Sunday, June 28, 2009
Images of Lemon verbean/Aloysia triphylla/Lippia citriodora
Olfactory properties of Lemon verbena(Lippia citriodora)/Morocco(nonsprayed)
The clear liquid displays an elegant fresh, sweet, juicy fruity, lemony leafy top-note. As the oil heads into the dryout phase a distinctly lemony--minty-green, slightly roseaceous leafy odor comes to the forefront. The wonderful fresh, green leafy nuance gives this oil a unique lift. As the aroma is imbibed it reminds one of the benign influence of a late spring morning when the air is charged with a sweet freshness that sets the tone for the rest of the day.
Blends well with bergamot eo; benzoin abs; blood orange eo; bois de rose eo; bornaia abs; cananga eo; caraway eo and co2; cassie abs; cardamon eo, co2 and abs; champa golden abs; champa white leaf eo; cistus eo and abs; citronella eo; clary sage eo and abs; coriander see eo and co2; elemi eo and abs; eucalyptus stagieriana; eucalytus citriodora; eucalyptus macarthii; frankincense eo, co2 and abs; galbanum eo, co2 and abs; geranium eo and abs; grapefruit eo; lavender eo, co2 and abs; lavindin eo and abs; lemongrass eo; lemon eo; lemon essence eo; lime eo; lime essence eo; litsea cubeba eo; melissa/lemonbalm eo, co2 and abs; mimosa abs; magnlia lily co2; neroli eo; orange, sweet eo; orange bitter eo; petitgrain oils; ylang eo and abs
Used in perfumery for culinary perfumes, colognes, high class florals, chypres, potpourri perfumes, historical creations
Lemon verbena/Lippia citriodora in Literature
They sat down around the little tea-table; the boy first apologising for
his travel-stains (he was, in fact, as neat as a pin) and afterwards
chatting gaily about his journey--not talking too much, but appealing
from one to another with a quick deferent grace, and allowing them
always the lead. "This is better and better," thought Miss Bracy as she
poured tea; and, after a while, "But this is amazing!" He was a
thorough child, too, with all his unconscious tact. The scent of a
lemon-verbena plant fetched him suddenly to his feet with his eyes
bright. "Please let me--" he thrust his face into the bush;
"I have never seen it growing like this."
The White Wolf and Other Fireside Tales
by Arthur Thomas Quiller-Couch
We are so fond of flowers, it makes us quite happy to think
Of our beds—all colours—blue, white, yellow, purple, and pink,
Scarlet, lilac, and crimson! And we're fond of sweet scents as well,
And mean to have pinks, roses, sweet peas, mignonette, clove carnations, musk, and everything good to smell;
Lavender, rosemary, and we should like a lemon-scented verbena, and a big myrtle tree!
And then if we could get an old "preserved-ginger" pot, and some bay-salt, we could make pot-pourri.
Verses for Children, by Juliana Horatia Ewing
I find that on my list of loves scents would take a very important
place--the scent of gorse warmed by the sun coming almost first, gorse
blossoms rubbed in the hand and then crushed against the face, geranium
leaves, the leaves of the lemon verbena, the scent of pine trees, the
scent of unlit cigars, the scent of cigarette smoke blown my way from a
distance, the scent of coffee as it arrives from the grocer's (see what
a poet I am!), the scent of the underside of those little cushions of
moss which come away so easily in the woods, the scent of lilies of the
valley, the scent of oatcake for cattle, the scent of lilac, and, for
reasons, above all perhaps the scent of a rubbish fire in the garden.
A Boswell of Baghdad, by E. V. Lucas
Mrs Mostyn and her bailiff stood watching John Grange for quite half-an-hour, in what seemed to the latter almost a miraculous performance, and in those hasty minutes they both plainly saw the man’s devotion to his work, his love for the plants he cultivated, and how thoroughly he was at home in the house and interested in what had taken place in his enforced absence. He showed them, by his actions, that he knew how much the plumbago had grown on the trellis, how long the shoots were that had been made on the layer, and his fingers ran from one mazy cluster of buds and flowers to another; hard-wooded shrubby stems were examined for scale, which was carefully removed; and every now and then he paused and placed his hands on the exact place to raise up some fragrant plant—lemon verbena or heliotrope—to inhale its sweet odour and replace it with a sigh of satisfaction.
