicious taste when taken from the hive immediately after the trees have been in blossom, and is often sold for more than the ordinary kind. There is a forest in Lithuania that abounds in lime trees, and here swarms of wild bees live in the hollow trunks and collect their honey from the lime.'"
Among the Trees at Elmridge, by Ella Rodman Church

IN THE SWING.
BY M. M.

Oh, swing me high, and swing me low,
Under the linden-tree,
Whose fragrant blossoms, like a shower,
Fall down and cover me.

The sunshine flickers through the leaves
As to and fro I swing;
Gay butterflies go flashing by;
Birds in the tree-top sing.

The brook tells stories to the flowers
The livelong summer day;
And everywhere the earth is bright,
And all the world is gay.

So swing me high, and swing me low,
Under the linden-tree,
And let the blossoms, like a shower,
Fall down and cover me.

Rosa damascena/Damask Rose CO2 select extract

Images of Rosa damascena

Rosa damascena CO2 Select Extract-


The technique of co2 extraction has wonderful applications with natural aromatic botanicals but its main drawback has been in the fact that the equipment is very expensive and requires a good deal of expertise to keep the extraction units running smoothly and within the specific parameters for each material. The main materials that have traditionally been extracted have been those which are easy to transport to the site where the extraction units are located. Mainly dried herbs, spices, roots, etc have been used for CO2 extraction. Sometimes the hexane extracted floral concretes like with rosa damascena, ylang, jasmin grandiflorum, and jasmin sambac have been extracted to produce a select co2 extract but there are only a few places in the world where direct extraction of the flowers is now taking place to my knowledge. One is in Bulgaria for the extraction of the fresh flowers of Rosa alba/White Rose and Rosa damascena/Damask Rose and the other is in China where the fresh flowers of Jasmin sambac and White Champa/Michelia alba are extracted directly.

Recently I received samples of several co2 extracts from Bulgaria with which I was tremendously pleased and so have decided to start offering them. The first CO2 select extract to be described will be that of Rosa damascena/Damask Rose. Again I would like to mention that this is the direct extraction of the flowers.

The Rosa damascena select co2 extract is a translucent golden soft waxy mass that rapidly becomes liquid with gentle heat. The co2 extract displays a delicate sweet, warm, ethereal true roseaceous aroma with a very radiannt, rich floral/spicy/honey like dryout with outstanding tenacity. To me in represents the most perfect expression of the damask rose aroma I have yet encountered combining the finest components of the rose otto/essential oil and the absolute. The power of the co2 extracts bouquet is best understood if it is studied over many hours.

Rosa damascena co2 extract can be used in a wide variety of creative compositions and even in trace amounts will elevate many high quality perfumes to a very high level. It could easily act as a single note perfume without the addition of any other components other than a exalting fixative like sandalwood. But in a classic sense it could be used to create extraordinary perfumes when used in conjuction with Jasmin grandiflorum abs, orange blossom absolute, neroli eo, beeswax absolute, honey absolute, broom/genet absolute, jasmin auriculatum abs, white lotus abs, pink lotus abs, ambrette seed eo and abs, fir balsam absolute.
Other materials with which rosa damscena co2 blends beautifully are amberi attar; aruacaria eo; benzoin abs, bergamot eo; cardamon eo, o2 and abs; cassia bark eo and co2; cassie abs; clary sage eo and abs; clove bud eo, co2 and abs; geranium abs and eo; guaicawood eo; lemon eo and lemon essence; lemongrass "rhodinol rich"; mace eo and co2; mimosa abs; musk black attar; narcissus abs; nutmeg eo, co2 and abs; oakmoss abs; orris root eo, co2 and abs; patchouli eo, co2 and abs; rose leaf abs; styrax resinoid, eo and abs; tonka bean abso; tuberose abs; vanilla abs; verbena abs and eo; vetiver eo and co2; violet leaf abs; ylang eo and abs
In natural perfumery can be used in sweet floral bases, oriental compositions, chypres, sacred perfumes, culinary creations historical bouquets

THE SWEET OLD DAMASK ROSE.

Just inside the garden gate
A damask rose bush stood;
'Twas the most prolific bloomer
In all the neighborhood.

We nourished it with strengthening soil
And artificial showers.
And in return year after year
It paid us back in flowers.

We children often used to go
And linger, watch and wait,
For buds to follow frost and snow.
On the rose bush by the gate.


And when at last a blush of pink
Began to faintly show,
And buds from dewdrops sip and drink,
So cautiously and slow.

The little folks in childish glee,
Would walk up on tiptoes,
To peep in through the garden gate,
To see the first new rose.

And through the sunny month of June,
In sunshine and the rain.
The birds would come with voice in tune,
To sing their sweet refrain.

Sometimes they lit upon the bush,
And sniffed the sweet perfume ;
Then sung their songs as if to thank.
The roses for their bloom.

Some, while in their sweetest bloom,
Were gathered with great care
And placed up in the old spare room,
To shed their fragrance there.

The old vase on the mantelpiece
Received a generous share.
And there both clasped in fond embrace,
Looked like a loving pair.

Mother alone would often glean
Leaves from the fairest rose,
And carefully lay them in between
Her baby-s Sunday clothes.


Their fragrance sweet would penetrate
The garments through and through.
And lead the mind back through the gate
To where the roses grew.

And when the roses ceased to bloom.
Their beauty fade away,
Our hearts were almost filled with gloom.
To think they could not stay.

The vase upon the mantelpiece.
And tidy old spare room,
Long retained a lingering trace.
Of mellowed, sweet perfume.

There's many dear and pretty things.
To which fond memory goes.
And in return it often brings.
The sweet old damask rose.

