Fragrance in Travel Literature-Turkey

"Sketches of Turkey in 1831 and 1832"
De Kay, James E

Friday, We were sitting this evening in the court of
our palace, inhaling the perfume of the orange and myr-
tles around us, and watching the progress of the full-orbed
moon as she threw her rays over the gently-roughened
waves of the Bosphorus, when the regular plunge of many
oars announced the approach of a barge belonging to some
personage of distinction. We were not left long in doubt
as to the personage in question ; for immediately a band of
music struck up a spirit-stirring air, and from our little
coterie the exclamation arose in various tongues, " The
sultan is coming." The first boat, rowed by ten oars, con-
tained, in fact, the sultan, accompanied by one or two of
the officers of his court ; and the second, which was much
larger, bore a full band of musicians, and was brilliantly lit
up, in order to enable them to see their notes.

We then returned to the second room, which i&
not of so high a temperature as the bath. Here an ample
supply of towels, and vases filled with cologne and orange-
flower water, furnished . us with the means of being dried
and perfumed ; and then, enveloped in robes-de-chambre,
we returned to the first room, where, reposing on the divan
for some time, we gave way to that exhilaration of spirits
which a Turkish bath is sure to inspire.

scriptural antiquity interested me exceedingly. It is a plain
box, neatly turned out of plaster of Paris, or alabaster, and
about the size of a shaving-box, with a cover of the same
material. It was dug out of some ruins in Ephesus, if I
remember aright, and when first in the possession of Mr.
Arundel, gave out an agreeable perfume. Is not one
forcibly reminded of " the alabaster box of precious oint-
ment" which Mary used to anoint the feet of our Saviour.
The collection of minerals belonging to Mr. Arundel is also
extensively interesting, and characteristic of the region in
which they have been collected.

We were also favoured with morsels of confectionery,
in which, it is supposed, the Turks are unrivalled; but,
with a single exception, the great family of candies, includ-
ing the species rock-lemon and hoarhound, with the minor
varieties of plum, comfit, &c., are in nowise different, but
if any thing rather inferior, to our own. The exception to
which we allude is a delicious pasty-mass which melts
away in the mouth, and leaves a fragrant flavour behind.
It is, as we are informed, made by mixing honey with the
inspissated juice of the fresh grape, and the Turks, who
esteem it highly, call it rahat locoom^ or repose to the throat,
— a picturesque name to which it seems fairly entitled.

We crossed over to the Armenian burying-ground, which
is of a much more light and cheerful character, as it is
shaded by the pretty turpentine-tree (P. terebinthus). This
tree attains a considerable size, and the resin which exudes
from its trunk has an agreeable odour, which may be per-
ceived at some distance.

Our path, as we ascended, became more and more ir
tinct ; and when we reached the summit of a ridge of 1
our surrurgee was evidently at a nonplus. Taking
distant minarets of Constantinople and the shores of
Black Sea which bounded the northern horizon as
guides, we determined to select a path for ourselves. '
fields were covered with the Buglos {C. crispus), and o<
sionally the Laurus nobilis, with its dense foliage and its
aromatic odour.

The celebrated oil or attar of roses is also extensively
exported from Smyrna, although much of it is derived from
Roumelia. When genuine, the real rose odour is not appa-
rent, and it is so easy to imitate that much caution is neces-
sary in the purchase. It is adulterated with fine olive
and other oils, and even with spermaceti. The only test
which can be at all depended on is, that the genuine oil
congeals at a temperature of not far from 70^ of Fahren-
heit. To prevent its evaporation, the bottles containing it
are always surrounded by salt. It is worth here $1 80 the

Van Millingen, Julius R; Goble, Warwick, ill

But the muezzim's cry now reverberates through the
bazaar ; the sun is setting, and the gates are to be
closed. You rise to depart, but the crowds, the sights,
the colours, the noises, the smells, the various costumes
around these will be there on the morrow as they
have been in the past, and they will still in the future
allure and charm all those who come in contact with the
bewitching East.