A Life's Eclipse, by George Manville Fenn
The Tomb of Akbar at Secundra was visited, a few miles from Agra. It is situated, like most other Mogul buildings of the same period, in a large inclosure laid out as a beautiful garden, with fountains, lakes, statuary, tamarind-trees, oranges, lemons, among the most fragrant flowers. It was a glorious day on which we drove out to Secundra, the air was musical with the merry notes of the minos, in their dusky red plumage, the little chirping bee-eaters, hoopoes, and blue-jays. Some little girls freely plucked the abundant rose-buds, pinks, lemon verbenas, and geraniums, bringing them to us for pennies, instigated by the gardeners, who looked on approvingly. This magnificent tomb would be a seven days' wonder in itself, were it not so near that greater charm and marvel of loveliness, the Taj. It was from this grand architectural structure that the Koh-i-noor was taken. The spacious grounds form one of the finest parks in India, art having seconded the kindly purpose of nature in a favored spot where vegetation is as various as it is luxuriant and beautiful.
Due West, by Maturin Murray Ballou
From early childhood, an ardent love of beauty had characterized
this girl, whose covetous gaze wandered from a gorgeous scarlet and
gold orchid nodding in dreams of its habitat, in some vanilla
scented Brazilian jungle, to a bed of vivid green moss, where
skilful hands had grouped great drooping sprays of waxen begonias,
coral, faint pink, and ivory, all powdered with gold dust like that
which gilds the heart of water-lilies.
Such treasures were reserved for the family of Dives; and counting
her pennies, Beryl entered the store, where instantaneously the
blended breath of heliotrope, tube-rose and mignonette wafted her
across the ocean, to a white-walled fishing village on the Cornice,
whose gray rocks were kissed by the blue lips of the Mediterranean.
"What is the price of that cluster of Niphetos buds?"
"And that Auratum--with a few rose geranium leaves added?"
"Seventy-five cents. You see it is wonderfully large, and the gold
bands are so very deep."
She put one hand in her pocket and fingered a silver coin, but
poverty is a grim, tyrannous stepmother to tender aestheticism, and
prudential considerations prevailed.
"Give me twenty-five cents worth of those pale blue double violets,
with a sprig of lemon verbena, and a fringe of geranium leaves."
She laid the money on the counter, and while the florist selected
and bound the blossoms into a bunch, she arrested his finishing
"Wait a moment. How much more for one Grand Duke jasmine in the
"Ten cents, Miss."
She added the dime to the pennies she could ill afford to spare from
her small hoard, and said: "Will you be so kind as to sprinkle it? I
wish it kept fresh, for a sick lady."
At the Mercy of Tiberius, by Augusta Evans Wilson
Links for Lemon verbena/Alysia triphylla/Lippia citriodora
Lemon verbena as a garden plant
Monograph on Lemon verbena
Lemon verbena uses
Medicinal uses of Lemon verbena
Culinary uses of Lemon verbena
Phytochemicals in Lemon verbena
Wednesday, June 24, 2009
Olfactory qualities of Opoponax/Sweet Myrrh(Commiphora erythraea)/Ethiopia(wild harvest)
The pale yellow oil oil displays an intensely sweet, rich balsamic, light, fresh aroma topnote with a spicy warm, powdery-resinous floral undertone. The tenacity is quickly filling the room with its complex resinous bouquet. It has a commanding presence and its aromatic aura remains distincly imprinted in the atmosphere for hours after it has established itself.