Fragrant Plants in Legend, Lore and Myth-Wormwood-Caroline Catharine Wilkinson

Wormwood-Caroline Catharine Wilkinson

WORMWOOD, MUG-WORT, AVEROYNE.

Artemisia.

Welsh, Chwerwlys (A.marttima), Cherwlys ar fdr, Sythflodenog
(A. absinthium), C. llwyd. Irish, Bofullan. Gaelic, Liath
lus. French, Absynthe, Armoise, Herbe St. Jean, Garde-
robe. German, Wernmth. Italian, Assenzio. Spanish,
Axenjo. Illyric, Pellin, Akscenoz. Arabic, Bytheran (A.
Judaicd), Sheeh (A. inculta), Shaybeh, "grey hairs" or
"old man" (A. arborescens), Andther (A. monosperma).



NATURAL.

Syngenesia. Composites.

Polygamia superflua. Corymbiferce.

(Sub-tribe) Tubiftorce.
Artemisia.

IN the days of King Edward III., when men met
in strife to clear their honour through "trial by
battle/' they pledged their knightly word that they
had "nothing to do with witchcraft, nor magic, nor
carried any herb or other kind of charm." And so
universal, even at a far later date, was the belief in
the efficacy of some " herb of power " as a charm,
that it is amusing to find the simple and credulous
old Gerarde turning philosopher, and sneering at
Pliny for saying "that the wayfaring man that hath
the herbe (wormwood) tied about him feeleth no
wearisomenesse at all, and that he who hath it
about him can be hurt by no poysonsome medi-
cines, nor by any wild beast, neither yet by the
sun himself/' when he himself complacently avows
that he thrust sticks into the ground, with other
sticks " fastened also crossewais over them/' " about
the place where cyclamen " grew in his garden, in
order to prevent "the danger and inconvenience"
to those who came "neere unto it," or had to "stride
over it/' giving, at the same time, numberless other
proofs of concurrence in the easy belief of his age.
This is, moreover, by no means the only occasion on
which he expresses his virtuous indignation against
"old wives fables, fit only for writers who fill up
their pages with lies and frivolous toies ! " So much
for consistency !

Gerarde, however, highly esteems the herb for
more legitimate uses, strongly recommending it for
weak stomachs and eyes, loss of appetite, fainting
fits, worms, and jaundice. For these complaints,
he tells us, it is to be taken internally, ten or
twelve spoonsful of the tea, three times a day, as
" withstanding putrefactions ; " while it is much
commended as a poultice or fomentation, as well
as for driving away gnats for which purpose it
is much used by Asiatics, being burned in torches.
He says it is also of use for "helping them that
are strangled with eating of mushroomes or toad-
stools/' for the "biting of a shrew, or of a sea-
dragon," and as an antidote to the "poison of
Ixia;"* while the "sea cypress" (A. marrtima)
"cureth such as are splenetic;" and "cattle-going
near the sea, and eating it, get fat and lusty." In the
East the artemisia is used as a charm against witch-
craft ; and after certain ceremonies have been duly
performed in gathering it, such as plucking it on
the fifth day of the fifth moon, it is hung up in
doorways for the purpose.

The wormwoods are successfully employed by the
peasantry in cases of pulmonary weakness, and even
of consumption ; and any old woman on the Scot-
tish coast can tell how it happened that the herb
was first tried for these complaints. The univer-
sally-believed story is, that, in the good old days,
a young and lovely girl lay dying of consumption,
when her lover, wandering out disconsolately on the
silent shore, was attracted by the sound of a gently
murmured song, to which, for some time, he paid no
attention: until, on turning round the point of a
rock, he observed a mermaid sporting in the ebbing
waves. Arousing himself from his all-absorbing
grief, he soon discovered the burden of her song
to be the following words :

" For why should maidens die,
When the nettle grows in March,
And mug-wort in July ?"

and naturally obeying the oracular advice, he has-
tened home to administer an infusion of mug-wort
to her in whom his every hope was centred. This
done, she fell into a quiet and natural sleep, and, by
a continued use of the prescribed remedy, she was
ultimately restored to health ; from which time, as
may be supposed, the injunctions of the benevolent
mermaid were implicitly followed in similar cases.
As, in common with all the corymblferce, the
wormwoods have a bitter and essential oil, which
is a valuable aromatic, and stimulant, tonic ; yield-
ing a simple and useful remedy for a great variety of
common complaints, without leaving any injurious
after effects. The flowers of the Artemisia Juddica
are often placed about the beds in an Eastern house
to drive away bugs, or are burnt to keep off mus-
quitos ; and Burton recommends pillows of worm-
wood in order to procure sleep. Dr. Home, too,
gives an instance of a woman who was cured of
hysteric fits of many years standing, after assafcetida
and other more powerful drugs had entirely failed.
The tribe is, however, quite rejected by the London
College, though happily retaining its place in rustic
medicine.

Among the superstitious it still retains its credit ;
and an old belief continues to be connected with
the circumstance of the dead roots of wormwood
being black, and somewhat hard, and remaining
for a long period undecayed beneath the living
plant. They are then called " wormwood coal "
and if placed under a lover's pillow they are be-
lieved to produce a dream of the person he loves.

Pellets made of its down are used, as well as
cotton, for the Moxa of Eastern Asia, which, being
lighted and placed on any part requiring external,
or counter, irritation, is suffered slowly to smoulder
down until the pellet is consumed.