Crossing the bridge, you arrive at Stamboul, the
Turkish quarter, and enter into a long street, arched
over, and with numerous windows. It is called the
Missir Tcharchi, or Egyptian Spice Bazaar, owing to
the drugs and spices sold in it. It is dark and badly
ventilated ; its odours overpower you, but you see
there a display of drugs and perfumes never dreamt of
before, and gathered from all parts of the empire.
Each shop within the bazaar is known by its special
sign a ship, a broom, a bird's-cage, the model of a
mosque, a flag, bows and arrows, and so on while its
occupant sits, like a spider in his den, inviting you into
his parlour.
Among the articles offered are musk and seraglio
pastilles, frankincense, cedar-wood, and other perfume-
emitting substances which Turks delight in throwing on
the brazier to scent their apartments ; otto of roses, pro-
duced in Bulgaria, rose-water, patchuli, jessamine, and
other native fragrant oils, with which to perfume their
person. Rouge, native hair-dyes, and henna for im-
proving the complexion, painting the eyebrows until
they meet, or staining the nails and finger-tips ; corrosive
sublimate, that deadly poison, for giving a flash to the
eye ; red and black pepper, and all sorts of condiments ;
seeds of the " love-in- the-mist ' ' to protect yiaourt and
pastry from the evil-eye ; gum mastic from the island
of Chio, which women love to chew and chew for hours,
and children to blow into bubbles ; herbal and quack
medicines of all kinds, and even gall-stones from an ass
to renew the vigour of youth. Nearer the sea are several
streets, roofed with glass, called the Temisb, or fruit-
bazaar, where dried fruits and nuts of every description
are to be found. Among its peculiarities are fruit-
pastes of plum, apricot, quince, mulberry, etc., which
have been mashed, sun-dried, and rolled into thin long
sheets ; grape-juice, thickened with flour ; unfermented
grape-treacle ; and honey from Angora, unrivalled for
the whiteness of its comb.

The fringe of the East; a journey through past and present provinces of Turkey
Luke, Harry Charles Joseph, Sir,

In winter time, when cold
breezes from the Taurus or from snow-laden Olympus
blow across the Mesaoria, Nicosia is redolent with the
fragrance of burning olive wood ; later on, it is per-
vaded by the scent of jonquils and other wild flowers
which are one of the joys of spring in Cyprus. As you
wander through its tortuous streets, you light on many
a sculptured fragment, a porch, a coat of arms, or a
cornice, once part of some Lusignan or Venetian
mansion ; many churches, foremost among them St.
Sophia, survive intact or tolerably preserved from
the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Nearly all the
Gothic churches of Nicosia became mosques at the
Turkish conquest, and only one is still used as a place
of Christian worship. This is the Church of Notre
Dame de Tyr, which the Turks made over to the

Lamps also play an important part in the chapel of
the Holy Sepulchre. This chapel is to the church
what the Sakhra is to the Dome of the Rock. It
stands alone in the middle of the Rotunda (a circular
edifice which, together with the adjoining large rect-
angular building, now the Cathedral of the Greeks,
formed the principal part of the Crusaders' church), and
consists of two small chambers. The first to be entered
is called the Angels' chapel, and from it a low door
gives access to the chapel of the Holy Sepulchre
properly so-called, in which the tomb-stone itself, con-
cealed from the earliest times beneath slabs of marble,
serves as altar. In both, nearly all the available space
is taken up by rows of beautiful and massive silver
lamps, which make the air heavy with the scent of
their perfumed oil. Both rooms are so tiny that they
will barely contain more than three or four people at a
time ; and the Orthodox monk who sells candles at the
entrance often finds himself compelled to cut short
with marked lack of ceremony the devotions of those
who would linger within longer than is compatible with
the exigencies of his trade.

On the morning after our arrival at the monastery, he
took us, very early, to the principal church for the
office of the community. It was dark without, and the
dimness within was intensified by the sombre frescoes
on the walls, the flickering candle-light, and the incense
which slowly rose to the dome in coils of fragrant
smoke. The celebrants in their vestments, the conore-
gation of monks standing in their stalls, had retained
the dignified immobility, the mediaeval features and
appearance of those Byzantine saints before whose stiff
and lifeless images they stood in daily contemplation.

Of a different kind are the attractions of the moun-
tains which occupy most of the south-western part of
the island. Their summits, higher but less abrupt than
those of the Kyrenia Mountains, are covered with
fragrant pine forests, not with castles ; no beautiful
abbeys lurk in their deep and rugged valleys. In the
Kyrenia Mountains nature and art compete with the
happiest results ; in the others, nature's efforts are
stimulated only by the Forest Department of the
Cyprus Government.

people, with their thick quilted garments and high
astrakan caps, add very greatly to the interest and
colour of the place ; and, as you sit in one of Damascus's
numerous cafes, sipping your cup of coffee or of cinna-
mon and inhaling the fragrant product of the Turkish
regie (only a bold man will venture on the potent
narghile), you see, as on the Galata Bridge, half Asia
pass before you. Types range from the seedy Govern-
ment official in fez and Stambuli frock-coat to the
Mongolian-looking gentleman from somewhere east of
the Hindu Kush, from the dervish in camel hair garb,
which looks (and must feel) like brown felt, and a hat
of the same material, shaped like a beehive, to the
hardy bandit from the mountains of Kurdistan.