Blends well with agarwood eo; amberi attar; ambrette seed eo, co2 nd abs; anise eo; anise star eo and co2; artemisia oils; balsam peru eo and abs; basil eo's; boronia abs; bergamot eo; benzoin abs; birch sweet eo; birch tar eo; cade eo; calamus eo and co2; cananga eo; cassie abs; cedar leaf eo; champa abs; choya nakh; choya ral; choya loban; cistus eo and abs; clary sage eo and abs; coriander eo and co2; costus eo,co2 and abs; davana eo, co2 and abs; fennel eo and co2; fir oils; frankincense eo, co2 and abs; galbanum eo, co2 an abs; hyssop eo and co2; kewda ruh and attar; labdanum eo and abs; lime essential oil; lemon eo; lovage eo and co2; mimosa abs; myrrh eo, co2 and abs; neroli eo; orris root eo, co2 and abs; osmanthus abs; patchouli eo, co2 and abs; pne oils; sage eo and co2; shamama attar; tangerine eo; tangerine essence eo; vanilla co2 and abs; vetiver eo, co2 and abs; ylang eo and abs; yuzu eo and abs
In perfumery is used in leather bases, fougeres, incense bouquets, oriental accords, forest notes, heavy florals
It is one of the oils that when used in a composition must be done so sparingly because its power is easily underestimated(like galbanum eo, cinnamon bark eo, ambrette seed abs) One may not notice its impact immediately but after several days-if the amount added is to much, one may find that it has taken on a dominant role which one never intended
Links for Opoponax
Wikipedia article on opoponax
Perfume profile of Opoponax
OLIBANUM (FRANKINCENSE), MYRRH AND OPOPANAX RESINS AND OILS
Opoponax essential oil
Opoponax in literature
Music, surely, was the art nearest akin to odour. A superb and subtle chord floated about him; it was composed of vervain, opoponax, and frangipane. He could not conceive of a more unearthly triad. It was music from Parsifal. Through the mists that were gathering he savoured a fulminating bouquet of patchouli, musk, bergamot, and he recalled the music of Mascagni. Brahms strode stolidly on in company with new-mown hay, cologne, and sweet peas. Liszt was interpreted as ylang-ylang, myrrh, and maréchale; Richard Strauss, by wistaria, oil of cloves, chypre, poppy, and crab-apple.
The afternoon was as balmy as a day in June, and to complete the simile of the old song, he had put on a blue frock-coat, dispensing with an overcoat, after sending Adolf down three times to make sure that there was not the least suspicion of east in the wind; and the frock-coat was buttoned so tightly around his personable form, that, if the buttons did not shine, they might pardonably have done so. Majestic on the pavement he fitted on a pair of dog-skin gloves; with his large bell-shaped top hat, and his great stature and bulk he looked too primeval for a Forsyte. His thick white hair, on which Adolf had bestowed a touch of pomatum, exhaled the fragrance of opoponax and cigars—the celebrated Swithin brand, for which he paid one hundred and forty shillings the hundred, and of which old Jolyon had unkindly said, he wouldn't smoke them as a gift; they wanted the stomach of a horse!
The Forsyte Saga, Complete, by John Galsworthy
'These are the cannisters where I keep my raw stuff' he said, pointing to the tine canisters ranged on shelves. They stood hand in hand reading the names of the lables/
'Ambergris--that's the name of a scent I bottle,' she said with a little latugh/ 'I used lavender ribbon for that. And orris--that's the powder. Don't they have queer names? Opopona, that always makes me laugh.'
They laughed together over opoponax.
'And there's name out of Scripture,' she said, 'frankincense and myrrh.'
He took down the tine of benzoin, and made her smell it, shaking some of the brittle stuff into the palm of her hand; crumpling up her hand into a cup, and guiding it now to her nose and then own. They compared their tastes; 'I think this sort smells nicest.' she said to him, graveling holding out her cupped hand, but he would not agree, after bending over with the deliberation of a practiced critic, and added a little storax, which, he said, brought out the pungency of the storax.
The Dragon in Shallow Waters
By Victoria Sackville-West
"That is the politest gentleman I ever saw in all my life! said one of the girls.
"And what a curious perfume he had in pocket handkerchief, or something!" says another.
"Well, now I though," said the youngest of them all, "that it smelt like brimestone!"
Then the other girls made game of her, and told her she knew nothing of the scents in used in fashionable society; so she had to give in(in being the custom to give in when other people do not agree with you) and confess that it might have musk, or patchouli, or frangipanni, or millefluers, or sweet opoponax, or eau-de-cologne. But they all agreed that it could not have been lavender, because it was vulgar not very expensive.