In Wales and Ireland the wormwoods are, as of
old, largely employed, instead of hops, for flavour-
ing beer; and the "purl" for which Dublin and
other Irish cities are so celebrated, is also prepared
from it ; though the fellows of All Souls' College,
Oxford, pride themselves in the belief that this
drink is unknown except at that particular abode
of learning. They even give to their silver cups
the peculiar title of " ox-eyes/' and speak distinct-
ively of their favourite beverage as "an ox-eye of
wormwood." This drink, with a slice of lemon,
and herb of grace, "taken fasting/' is put forth
as a preventive of plague in a broadsheet of the
seventeenth century, which is most profanely en-
titled, " Lord have mercy upon us." The Germans
also prepare a similar beverage, called Wermuth-
bier; and the French liqueur, eau d'absynthe, is
well known throughout Europe.

We possess four, or perhaps five, wormwoods : one
of which, the lavender-leaved (A . ccerulescens), is re-
corded as occurring on the coast near Boston, and
also in the Isle of Wight; though, as Sir W. Hooker
observes, it is no longer found in either place ;
another, the common wormwood (A. absinthium),
which, from its plentiful growth and the spots it
selects for its habitat, is that most usually employed
in medicine, abounds in dry waste places about houses
and villages ; and marks out so definitely the dwell-
ings of man, that in the Pyrenees and other places
the spots where shepherds' huts formerly stood are
indicated by the occurrence of the plant, though no
other trace of them remains. The common mug-
wort (A. vulgaris), also frequents similar places, but
may be distinguished by its ranker growth, as it
usually attains a height of from three to four feet,
or about double that of the A. absinthium, as well
as by its naked receptacle, that of the A. absinthium
being distinctly hairy.

The sea-wormwood (A. maritima vel Gallica)
(Willde) or "garden cypress"' is the holy- worm-
wood,, or semen sanctum of old herbalists (of which
Gerarde observes that it is " sold evrie where by the
apothecaries"), and flourishes abundantly on our
sandy shores or salt marshes, where & so-called
variety with drooping racemes, may frequently be
observed growing on the same root as the original
plant.*

The southernwood, "boy's love/' "old man/" or "old
man's beard" the "grey hairs/' or shaybeh, of the
Arabs (A.arborescens, or campestris) occurs, though
sparingly, on the dry sandy heaths of Norfolk and
Suffolk, especially in the neighbourhood of Thet-
ford and Bury. I cannot, however, believe it to be
a really indigenous plant ; though it may be heresy
even to hint that either the agency of man, or of the
waves, first brought it to our shores. It may, most
probably, be ascribed to the former. This pleasant
old-fashioned plant is known to everybody, gladden-
ing, as it does, the cottage garden, and forming a pro-
minent feature in the village nosegay. This is the
plant of which the " Stockholm MS." says ;

" More of whych, Goddys grace,
Think I to seyn on oyer place ; [in another place]
At ye hed will I be gyne
For sicknesse fallyth ofty yer ine [oft-times therein]
Zif man or woman, more or lesse
In his hed haue gret sicknesse
Or gmiance [grievance] or ony werking,
Awoyne he take wt. owte lettyng, [without delay]
Zt is callyd sowthernwode also,
And hony eteys et spurge, [Euphorbia] stamp yer to,
And late hy yis drink, fastind drynky
[And let him this drink, fasting drink it]
And his hed werk away schall synkyn [sink].

Fragrant Plants in Legend, Lore and Myth-Fennel by Caroline Catharine Wilkinson

Fennel by Caroline Catharine Wilkinson

THE FENNEL. 107

FENNEL.

Foeniculum vulgare.
(Anethum foeniculum of LINN.)

Welsh, Ffenigl. French, Fenouil. German, Fenchel.
Spanish, Hinojo. Italian, Finocchio, or Finocchino.
Dutch, Fenekell.

LINN^EAN. NATURAL.

Pentandria, Umbettiferce.

Digynia.

" MIRIE it is, in time of June,
"When fenil hangith abrode in toun ;"

Thus says the old English romance, as given by Ellis ;
and though doubtless the custom of hanging it in
the streets was partly observed on account of the
fresh and pretty green of the fennel-leaves, yet, as I
have already shewn, in speaking of the plant last de-
scribed, it possessed a greater charm from the sup-
posed power of the plant to keep off evil spirits, and
other such "bugges." In the south of France it
is usual, in addition to placing it over the doors, to
strew it around the bed, and to lay it under the
pillow, especially on the eve of St. John.*

The fennel is a British plant, growing plentifully
on chalky cliffs near the sea, more especially in the
south-east counties of England. It is the true fen-
nel of the garden, such as is used as sauce or garnish
to fish, and which, as such, is too well known to
need description. But there are several other species
known under the generic name of Anethum (or
dill), taken from the Greek word signifying to burn
(from the warm and aromatic qualities of the tribe),
while the specific name is said to be derived from
the Latin foenum, hay, from some fancied resem-
blance to that substance in the smell. Large quan-
tities of fennel-seed are imported into this country,
where they are employed in the manufacture of gin,
and also in medicine as a harmless carminative, very
much resembling anise-seed in its qualities, the two
plants being nearly allied. The infusion of fennel-
seed, in all its species, is generally known as dill-
water, and is greatly prized by nurses as a " baby-
medicine," though apparently, if there be any truth
in expression of countenance, not so fully appreci-
ated by the poor little babies themselves. It is also
much given to sickly lambs in rainy and cold sea-
sons. Gerarde recommends a decoction of the green
leaves, or seed, to nursing mothers ; and he attri-
butes to the boiled roots an efficacy in dropsy, being,
as he says, " equall in virtues with armisse-seede,"
and good for the liver and lungs. He also recom-
mends that the powdered seed be drunk " for cer-
taine daies together fasting/' in order to preserve
the eyesight, quoting the old monkish couplet :

" Fceniculum, rosa, verbena, chelidonia, ruta,
Ex his fit aqua quce lumina reddit acuta :"


which he thus translates :

" Of fennell, roses, veruain, rue, and celandine,
Is made a water good to cleere the eine."