But to return to our wanderings. Between Antioch
and Latakia we traversed the loveliest region of Syria,
a region of mountain and forest and of many rivers
running westward to the sea, a region, too, little known
to travellers, to judge from the faultiness of maps. At
the laurels and waterfalls of Daphne, where the nymph
cheated Apollo of his design, we turned south and
began to climb. To the green of the undergrowth on
the lower slopes the Judas Tree lent a touch of more
brilliant colour : higher up, orchards and their flowering
hedges gave way to the fragrant Aleppo pine.

Constantinople, old and new (1915)

Dwight, Harry Griswold,
Pedlers come and go', selling
beads, perfumes, fezzes, and sweets which they carry on
their heads in big wooden trays, and drinks which may
tempt you less than their brass receptacles. A more
stable commerce is visible in some mosque yards, or on
the day of the week when a peripatetic market elects
to pitch its tents there; and coffee-houses, of course,

Altogether the habit of the coffee-house is one that
requires a certain leisure. Being a passion less violent
and less shameful than others, I suppose, it is indulged
in with more of the humanities. You do not bolt coffee
as you bolt the fire-waters of the West, without ceremony,
in retreats withdrawn from the pubHc eye. Neither, hav-
ing taken coffee, do you leave the coffee-house. On the
xontrary, there are reasons why you should stay — and
not only to take another coffee. There are benches to
curl up on, if you would do as the Romans do, having
first neatly put off your shoes from off your feet. There
arc texts and patriotic pictures to look at, to say nothing
of the wonderful brass arrangements wherein the kahveji
concocts his mysteries. There is, of course, the view.
To enjoy it you sit on a low rush-bottomed stool in front
of the coffee-shop, under a grape-vine, perhaps, or a
scented wistaria, or a bough of a neighbourly plane-tree;
and if you like you may have an aromatic pot of basil
beside you to keep away the flies. Then there are more
active distractions.

"In and around Stamboul"

Hornby, Edmund, Mrs.

The Bosphorus is certainly one of those beau
ties formed to turn all the heads in the world. She
smiles, and nothing on earth can be more radiantly
bright and sparkling; she is angry, and dashes along
with a wild, untamable, yet graceful fury the hills
around grow dark and sorrowful, and the tall cypress-
trees wave their heads in stately submission to her
stormy humor.
Some people think her most beautiful then, but
others are enchanted with her quiet, dreamy moods,
when she murmurs gently on the shore, and takes
delight in picturing fairy-white palaces, and shady
rose and orange-gardens, and fragrant branches wav
ing in the scented wind. Or in the stiller nights,
when she flashes back every touch with a gleam of
gold, and sparkles with golden stars as she moves
along in the pale gray light.

The little golden flower which
I enclose was given me by a gentle and pretty Turkish
lady yesterday; it is the blossom of a sort of mimosa,
and is greatly prized here for its scent, which I think
much too powerful to be agreeable. Small bunches
are sold in the streets of Stamboul and Pera, prettily
tied on fine branches of cypress or arbor- vitse ; for the
mimosa bears so few leaves itself, that they are too
valuable to be plucked.

Nothing could be more delightful, after the dreary
shores and dull waves of the Black Sea; nothing more
striking and surprising than the change, in half
an hour, to the softest air, the scent of a thousand
flowers, the ceaseless trill of the nightingale, and ths
fantastic streaks of phosphoric light on the musical
ripples of the water. It told at once the whole story
of the languor and dreaminess of Eastern life.

But now the creek has become much narrower
about the breadth of the Thames at Weybridge and
we are far from palaces and minarets and Eoman
walls, and far from tumble-down houses and arsenal
stores. We have left the seven-hilled city behind,
and are rowing up a valley surrounded with green
slopes and mountainous hills. Our caiquejees tell us
that this valley and these fine hills belong to the
Sultan, who has a kiosk higher up ; but this we had
divined, for magnificent trees begin to appear, which
only adorn the land about Constantinople when it
belongs to the Sultan or some great pasha to make
their paradise perfect. But now, borne on the soft
breeze over the scented water-flags, come distant
sounds of revelry.