By William Brighty Rands
The air was hot and heavy with the smell of the dust of
ages which had gathered in the nooks and crannies of this
dull and drabby room. It mingled with irritating unpleas-
antness with the scent of opoponax or heliotrope that
emanated from lace handkerchiefs, and with the pungent
odours of smelling salts ostentatiously held to delicate
THE HEART OF A WOMAN
The conversation was here interrupted by the appearance of the priest, a
large fat man, whose new, thick-soled boots creaked as he ascended the
steps of the altar. He was preceded by two boys dressed in white and
black surplices, who rang little brass bells furiously; a great
trampling of feet was heard, and the peasants came into the church,
coughing and grunting with monotonous, animal-like voices; and the
sour odour of cabin-smoked frieze arose--it was almost visible in the
great beams of light that poured through the eastern windows; whiffs
of unclean leather, mingled with a smell of a sick child; and Olive
and May, exchanging looks of disgust, drew forth cambric
pocket-handkerchiefs, and in unison the perfumes of white rose and eau
d'opoponax evaporated softly.
After a time my troubled spirit grew calmer, as I
sat th%re inhaling the insidious breath of Tonquin
musk, the fragrance of attar of roses, the sweetness
of Indian spikenard and the stinging pungency of
myrrh, opoponax ,and ihlang-ylang. Fainfly I could
detect the perfume which I have always comited
the most exquisite of all save one — ^that delightful
preparation of Jasmine peculiarly Egyptian. But
the mystic breath of frankincense and erotic fumes
of ambergris alike left me unmoved ; for amid these
odorsy through which it has always seemed to me that
that of cedar runs thematically, I sought in vain for
the hint of '^Breath of Allah.''
By sax ROHMER
She pressed her handkerchief to her eyes, and exhaled over his a cloud of the perfume she habitually used. The discreet delicacy of the iris was overpowered by the sharp sweetnes of the opoponax, so that, half suffocated by the pungent odour of the atmosphere around her, he made for the window.
The undying past
By Hermann Sudermann
Posted by Christopher McMahon at 12:51 PM
Monday, June 22, 2009
Images of Mastic/Pistacia lentiscus
More Images of Mastic/Pistacia lentiscus
Olfactory Properties of Mastic(Pistacia lentiscus) essential oil/Morocco(wild harvest)
The clear to light yellow oil when aged(as is the current batch-2 years) displays a delightful and unique twiggy, green, sweet balsamic, soft lemon-like bouquet. When the oil is freshly distilled there is a more penetrating green turpentine like top-note but this softens on aging and takes on an elegant green, fresh sweetness. Beneath this fine topnote sits the rich balsamic note which also displays a lovely soft sweet floral note as the oil vaporizes into the surrounding air . The tenacity is very good making it a fit fixative.
It is important to note that many essential oils that are considered fixatives(sandalwood, vetiver, patchouli, myrrh, etc.) develop a fine mellow richness as they age. It is particularly noticeable after 2 years.
Blends well with allspice eo, co2 and abs; amberi attar; ambrette seed eo, co2 and abs; amyris eo; aromoise eo; bay leaf eo and abs; beeswax abs; benzoin abs; bergamot eo; black currant abs; bois de rose eo; cabreuva eo; carnation abs; carrot seed eo, co2 and abs; cassie abs,; cedarwood eo's; cistus eo and abs; cinnamon bark eo, co2 and abs; cassia eo and co2; clary sage eo and abs; clove bud eo, co2 and abs; coriander seed eo, co2 and abs; costus eo and co2; fir balsam eo and abs; frankincense eo, co2 and abs; galbanum eo, co2 and abs; guiacwood eo; gurjun balsam eo; hay abs; ho wood eo; labdanum abs and eo; lavender eo, co2 and abs; lavindin eo and abs; lime essence eo; lime eo; lemon essence eo; lemon eo; musk, black attar; nutmeg eo, co2 and abs; oakmoss abs; orange, sweet eo; orange, bitter eo; osmanthus abs; rose absolutes and eos; sandalwood eo; tonka bean abs; vanilla abs; vetiver eo, co2 and abs; violet leaf abs; ylang abs and eo
In perfumery can be used in colognes, fougeres, historical perfumes, incense bouquets, oriental bases, amber bases, musk bases, high class florals
Interesting facts about Mastic
1. The gum mastic is a resinous, aromatic substance that comes from the mastic tree(Pistacia lentiscus L. from the Anacardiaceae family), which grow on the south of Europe, north of Africa and the Levant, and abounds particularly on the island of Chioss .