This was a very prevalent belief of old, when it
was even supposed that the knowledge of its efficacy
in cases of blindness extended to the serpent tribe,
who were said to eat it in order to restore their
sight ; as is asserted in the following list of the vir-
tues of the fennel, extracted from the "Stockholm
Manuscript :"

" As sayth Mayster Macrobius,
Fenel is erbe precyows,
In somer he growyth hey [high] et grene,
And beryth his sed, semly to sene,
It is no nede hym to dis-crye [describe]
Iche man hy knowyth at eye,
Good is his sed, so is his rote
And to many thyngys bote ; [useful*]
Ye sed is good fastende to ete,
And ek in dragef after mete

Ageyn wyckid huores [? humours] et bolyng [swellings]
Ageyn wyckid wynd et many oyer thyng ;
Water of fenel to a plyth [apply]
Is wonder holsu [wholesome] for he syth ; [sight]
Medeled [mingled] wt. water of roset
Half in aporcin [in equal quantities] nothyng bet. [better]
Fenel in pottage et in mete
Is good to done, whane yu schalt ete
All grene, loke it be corwy [cut, e.g., "cow," Scotch] small
In what mete yu usyn schall,
In what drynk yu use it sekyrly
It is good for ye pose et sucke.

Whanne the neddere [adder] is hurt in eye
Ye rede [ready] fenel is hys prey
And zif he mo we [mouth] it fynde
Wonderly he doth hys kynde,
He schall it chowe [chew] wonderly

And leyn [lays] it to hys eye kindlely
Ye jows [juice] schall sawg [? save] and helyn ye eye,
Yat be forn [before] was sick et feye [feeble]
A medicyne is yet for eyere bote
To take jows of fenkel rote
And droppg i ye eyne bothe ewe et morwe [at eve and on the
morrow]
Ye peyne xal [shall] slake et ye sorwe [sorrow]."

Pomet in his "History of Druggs" assures us that
confectioners "take clusters of the green fennel,
which, when covered with sugar they sell to make
the breath sweet, for the green is reckoned to be of
the greatest virtue/' while the seed, he adds, is laid
between olives, in order to give the oil a fine taste."
And the Arabs of the present day employ it as an
article of food rather than as a mere condiment,
rolling up and stewing minced meat in its leaves,
and using the stalks as a vegetable.

Over a great part of Southern Europe the anethum
is an object of culture and commercial value, a fact
which may be faintly traced in the idiomatic ex-
pression of the Italians ; " voglio la mia parte fino
al finocchio/' for " I will have every farthing of the
money/' Both in Italy and in Spain it is added to
various beverages, and is considered agreeable and
wholesome; just as the ancients believed that its
constant presence in their food not only imparted
bodily health, and longevity, but gave strength and
courage to those who partook of it ; an idea which
has been embellished by Longfellow, who deduces
from it a moral.

" Filled is life's goblet to the brim,
And though my eyes with tears are dim,
I see its sparkling bubbles swim,
And chant a melancholy hymn,
With solemn voice and slow.

No purple flowers no garlands green,
Conceal the goblet's shade or sheen,
Nor maddening draughts of Hyppocrene
Like gleams of sunshine, flash between
Thick leaves of misletoe.

The goblet wrought with curious art,
Is filled with waters that upstart
From the deep fountains of the heart
By strong convulsions rent apart,
And running all to waste.

And as it mantling passes round,
With fennel is it wreathed and crowned,
Whose seed and foliage sun-embrowned
Are in its waters steeped and drowned,
And give a bitter taste.

Above the lowly plants it towers,
The fennel with its yellow flowers ;
And in an earlier age than ours
Was gifted with the wondrous powers
Lost vision to restore.

It gave men strength, and fearless mood,
And gladiators fierce and rude
Mingled it with their daily food,
And he who battled and subdued,
A wreath of fennel wore.


Then in life's goblet freely press
The leaves that give it bitterness,
Nor prize the coloured water less,
For in thy darkness and distress

New light and strength they give.

And he who has not learned to know
How false its sparkling bubbles shew,
How bitter are the drops of woe
With which its brim may overflow,
He has not learned to live.

The prayer of Ajax was for light
Through all that dark and desperate fight,
The blackness of that noonday night,
He asked but the return of sight
To see his foeman's face.

Let our increasing, earnest prayer
Be too for light -for strength to bear
Our portion of the weight of care
That crushes into dumb despair

One half the human race.

Oh suffering, sad humanity ;
Oh ye afflicted ones, who lie
Steeped to the lips in misery,
Longing, and yet afraid to die,

Patient, tho' sorely tried !

I pledge you in this cup of grief
Where floats the fennel's bitter leaf,
The battle of our life is brief
The alarm the struggle the relief,
Then sleep we side by side."

The fennel is widely distributed as a native plant ;
while its dissemination is increased by its pertinacity
in following human migrations. This is remarkably
exemplified in Brazil, to which it has been imported
from Europe, and in which it now appears, as we are
told by Darwin,* as a constant weed in the vicinity
of the towns. Mr. Ainsworth mentions a curious
fact with regard to its occurrence in Chaldsea, where
above Umrah, on the Kuriki mountain, two species
occur, each of which is respectively confined to a
single side of the mountain. The plant is of immense
importance to the Kurdish inhabitants of the dis-
trict, growing, as it does, in the utmost abundance
almost at the snow time, and constituting, when
dried, the principal winter provender of their cattle ;
while its stems, gathered just as they issue from the
ground, form a large proportion of the food of the
villagers, or, when chopped and steeped in sour
milk, furnish them with a wholesome drink which
they highly value for its fine aromatic flavour. On
the borders of the Siberian steppes it occurs very
plentifully, attaining (according to Mr. Atkinson)
to a height of ten or twelve feet, in favourable
localities.