Then slowly come the shepherds, their
mixed flocks of goats and sheep frisking merrily to
the sound of the tinkling bells of the " guides," who
snatch fragrant branches of the arbutus and cistus
as they go by. The scent of the wild shrubs here is
very pleasant, and they grow in the greatest luxuri
ance on the stony, uneven ground. I have found
several varieties of heath in great beauty. There
being no large trees on these islands, they always
look most beautiful morning and evening, when the
sun is low, just touching the sloping vineyards, and
the short, dim, olive-trees ; and then, of course, the
fine gray rocks and the ruined monasteries above
seem to rise higher out of the dark blue water.

We found a detachment of our party in the little
cafanee, sipping coffee and lemonade. They were all
delighted with their several strolls. Some had been
into the vineyards, others up the deep ravine into the
valley beyond in winter, a mountain-stream. There
were a few fine Turks of the old school, with mag
nificent turbans, smoking their nargilehs calmly on
the benches. They seemed to wonder what we were
about indeed to wonder exceedingly, when they be
held my stones, and fossils, and my tired looks. The
coffee and lemonade were both excellently fragrant
and good, and after such a tiring excursion doubly
enjoyed. The wind had now dropped, and we rested
pleasantly in the little cafanee, listening to the calm
ripple of the waves on the shore, and to the deep
whispered conversation of our majestic neighbors,
sitting cross-legged on the benches. Then we bade
adieu to these picturesque and kingly villagers, and
stepping into the caiques were once more on board
the "Sylph."

The smell of myrtle in the church was de
licious, the pavement being thickly strewn with fresh
branches of it, from the door to the table.

The soul of a Turk

De Bunsen, Victoria

We had ridden for five hours through an undulating
fertile country, terraced with vineyards and olives.
The soil about here is rich and red in places, and over
it the great fragrant branches of the olive trees,
silver and shadowy, hang tremulous. But already
at Ural-keui the air blows straight from the desert.

Over the source of the river, where it
bursts full-bom from the side of the mountains,
there is a grove of shady old trees, planes and poplars.
They make cool dark places under them, and keep
cold as ice the bubbling green stream which dashes
out into the plain from beneath. I had to stoop to
pass under the thick low branches, and the delicious
fragrant coolness underneath suggested some spacious
hall full of moving shadows and tremulous light.

and there a gap lets in the sun, revealing a splendour
of dazzling gold against the blue of a stainless sky.
At our feet, on the fallen leaves, soft and soaking,
pale mists rest. The rich wet earth distils odours,
sensuous, impelling. A waft of fir-fragrance from the
heights beyond, telling of white snows and wild places,
invigorates the senses.

Under the vast dome in the centre of the church is
the great baldacchino that stands over the Sepulchre
itself. It is of marble and yellow plaster, gaudily
decorated with pictures, lithographs, lamps and candles,
beads and flowers. Through the openings in its painted
sides bright lights shine. Inside a single marble slab
marks the tomb of the Lord. Fresh flowers, sweet and
fragrant, are laid around it, and over them hang
priceless lamps of chastest workmanship.

In the Turkmendagh, the mountains where
he had to gather the wool, the cold pine-scented air,
and the tazi su (fresh water), so dear to the heart of
a Turk, made him strong and brown again as he had
been at Yeni-keui. He was good to look upon.

These gorges of Taurus are rich in trees. The
shivering poplars still cling to their pale leaves,
the brown-red walnuts send out rich pungent odours,
the dappled stems of the planes shed their cumbrous
bark, the pomegranates fling scarlet splashes among
sober reds and browns.The peculiar smell of the Eastern town is
heavy to-night in Jerusalem, that smell which, more
than the sights or the sounds of the East, impels the
traveller eastwards again and again. It is full of
suggestion, that smell, of sandalwood and spices, of
skins drying in the sun, of yellow maize, of coffee, of
sherbet, of leather for shoes and saddles. Opening a
letter, pulling an old coat out of a drawer, will bring a
whiff of it, and when it comes, the traveller must
turn his steps eastward once more. He cannot be
content at home.

Turkey, being sketches from life
Murray, Eustace Clare Grenville

The servants brought us some sweetmeats of delicate flavour
and perfume, with rakee having fragrant flowers in it, after the
fashion of our burridge-cup. Then they brought us a delicious
melon. I noticed that the reverend fathers were the only
persons I had yet seen in Turkey who appeared to know how
much powdered sugar improves the flavour of fruit. We had a
plentiful supply of it ; then cakes, coffee, and pipes filled with
aromatic tobacco.