2. This naturally-occurring resin used as a natural and hygienic chewing gum; excellent for teeth cleaning, where it sweetens the breath and helps preserve the teeth and gums.
3. In the making of perfume, Mastic is used as a fixative and for its earthy, liquor-like smell.
4. Chios mastic has been widely used for therapeutic purposes since antiquity and it was well know to almost all Mediterranean and Arabic countries. It was usually used as part of traditional and practical treatments for healing of various conditions such as gastritis, dyspepsia and peptic ulcer.
5. During antiquity mastic was used for fumigation, embalming and as a taste corrective for wine. With other spices used for like purposes, it is frequently mentioned in literature
6. Chewing mastic keeps teeth and gingival in good health.
Dentists use mastic oil as antiseptic and palliative.
For the same reason, mastic is used as ingredient of toothpastes.
Mastic in Literature
Ah me I how I remember the evening when it came!
What a cry of eager voices, what a group of cheeks in flame,
When the wondrous box was opened that had come from over seas,
With its smell of mastic-varnish and its flash of ivory keys!
Then the children all grew fretful in the restlessness of joy,
For the boy would push his sister, and the sister crowd the boy,
Till the father asked for quiet in his grave paternal way,
But the mother hushed the tumult with the words, "Now, Mary, play."
THE POETICAL WORKS
OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES
He brought his own bread—a coarse, brown sort, which he preferred to the better white bread—and with it he ate great quantities of butter. As we sat down at the table his first demand was for "Mastika," a peculiar Greek drink distilled from mastic gum, and his second demand invariably was "Du beurre!" with the "r's" as silent as the stars; and if it failed to come at once the waiter was made to feel the enormity of his tardiness.
Appreciations of Richard Harding Davis, by Various
The rest of the descent lay through evergreen shrubbery so frequently mentioned, and a more exquisite piece of máquis I had not seen. Thus sauntering on, sometimes talking with Antoine, a species of shrub, which I had not much observed before, attracted my particular attention among the arbutus and numerous other well-known varieties. It was a bushy evergreen, of shapely growth, five or six feet high, with masses of foliage and clusters of bright red berries, having an aromatic scent.
“What do you call this shrub, Antoine?” plucking a branch.
“Lustinea; the country people express an oil from the berries for use in their lamps.”
“Ah! I perceive it is the Lentiscus.” In Africa and the isle of Scios they make incisions in the stems, from which the gum mastic is procured. The Turks chew it to sweeten the breath. It grows also in Provence, Italy, and Spain.
Rambles in the Islands of Corsica and
Sardinia, by Thomas Forester
THE CHIEF GROCER
We have rose-candy, we have spikenard,
Mastic and terebinth and oil and spice,
And such sweet jams meticulously jarred
As God's Own Prophet eats in Paradise.
Hassan: The Story of Hassan of
Baghdad and How He Came to Make the Golden Journey to Samarkand
by James Elroy Flecker
Sweet, verdant isle! through thy dark woods I rove
And learn the nature of each native tree,
The fustic hard; the poisonous manchineel,
Which for its fragrant apple pleaseth thee;
The lowly mangrove, fond of watery soil;
The white-barked palm tree, rising high in air;
The mastic in the woods you may descry;
Tamarind and lofty bay-trees flourish there;
Sweet orange groves in lonely valleys rise,
And drop their fruits unnoticed and unknown;
The cooling acid limes in hedges grow,
The juicy lemons swell in shades their own.
A Little Journey to Puerto Rico, by Marian M. George
Links for Pistacia lentiscus/Mastic
Wikipedia article on Mastic
Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils of Pistacia lentiscus L. from Algeria
World spice Plants:Pistacia species
Mastic in Chios
Production of Mastic
Mastic in Medicine
Various Uses of Gum Mastic in the Middle Ages
Monday, June 15, 2009
Images of Jasminum sambac
There is something about jasmine that captures with special intensity the incandescence and luminosity, the simplicity and innocence of childhood. Is it its starlike whiteness? Is it the trembling delicacy of its blossom hovering over its stem and leaves almost like a dream? Is it its ephemeral beauty, its long-lasting sweet fragrance, its generous yielding of flowers every single day of summer? Whatever it is, there¹s something about the jasmine that takes me to places where I have to leave words behind, to the places where I have left my childhood, places that continue to invade my dreams in the setting of my earliest memories. In my past. There, there is jasmine; plenty of it; in abundance; in profusion. I grew up with it. The hot summer sun. Dust in the air. And suddenly, the jasmine. Like fresh snow; like a mind untainted by questions. Like certainty.¹ Farzaneh Milani, Iranian author
Olfactory qualities of Jasmin sambac CO2 select extract/China(nonsprayed)
The Jasmin sambac co2 select extract is clear flowable liquid capturing the beautiful delicate sweet floral fruity topnotes of the Jasmin sambac flowers as they began to release their lovely fragrance into the air of a South Indian evening between 9-12 PM.