Fragrant Plants in Legend, Myth and Folklore-THE TULIP FAIRIES. by Charles John Tibbits

THE TULIP FAIRIES. by Charles John Tibbits

Near a pixy field in the neighbourhood of Dart-
moor, there lived, on a time, an old woman who
possessed a cottage and a very pretty garden, wherein
she cultivated a most beautiful bed of tulips. The
pixies, it is traditionally averred, so delighted in
this spot that they would carry their elfin babes
thither, and sing them to rest. Often, at the dead
hour of the night, a sweet lullaby was heard, and
strains of the most melodious music would float in
the air, that seemed to owe their origin to no other
musicians than the beautiful tulips themselves, and
whilst these delicate flowers waved their heads to
the evening breeze, it sometimes seemed as if they
were marking time to their own singing. As soon
as the elfin babes were lulled asleep by such melodies,
the pixies would return to the neighbouring field,
and there commence dancing, making those rings on
the green which showed, even to mortal eyes, what
sort of gambols had occupied them during the night
season.

At the first dawn of light the watchful pixies
once more sought the tulips, and, though still
invisible they could be heard kissing and caressing
their babies. The tulips, thus favoured by a race
of genii, retained their beauty much longer than any
other flowers in the garden, whilst, though contrary
to their nature, as the pixies breathed over them,
they became as fragrant as roses, and so delighted
at all was the old woman who kept the garden that
she never suffered a single tulip to be plucked from
its stem.

At length, however, she died, and the heir who
succeeded her destroyed the enchanted flowers, and
converted the spot into a parsley-bed, a circumstance
which so disappointed and offended the pixies, that
they caused all the parsley to wither away, and,
indeed, for many years nothing would grow in the
beds of the whole garden. These sprites, however,
though eager in resenting an injury, were, like most
warm spirits, equally capable of returning a benefit,
and if they destroyed the product of the good old
woman's garden when it had fallen into unworthy
hands, they tended the bed that wrapped her clay
with affectionate solicitude. They were heard
lamenting and singing sweet dirges around her
grave ; nor did they neglect to pay this mournful
tribute to her memory every night before the moon
was at the full, for then their high solemnity of
dancing, singing, and rejoicing took place to hail
the queen of the night on completing her circle in
the heavens. No human hand ever tended the grave

of the poor old woman who had nurtured the tulip
bed for the delight of these elfin creatures ; but no
rank weed was ever seen to grow upon it. The sod
was ever green, and the prettiest flowers would
spring up without sowing or planting, and so they
continued to do until it was supposed the mortal
body was reduced to its original dust.

Fragrant Plant in Garden Literature-Violets by Eleanor Sinclair Rodhe

The Scented Garden-Eleanor Sinclair Rodhe

Images of Violets

YOUNG MAN in green, with a Garland of
Mirtle, and Hawthorn Buds, Winged, in one hand
Primroses and Violets, in the other the sign Taurus.' So
run the instructions in a seventeenth-century book for
embroidering a figure representing Spring.

Violets are the spring's chiefe flowers for beauty,
smell and use.' The sweet-scented violet {Viola odorata)
is a native not only of Europe, but also of Persia, Palestine,
Barbary, Arabia, Japan and China. In the East as in the
West it has been beloved from time immemorial. Violets
preserve in their scent the memory of Orpheus, for one
day, being weary, he sank to sleep on a mossy bank, and
where his enchanted lute fell, there blossomed the first
violet. The magic music of his lute still haunts the
scent of violets. Deep-toned melodies from faerie
linger in
'the sweet sound
That breathes upon a bank of violets,
Stealing and giving odour.*

The violet is regal in its humility, and what a splendour
of purple radiates from the petals of this shy flower. It
glows with the fragrance and warmth of its beauty.
* And the more vertuous the flower thereof is the more
it bendeth the head thereof downward. The lyttlenesse
thereof in substance is nobly rewarded in greatnesse of
savour and vertue.' And to violets the old herbalists
ascribed the gift of sleep. ' For them that may not sleep
for sickness, seethe the violets in water and at even let
him soke well hys f eete in the water to the ancles ; when
he goeth to bed bind of this herb to his temples and he
shall slepe well by the grace of God.' We are all familiar
with the curious effect produced by smelling violets.
The keen delicious perfume in a few seconds becomes
fainter and similar to that of a mossy bank and in another
moment the scent has apparently vanished. But the
violets are of course still full of fragrance and it is our
sense of smell which is exhausted, not the perfume of
the violets. The dominant note in their scent is ionone,
which has a tiring, almost soporific effect on the sense of
smell. Shakespeare refers to the fleeting nature of the
pleasure given by this exquisite scent :

* Sweet, not lasting
The perfume and suppliance of a minute.'

Garden varieties of the sweet-scented violet have a
richer scent, but they have not the exquisitely keen, pure,
almost rarefied scent of wild violets. As a child one
thought that the white violet was even more sweetly
scented than the purple, and the first time one read the
immortal essay ' Of Gardens ' it came as a pleasant sur-
prise to find one's childish belief confirmed by no less a
personage than the great Francis Bacon. ' That which
above all yields the sweetest smell in the air is the Violet,
especially the white double violet which comes twice a
year, about the middle of April and about Bartholomew-
tide.'

I love Henry Vaughan's lines about violets :

As harmless violets, which give
Their virtues here
For salves and syrups while they live,
Do after calmly disappear,
And neither grieve, repine, nor fear :

So dye his servants ; and as sure
Shall they revive.
Then let not dust your eyes obscure,
But lift them up, where still alive,
Though fled from you, their spirits hive.'