There is a nameless charm in the very air of the place. The
lordly terraces of the palace overlooking the rich plains, which
stretch far away in fair luxuriance of vegetation ; the perfume
of a thousand flowers which loads every breeze ; the clear fresh
sunny atmosphere by day ; the wondrous moonlight nights, are
all enchanting as in fairy land. I shall surely never see such
golden hours again.

First comes the pipe-
bearer, swaying the long pipe with its jewelled amber mouth-
piece ; its intoxicating fragrance fills the air. Then appears a
valet sedate and important ; he carries an orange-coloured
dressing-gown lined with ermine, and a telescope ; another
follows, carrying some immense maps I There is a bustle of
coffee-boys in the distance. The captain paces the lower deck
nervously, and at last a very bright scarlet cap is seen briskly
coming up the pretty cabin steps.

tables and window-sills were usually strewed with fragrant
herbs, and sometimes a house looked like a fairy bower, from
the tasteful adornment of the mirrors on the walls.

The views from the airy sitting-rooms
are positively enchanting. When you recline, chibouque in
hand, upon the luxurious sofas, you feel in dreamland ; with
the scented breezes playing round you, and the misty mountains
of Asia — another world, a world of marvel and romance ! — so
near. In a word, the Pasha's house is a strange charming place,
and I am fairly in love with it.
It is surrounded by one of those delightful gardens which are
the pride of the Turks ; a jealous wall closes it on all sides : it
is far from prying neighbours. This garden has fountains which
fall sparkling in the broken shadow of vines and trellises. The
sound lulls me to sleep during the fierce heats of noon. It has
trees, and their varied blossoms seem to soften the air which
passes over them ; deep cool wells, and moss-grown reservoirs,
full of fat gold-fish ; roomy stables, where the beautiful Arabian
horses, sent as presents to the Pasha, look round and neigh
pleasantly as you pay them a visit, suggesting far-away gallops
in the soft meadows, or rambles in shady lanes, where the wild
olive and the fig-tree grow entwined together.

The city of the sultan, and domestic manners of the Turks
Pardoe, Miss

The scent-
dealers next claimed our attention, and their
quarter is indeed a miniature embodiment of
" Araby the Blest," for the atmosphere is one
cloud of perfume. Here we were fully enabled
to understand remharras des richesses, for all
the sweets of the East and West tempted us at
once, from the long and slender Jlacon of Eau
de Cologne, to the small, gilded, closely
enveloped bottle of attar-gul. Nor less luxurious
was the atmosphere of the spice bazaar, with its
pyramids of cloves, its piles of cinnamon, and its
bags of mace — and, while the porcelain dealers
allured us into their neighbourhood by a dazzling
display, comprising every variety of ancient and
modern china ; silks, velvets, Broussa satins, and
gold gauze in their turn invited us in another
direction — and, in short, 1 left the charshees
with aching eyes, and a very confused impres-
sion of this great mart of luxury and expense.

A few paces from the spot whence you look
down upon this various scene — a few paces, and
from the refuge of the dying you gaze upon the
resting-place of the dead. Where the acacia-
trees blossom in their beauty, and shed their
withered flowers upon a plain of graves on the
riglit hand, immediately in a line with the Euro-
pean cemetery, is the burial-ground of the Ar-
menians. It is a thickly-peopled spot ; and as you
wander beneath the leafy boughs of the scented
acacias, and thred your way among the tombs,
you are struck by the peculiarity of their in-
scriptions. The noble Armenian character is
graven deeply into the stone ; name and date
are duly set forth ; but that which renders an
Armenian slab (for there is not a head-stone
throughout the cemetery) peculiar and distinc-
tive, is the singular custom that has obtained
among this people of chisselling upon the tomb
the emblem of the trade or profession of the

The custom of burning perfumes in the mangal
is, if not a healthy, at least a very luxurious
one ; and the atmosphere of the saloon of An-
giolopolo was heavy with ambergris and musk.
I have not yet met with a native of the East, of
either sex, who was not strongly attached to
their use ; their own perfumes are delicate and
agreeable, being rather concentrated preparations
than individual scents ; and soothing.
rather than exciting, the nerves ; but they are
also very partial to those of Europe, and
among the latest presents of the Empress of
Russia to the Princess Asme, the Sultan's
eldest sister, were several cases of Eau de Co-

I made my libations with perfumed water —
swallowed my coffee from a china cup so minute
that a fairy might have drained it — tied on my
bonnet — an object of unvarying amusement to
the Turkish ladies, who consider this stiff head-
dress as one of the most frightful and ridiculous
of European inventions — and bade adieu to
Fatma Hanoum and her dark-eyed daughter,
with a regret which their unbounded courtesy
and kindness were well calculated to inspire.

I should have previously remarked that the
chambers in the Greek houses are generally ar-
raupfed in the same manner as those of the
Turks — that is to say, a pile of mattresses are
heaped upon the floor, without a bedstead ; but
with the Greeks the coverlets are less splendid,
and the pillows are less costly. In each, a tray
is conspicuously set out with conserves, gene-
rally strongly impregnated with perfume, such
as rose, bergamotte, and citron : and covered
goblets of richly-cut crystal, filled with water.
The custom appears singular to an European,
but it is by no means unpleasant ; and I had
not been long in the country ere 1 found the
visit of the servant, who knelt down at my bed-
side, and handed the tray to me on my awaking,
a very agreeable one.

I must be permitted a momentary digression
on the subject of turkish chaplets, which are as
popular, or very nearly so, as the chibouk. They
resemble, somewhat, the rosary of the Roman
Catholics, save that instead of being terminated
by a crucifix and a knot of relics, they are
merely beads strung upon a silk cord, divided
at intervals by some of a larger size, and se-
cured, at the junction of the cord, by a carved
acorn, or an ornament of a like description.

They were no sooner seated than the officers
attached to the service of this chamber, which
bears the name of Khirkai-Cheriff", presented to
each person perfumes and rose-water according
to the Eastern custom ; and, when they with-
drew, the doors were closed, and the ceremony
commenced with a prayer by the Cheik-Islam,
for the divine blessing on the union they were
then assembled to celebrate; after which he
put the customary questions to the proxies of
the two contracting parties.

The offerings to the bride followed. They con-
sisted of two toilette services of massive silver,
containing the most delicious perfumes of the
East ; a silver dinner service, arranged on a
plateau of the same metal ; several silver salvers
covered with precious stones, and ornaments of
gold and silver, and others heaped with gold
coins : the whole covered with cages of silver
net-work. Each of these bearers was attended
by a page.

On one side of the fountain is the mosque to
which it belongs, and on the other the kiosk of
Halil Pasha, with its magnificent portal and
glittering casements. But to be seen to perfec-
tion, the square of Topp-hanne must be visited
during the autumn, when the rich fruits of Asia
are scattered over its whole extent ; piles of
perfumed melons, pyramids of yellow grapes,
heaps of scarlet pomegranates — the golden
orange, the amber-coloured lemon, the ruddy
apple, the tufted quince, all are poured forth
before you. Nor are the vendors less various
or less glowing than their merchandise, as they
sit doubled-up upon their mats, clad in all the
colours of the rainbow, with their chibouks be-
tween their lips ; rather waiting than looking for
customers — a bright sky above them, and the
blended languages of many lands swelling upon
the wind.

They are commonly made of a wood, which, be-
coming heated by the action of the hand, emits
a delicious perfume ; but their material depends
upon the taste and means of the owner ; the
poorer classes carrying chaplets of berries, com-
mon beads, and other cheap substitutes, for this
somewhat costly indulgence.

The coup d'ceil was beautiful, as the fair
girls, not one of whom could have been more
than twenty years of age, and who were all
exceedingly lovely, prepared to hand the re-
freshments. The princess had given orders
that we should be received with all possible
ceremony : and the display was consequently
most beautiful. One slave held a weighty vase,
suspended from three silver chains, in which
stood the coffee ; another bore a large gold salver,
covered with cups and holders of costly enamel,
whence depended a dazzling drapery of gokl
tissue wrought with pearls, and richly fring'ed :
a third carried a gilded tray bearing vases of
cut crystal containing a variety of exquisite
sweetmeats, confined beneath golden covers en-
riched with gems ; a fourth held the salver on
which stood a range of glass goblets of beauti-
ful form and workmanship, filled with water —
all, in fine, were laden with some object of cost
and luxury ; and their attitudes were so grace-
ful, their faces so lovely, and their costume
so striking, that I regretted their departure,
when, after we had partaken of the rose-scented
jelly and perfumed mocha, they slowly with-

The reception-room was in a different style:
sombre, magnificent, and almost cloistral in its
decorations ; heavy with gilding, and gloomy
with cornices ; while the sleeping chamber,
hung with crimson and blue satin, and scattered
over with perfumes and objects of taste, had
an air of comfort and inhabitation almost Eng-

At the conclusion of the meal, I went, accom-
panied by my father, and a fine youth who had
escaped from college for the Easter recess, and
who volunteered to act as interpreter, to pay
a visit to the Patriarch, who had expressed a
desire to make our acquaintance. We were
conducted through several large, cold, scantily
furnished apartments, presenting- rather the
appearance of belonging to a barrack than to
an episcopal palace, with their floors thickly
strown with bay leaves, which emitted a deli-
cious perfume as we passed along, to the pri-
vate sitting-room overlooking the court of the
church, where we seated ourselves to await the
arrival of the Patriarch, who had not yet left
the Sanctuary.