The violet is the symbol of humility. Over thirteen
centuries ago the bishop-poet Fortunatus sent to Queen
Radegonde of saintly fame violets and other scented
flowers, and with his gift he wrote, * He who offers
violets must in love be held to offer roses. Of all the
fragrant herbs I send none can compare in nobleness
with the purple violet. They shine in royal purple : per-
fume and beauty unite in their petals. May you show
forth in your life what they represent.' In Giovanni di
Paolo's paradise the redeemed wander in meadows
blossoming with the violets of humility and the lilies of
purity. In the Adorations by the great masters, notably
Botticelli, the violet symbolizes above all the humility
of the Son of God, Who came to this earth as a little
Child. In like manner the jasmine flowers tell us of
the starry Heavens He left, and roses of the Divine
love which sent Him to this earth. In an altar-piece
by Lochner the Holy Child seated on His Mother's lap
stretches up to take a violet held by her. In Signorelli's
Madonna, in the Cathedral of Perugia, transparent vases
of jasmine, roses and violets are depicted, the roses
denoting Divine love, the violets His humility, and the
jasmine the starry heavens He had left to come to this
earth. In the beautiful Adoration of the Shepherds, by-
Hugo van der Goes, in the Uffizi Gallery, purple and white
violets are in the centre of the foreground with lilies,
columbines, carnations, and blue and white irises. The
Infant Christ, bathed in light emanating from Himself,
lies on the ground, beside Him kneels His Mother,
around them are angels with jewelled circlets on their
brows, to the right adoring shepherds and on the left St.
Joseph. Between the Infant Child and the flowers lies a
sheaf of corn, symbolising the Bread of Heaven. The irises
denote His royal birth, the carnations His divine love in
coming to this earth, the columbines the seven gifts of the
Holy Spirit, and the violets His humility.

No one has written more beautifully of the effect pro-
duced on the mind by violets than old Gerard : ' March
Violets of the Garden have a great prerogative above
others, not only because the mind conceiveth a certaine
pleasure and recreation by smelling and handling of those
most odoriferous Flowers, but also for that very many by
these Violets receive ornament and comely grace : for
there bee made of them Garlands for the head, Nosegaies
and posies which are delightfull to looke on and pleasant
to smell to, speaking nothing of their appropriate ver-
tues ; yea Gardens themselves receive by these the
greatest ornament of all, chiefest beautie and most
gallant grace ; and the recreation of the minde which is
taken hereby, cannot be but very good and honest : for
they admonish and stir up a man to that which is comely
and honest ; for floures through their beautie, varietie
of colour, and exquisite forme, doe bring to a liberall and
gentlemanly minde the remembrance of honestie, come-
liness, and all kinds of vertues. For it would be an
unseemly thing for him that doth looke upon and handle
faire and beautifull things, and who frequenteth and is
conversant in faire and beautifull places, to have his
minde not faire.'

Our great-grandmothers not only candied violets as we
do, but they made various confections scented with
violets, chiefly violet syrup and violet tablet. Violet
syrup was made by macerating two pounds of fresh violets
in five pints of distilled water for 24 hours. Then the
liquor was strained off, sugar added (allowing a pound of
sugar to each pint of liquor) and then boiled to a syrup.
Violet tablets were made by steeping violets in lemon
juice, adding sugar in the same proportion as above, and
then boiling till when cold it set firm. They also used to
eat young violet leaves fried and served with slices of
lemons and oranges. No less an authority than John
Evelyn describes this as ' one of the most agreeable of all
the herbaceous dishes.'

Pansies and violas, which are so nearly related to
violets, have, with few exceptions, little scent when smelt
singly, but a cluster of either gives out a sweet though
faint perfume. The soft mauve-blue Maggie Mott is
fragrant, and Mrs. E. A. Cade, which is quite the earliest
of the rayless yellow violas, is very fragrant. It flowers at
least a fortnight earlier than the other rayless yellows,
and does well again in early autumn. There are probably
few plants with so many curious old country names as
pansies, — Heart's-ease, Love-in-idleness, Herb Trinity,
Three- Faces-under - a - Hood, Jump - up - and - Kiss - me,

Pink - of - my - John, and Call - me - to - you. Pansies are
amongst our oldest favourites in the garden, and our
Anglo-Saxon ancestors called the flower * bone-wort.' We
do not know for how many centuries the flower has been
associated in fairy lore with the magical qualities which

Oberon ascribed to
'the little western flower
Before milk-white, now purple with love's wound,
And maidens call it love-in-idleness.'

Fragrant Plants in Literature-Crocus by Eleanor Sinclair Rodhe

Crocus by Eleanor Sinclair Rodhe

Images of Crocus

In February the constellations of the crocuses shine
forth in their firmament of green. Most crocuses have a
faint warm scent, but only on really sunny days or in a
warm room. Many people do not regard them as scented
flowers, but Virgil knew their exquisite scent in Italian
sunshine. Sometimes one wonders whether our modern
eyes are dimmed to the amazing beauty of these flowers,
especially the orange-coloured ones. Homer's carpet of
the gods was of hyacinths, crocuses, and lotus flowers,
and all the classical writers used ' crocus-coloured ' to
describe a glowing orange golden colour, for which
indeed there is no other word. The golden crocus turns
the earth to sheets of living flame. To quote Homer,
i the flaming crocus made the mountain glow.'

Saffron yellow, the colour of light, was apparently the
royal and sacred colour of the most ancient days. The
Persian kings wore saffron yellow shoes in imitation of the
still older Babylonio-Median costume. In Aeschylus'
Persians Darius is summoned from the nether-world
by the chorus, ' Rise, ancient ruler, rise ; come with the
saffron-dyed sumaris on thy feet ... a royal tiara on
thy head.' When Jason prepared to plough the field in
Colchis with the fire-breathing bulls, he threw off his
saffron-coloured garments. Bacchus wore Krokotos, the
saffron dress. The new-born Herakles Pindar describes
as swathed in crocus-yellow. The crocus dress of Pallas
Athene the Attic maidens embroidered with many
colours. Antigone let fall her crocus-coloured stole in
her despair at the death of her mother and brothers.
Helena took with her from Mycenae her gold-embroidered
palla, a crocus-bordered veil. In the Epics, Eos, the dawn,
is ever saffron- veiled. The companions of Europa, when
Jupiter approached her in the form of a bull, were
gathering the fragrant hair of the golden crocus. When
Pan and the nymphs passed singing through the meadows,
the fragrant crocus and hyacinth bloomed in the tangled
growth of grass. 1 It was ever the crocus of the East, Crocus
vernus, which was so highly esteemed, not the humbler
native kind. When Roman luxury was at its height,
crocus scent and crocus flowers were used as lavishly as
rose leaves. Heliogabalus bathed in saffron-water, and
his guests reclined on cushions stuffed with crocus petals.

Crocuses are natives of the south and central Europe,
the Levant and western Asia. We do not know when they
were introduced, but it is quite likely that the Romans
brought bulbs of such favourite flowers to adorn the
gardens of their villas in England during the first
centuries of our era. In the Middle Ages, when they
were again introduced, the autumn- flowering C. sativus
was certainly known and grown in this country long before
the spring-flowering varieties. Croh was the Middle
English word for saffron. According to tradition the
saffron bulb was introduced into England in the reign of
Edward III by a pilgrim, who brought it concealed in
the hollow of his staff. Even in the sixteenth century
herbalists described the spring-flowering crocus as saffron
of the spring — * Saffron of the Spring with yellow
flowers.'

Three hundred years ago Gerard wrote of the crocus,
' It hath floures of a most perfect shining yellow colour,
seeming afar off to be a hot glowing coal of fire. That
pleasant plant was sent unto me from Robinius of Paris,
that painful and most curious searcher of simples.' Is
there any other flower which so wonderfully gives us at
least a faint idea of the meaning of the words, ' And the
streets of the city were pure gold like as it were trans-
parent glass ' ? Crocuses are indeed amongst the loveliest
and most gladsome of spring flowers. Each crocus cup is
not only of exceeding beauty, but within its petals it
seems to hold the quintessence of sunlight in luminous
gold, and their scent is the scent of sunlight. Many years
ago that great flower-lover, Mr. Forbes Watson, wrote of
them, * Whilst the Snowdrop enters with so quiet a
footstep that it might almost pass unobserved amidst
the remnants of the melting snow, the Crocus bursts
upon us in a blaze of colour like the sun-rise of the
flowers. . . . Though at first sight apparently alike in
colour, close attention will show that the inner segments
are of deeper hue and more distinctly orange than the
outer. But we must carefully observe the colour itself.
Like most things that are very beautiful it varies greatly
in different aspects ; the petals to a careless eye, and
especially in a dull light, may seem but a surface of glossy
orange. Yet look carefully and they are lighted with rosy
reflections, pencilled with delicate streaks and nerves of
shade and, above all, bestrewed with little gleaming points,
a host of microscopic stars, which cast a fiery sheen like
that of the forked feathers of the Bar-tailed Humming-
bird, as if the surface were engrained with dust of amber
or gold.'

Crocuses never look happy if they are continually being
attended to. Thick close clumps of them, fifteen and
twenty together, growing naturally with masses of their
lovely golden chalices full of sunlight, look gloriously
happy, but planted out singly there is always something
depressing about them. They look forlorn and tidy.


Crocuses are companionable flowers, and they seem to
enjoy huddling together. Grown separately, the flowers
are, or should be, larger (I have never observed this to be
actually the case, but there is such a thing as taking all the
rules and theories one finds in gardening manuals too
seriously !) Picking crocuses planted out singly makes one
feel guilty of a crime, but picking them from fat neglected
clumps is a joy.
The Scented Garden-Elizabeth Sinclair Rodhe

Images of Crocus

I am writing for the first time this year out of
doors, on one of those glorious sunny days which always
come in February and for which one is so much more
grateful than for a whole week of summer sun. And
I have just been counting the number of flowers on
the largest clump of golden crocuses (C. vermis) by the
apple trees in our garden. There are at least seventy-eight
flowers fully out, though how they have managed to crowd
themselves into a space measuring only about 9 inches by
12 is little short of a miracle. The flowers are as large as
any grown singly and very long-stalked (some of them
certainly 5 or 6 inches long), and, pushing aside the fully
expanded flowers, one could see there were masses more
coming on. When I came there were eight or nine bees
working at the flowers, and watching the bees for some
time it was delightful to see how often the same bees,
after a hurried visit to smaller clumps near by, returned to
feast on the riches spread before them on the largest
clumps. The words of an Elizabethan madrigal come into
my mind :
I like the bee with Toil and Pain
Fly humbly o'er the flow'ry Plain
And with the Busy Throng
The little sweets my Labours gain
I work into a song.'