From the point of the hill above the sea the land
shoots sharply down into the valley of Dolma
Batche, clothed with fruit trees, whose perfumed
blossoms, then in the height of their beauty,
were emptying their tinted chalices on the air.
The road leading to the Palace is cut along the
side of the declivity, forming on its upper edge
a lofty ridge which was fringed throughout its
whole length with tents ; in the distance rose the
Military College, spanning the crest of the hill
like a diadem ; with the gilded and glittering cres-
cent that crowns the dome of its mosque flashing
in the sunshine. On the right hand the view was
bounded by the dense forest of cypresses rising-
above the tombs of the Turkish cemetery, which
swept darkly downwards to the Bosphorus that
was laughing in its loveliness, and reflecting on
its waveless bosom the lovely height of Scutari
which hemmed in the landscape. And as the eye
wandered onward along the channel, it took in
the dusky shore of Asia, with its kiosk-crowned
and forest-clad mountains ; until the line was
lost in the gradually failing purple, that blent
itself at last with the horizon.

The situation of Eyoub is eminently pictu-
resque. It is backed by gently-swelling hills,
clothed with trees, where the delicate acacia
and the majestic maple are mingled with the
scented lime and the dark and rigid cypress,
whose blended shadows fall over a thousand
graves, and turn away the sunlight from the
lettered tombs of many a lordly Musselmaun.

The room was a perfect square, totally un-
furnished, save that in the centre of the floor
was spread a carpet, on which stood a wooden
frame, about two feet in height, supporting an
immense round plated tray, with the edge slightly
raised. In the centre of the tray was placed a
capacious white basin, filled with a kind of cold
bread soup ; and around it were ranged a circle
of small porcelain saucers, filled with sliced
cheese, anchovies, caviare, and sweetmeats of
every description : among these were scattered
spoons of box-wood, and goblets of pink and
white sherbet, whose rose-scented contents per-
fumed the apartment. The outer range of the
tray was covered with fragments of unleavened
bread, torn asunder ; and portions of the Rama-
zan cake, a dry, close, sickly kind of paste, glazed
with the whites of eggs, and strewed over with

Beauties of the Bosphorus
Pardoe, Julia

The mosque stands near the edge of the harbour, and its court stretches
down almost to the water. It is overshadowed by two of the most majestic
maple-trees in the city, whose gnarled and knotted trunks and fantastically
twisted branches bespeak them of a date coeval with that of the gleaming temple
which they so greatly embellish. Beneath their long cool shadows congregate
groups of idlers, attracted thither by the calm stillness and refreshing breezes ;
and there they loiter for hours, erecting in the court their awnings of striped
cotton, and spreading their mats for the mid-day siesta ; while the melon and
sherbet-venders ply their fragrant trade, and the perfumed vapour of the
Salonica tobacco exhales from many a chibouque.

The Confectionary Bazar is also extremely well worthy of a visit, for the
Orientals excel in all the delicate preparations of sugar and perfume which can
be produced. Preserved rose-leaves — a feast for the fairies — look as bright, as
soft, and almost as sweet, as though they had just been shaken to the earth by
a truant zephyr wandering in the gardens of Nishapor; gums, mixed with sugar,
perfumes, and the juices of fruits, are moulded into a hundred pretty shapes,
and may be purchased of as many different flavours ; cakes of sherbet-paste,
casks of chalva, (a composition of flour, honey, and oil,) delicate sweetmeats from
Smyrna and Scio, and strings of sausages, hung in festoons, and filled with the
inspissated juice of grapes, mixed with walnuts or almonds, are among the most
popular articles of the seke/jhes* if we except, indeed, the kdimac, or clotted
cream, which is also sold in this bazar. The name kahnac, signifying in the
Turkish language the excess of excellence, will give some idea of the estimation
in which this dainty is held by the natives ; and, truly, it deserves the appellation
it has obtained, for there are few edibles in the luxurious East more delicate
than the kaimac. The rush of customers to the counter on which it is freshly
set forth, is most amusing, and very unfavourable to the vendors of mahalahe,
another preparation of milk, forming a species of blancmange, which is eaten
with rosewater, and sugar, or honey. In the immediate neighbourhood of this
confectionary colony, the water-venders ply a busy trade, and constantly thread
among the crowd with their classically-formed vases, or jars of red clay, upon
their shoulders, and a wooden case strapped before them, containing large crystal
goblets, scrupulously clean and cool : their cry is harmonious and melancholy,
but they are brisk, civil, and industrious ; and for about a larthing and a half
the pedestrian can always secure a refreshing draught.