The scent of the crocuses would be almost imperceptible
from the single flowers, but from the masses it is warm and
exquisite, and in the sunlight the clumps look like masses
of translucent gold caught not out of the sunlight but
out of the sun itself. It is curious how colour seems to
alter the character of a crocus flower. Yellow and golden
crocuses look almost riotously happy, but all the mauve
varieties have a placid dreamy appearance. Of the very
early-flowering varieties C. imperati is always described
as scented, but it does not seem to be more scented than
some of the other varieties, especially the commonest
of the yellow and gold-coloured kinds. From the point of
view of decorative effect nothing touches the Dutch
yellow crocus (C. vernus). No one knows its origin. It is
probably of garden origin, for it is sterile, and it has never
been found growing wild. It increases by throwing off
little corms. If planted in grass the grass should never be
mown till the crocus leaves have quite withered, otherwise
the corms will suffer badly. Though the bees love crocuses
grown in clumps the birds do not seem to attack them as
much as crocuses planted singly, or if they do, their
depredations are not so apparent. What the birds love
in them is the tiny drop of nectar to be found in each
flower. What with one thing and another crocuses have
many enemies. Field mice, the mischievous grey squirrel
and rats all enjoy eating the corms, and if planted near
the surface nothing will stop pheasants pecking them out.

Fragrance in Literature-Eastern Tales by Many Story Tellers, by Various

Eastern Tales by Many Story Tellers, by Various


At the powerful voice of her enchantment, the Sultan shrank from his natural form and became a reptile on the earth. His change of form did not take from Misnar his memory or recollection: he was sensible of his disgrace, and of the justness of his sentence; and though he could not fly from himself, yet he hastened into the thicket, that he might hide from the light of heaven. But the calls of nature soon drove him from his recess, to seek his proper food in the desert. He crawled forth, and was led on by a scent that pleased him: his spirits seemed enlivened by the sweet odour, and his cold feeble limbs were endued with brisker motion.
"Surely," said he, in his heart, "the bounteous Allah hath not left the meanest of His creatures without comfort and joy. The smell is as the smell of roses, and life and vigour are in these attractive paths."

"Imagine, O respectable dervish, my astonishment: it almost deprived me of my senses! I was soon drawn from it, however, by the appearance of twenty female slaves, beautiful and well dressed. Some held flambeaux, and other pots full of exquisite perfumes, the sweet odour of which, mingled with that of the wood of aloes, which served to warm the bath, embalmed the air, and raised an agreeable vapour to the very roof of the apartment.[322]

There were no slaves there to inform him of his mistake. They were enjoying the feast, and only returned to the apartment, which they had left open, to fill the pots with perfumes, and prepare, according to the custom of the East, a collation of different sherbets and dried sweetmeats. The hangings concealed the sofa on which Aladin lay.

After this advice, the dervish threw off his cloak, and appeared as a magician. He was covered only with his large particoloured girdle which adorned his breast. He took from a purse which hung from his girdle an instrument for striking fire, and, having lighted a taper, he burnt perfumes, and running over a book, he pronounced with a loud voice a magical charm. Scarcely had he finished when the earth shook under his feet, opened before him, and discovered a square stone of marble, upon the middle of which the magician immediately scattered perfumes. When he thought the air sufficiently purified and refreshed with them, he girded Abaquir with a rope under his arms, put a taper in his hand, and let him down into the opening.

As soon as he arrived at the gates of the palace, a deputation from the Sultan, with an officer at their head, came to present him with a richly-ornamented box filled with betel-nuts. All the halls of the palace which he crossed were perfumed with aloes and sandal-wood; he passed thus even to the most retired closet of the Sultan's apartments.
Soon, by degrees, their manner of living became more and more expensive, as each endeavoured to excel the others in the splendour of his hospitality, and to procure for the next meeting at his house scarcer viands and more costly wines. In this manner they vied with each other, increasing their expenses with savoury spices and the most delicious perfumes.

It happened one day, as this precious merchant was walking in the market, that he had a great quantity of fine glass bottles offered him for sale; and, as the proposed bargain was greatly on his side, and he made it still more so, he bought them. The vendor informed him, furthermore, that a perfumer having lately become bankrupt, had no resource left but to sell, at a very low price, a large quantity of rose-water; and Casem, greatly rejoicing at this news, and, hastening to the poor man's shop, bought up all the rose-water at half its value. He then carried it home, and comfortably put it in his bottles. Delighted with these good bargains, and buoyant in his spirits, our hero, instead of making a feast, according to the custom of his fellows, thought it more advisable to go to the bath, where he had not been for some time.

"Here," said the first, "O stranger, we may rest securely, and the serpent cannot annoy us, for we are seated under the shade of the fragrant cinnamon."

Day, which began to appear, was soon to discover the horrors of this bloody night. With the first rays of morning the nurse went to feed her tender care, whose blood deluged the cradle. Lost in astonishment, she ran to the apartment of the King and Queen to announce this fatal news. Her despair and shrieks went before her, and awakened Chamsada. The unhappy Queen opened her eyes, and found her husband breathing his last at her side. The cries of the nurse made her dread misfortunes still more terrible. A widowed spouse and a weeping mother, she ran to the cradle of her son and took him in her arms. He still breathed, and she conceived the hope of saving his life. The whole palace was in motion. Selimansha arrived with his eunuchs, and surgeons were called, whose skill and attention restored the life of this innocent creature. But they were employed to no purpose on the body of the young monarch, whose death the unfortunate Chamsada deplored.[462] Aromatic and medicinal herbs and the balms of the East produced their effect on the wound of the child, and rekindled the hopes of his mother. He was again placed in the bosom of his nurse, and the presumptive heir of Selimansha was at length out of danger.

At the powerful voice of her enchantment, the Sultan shrank from his natural form and became a reptile on the earth. His change of form did not take from Misnar his memory or recollection: he was sensible of his disgrace, and of the justness of his sentence; and though he could not fly from himself, yet he hastened into the thicket, that he might hide from the light of heaven. But the calls of nature soon drove him from his recess, to seek his proper food in the desert. He crawled forth, and was led on by a scent that pleased him: his spirits seemed enlivened by the sweet odour, and his cold feeble limbs were endued with brisker motion.