Thus, as the light caique of the observer skims over the ripple, the circum-
stances of almost every householder on the Bosphorus may be ascertained by
the appearance of his dwelling. The residence of the favourite and the courtier
is indeed a " wide extensive building," over whose front is " besprent a deal
of gilding, and various hues." The lattices of the harem are gaily painted, the
terraces are bright with flowers, the marble steps against which the blue ripple
chafes in the sunshine are thronged with attendants, and tlie caique that awaits
its owner at their base is like a fairy bark, glittering with gold and crimson.
Arabesques adorn the walls, and pretty kiosques peep from among the leaves
of the tall trees of the extensive gardens ; the perfume of flowers and the sounds
of music come blended along the water, and the very atmosphere breathes

A marble gate, terminating the terrace in the direction of the city, admits the
visitor into a garden bright with flowers, and redolent of perfume; where foun-
tains for ever fling their delicate jets of water against the sky, with a soft and
soothing music well suited to the spot ; and where birds of gorgeous plumage
wander at will, as rainbow-tinted as the blossoms amid which they sport. A line
of gilt lattices veils the seaward boundary of tliis delicious retreat ; and, passing
beside these, an inlaid door of stately proportions gives admittance to the Hall of

An elegant fountain, with a projecting octagonal roof, whose marble basin is
screened by a covering of iron net-work from the pollution of the birds which
swarm upon the roof and amid the intricacies of the building, affords to the
Faithful the necessary opportunity of performing their preliminary ablutions ere
they enter the mosque ; while in its immediate vicinity, amulet and scent mer-
chants, generally hadjis or pilgrims, with their green turbans and flowing beards,
spread their mats, and expose for sale all descriptions of chaplets, perfumes,
relics from Mecca, charms against the Evil Eye, amber and ivory mouth-pieces
for the chibouque, and dyes and toys for the harem.

On the
other hand is situated the elegant Kiosque of Halil Pasha, with its lordly portal
and gold-latticed casements — an embodiment of the fairy-palaces of the Arabian
Tales ; and all around and about are piled the luscious fruits of Europe and of
Asia. As this is the great market for the growers of Scutari, the islands of
Marmora, and all the Asiatic villages on the channel, the display may be ima-
gined ; piles of perfumed melons are heaped beside pyramids of grapes, which
look as though they were carved in amber; delicate pasteks, green and glittering as
emeralds, are contrasted by golden pomegranates ; pistachio-nuts, lemons, quinces,
oranges, and apples, are scattered in all directions ; while the downy peach, and
the plum, blushing through its own bloom, tempt the touch of the wanderer at
every step.

The Coffee-Kiosque chosen by the artist for his sketch, is that of Fieri Pasha,
near the Arsenal, and overlooking the harbour — a position eminently calculated
to render it popular. The moving panorama which it commands, is a perpetual
source of interest ; and the breeze comes softly from the sea of Marmora, with
freshness and perfume on its wing.

Small brazen censers, placed on the summit of pyramidal flower-stands, and
constantly burning, filled the apartment with the perfume of sandal-wood,
benzoin, and wood of aloes, intermingled with the rich odours of Indian myrtle,
jasmine, and other rare or sweet plants.

The Aqueduct of Valens is one of the most striking objects that meets the
eye of the stranger, as he gazes enraptured on the far-famed city of the Bos-
phorus. Dark, and hoar, and massy, it links two of the seven hills, and spans
the peopled valley with a giant grasp ; in strong contrast to the gaiety and
glitter of the marble mosques, and party-coloured houses. Festoons of the
graceful wild-vine, and the scented honeysuckle, drapery its mouldering masonry ;
masses of the caper-plant, with its beautiful blossoms, conceal the ravages of
time ; lichens trail among its arches ; and a variety of stone plants, fed by the
moisture which is contmually oozing through the interstices of the building,
flourish in picturesque luxuriance, and lend a glory to its decay. Historians
allude to severed other Aqueducts, which they assert to have had existence in
Constantinople, but no trace now remains within the walls of the city of any,
save this ; and its origin is thus curiously accounted for by a modern traveller.