The absolute of Jasmin sambac is also lovely but it displays more of the heavier sultry indolic oriental floral heartnote of the flower than this unusual fresh top note. This soft beautiful floral/fruity note continues well into the dry-out where it is complemented with a sweet deep balsamic bouquet. The freshness and delicacy of the aroma remain present at all stages of its aromatic life. I feel that a combination of 25-40% of the co2 extract would work wonderfully with a well extracted absolute of the flowers.
Blends well with ambretee eo, co2 and abs; amyris eo; artemisia annua eo; bakul attar and abs; beeswax absolute; benzoin absolute; bergamot eo; bois de rose eo; cabreuva eo; champa attar and abs; clary sage eo and abs; clove bud eo, co2 and abs; coconut abs; copiaba balsam eo; coriander eo and co2; currant black abs; davana eo, co2 and abs; fennel seed eo and co2;frangipani abs; frankincense eo, co2 and abs; ginger eo, co2 and abs; ginger lily abs; henna leaf abs and co2; hyssop eo and co2; glanagal eo; jasmin auriculatum abs; jasmin grandiflorum abs; karo karounde abs; lavender eo, co2 and abs; lemon eo; lime essence eo; lime eo; magnolia lily co2; mimosa abs; narcissus abs; orange, sweet eo; orange, bitter eo; orange, blood eo; orange blossom abs; neroli eo; patchouli eo, co2 ane abs; petitgrain eo's; rosa damascena abs and eo; rosa centifolia abs; rosa bourbonia abs; rosa odorata eo; rosa rugosa eo; tea, black abs and co2; tea, green co2 and abs; saffron co2; sandalwood eo, co2 and abs; siamwood eo; tonka bean abs; tuberose attar and abs; verbena eo and abs; violet leaf abs; ylang eo and abs; vetiver eo, co2 and abs
In perfumery is used in garland perfumes, oriental bouquets; tropical essences; sacred perfumes,incense bases, high class florals, geographical perfumes, culinary perfumes, tea creations
Interesting facts about Jasminum sambac/Motia/Sampaguita/Pikake/Arabian jasmine
1. It is the national flower of the Philippines, adopted by its government in 1937.
In the Philippines, the flowers are gathered and strung into leis, corsages and crowns or its oils distilled and sold in stores, streets, and outside churches. The garlands may be used to welcome guests, or as an offering or adornment in religious altars. It symbolizes purity and love.
2. In Indonesia, the flower symbolizes purity, eternal love and nobility. It also symbolizes the beauty of a girl. The flower is commonly used in religious or cultural ceremony especially in Java and Bali. It is nicknamed puspa bangsa (nation flower or people flower) by the government.
3. These are the flowers which are used in traditional Thai cuisine to scent sweets. The flowers are steeped in a covered container of water overnight. The strained water is used to extract coconut milk from freshly grated coconuts, or to cook tapioca flour and sugar for small, jelly-like sweets.
4. The production of jasmine tea is quite interesting. It is important to begin with high quality green tea - tea that has been produced between the middle of March and the middle of May. Equally important for jasmine tea are fine jasmine blossoms - flowers that bloom between the 1st of May and the end of May (these have the most intense aroma). Traditionally layers of jasmine blossoms were placed between fine green tea. In time the scent of the jasmine permeated the tea. Today, hot air is passed through the jasmine blossoms and then filtered through the tea so that the blossoms can be used more than once. The exhausted blossoms are then used to decorate the tea. Produced in both China and Taiwan, jasmine tea yields a cup with all the concentrated heady bouquet of a garden in bloom.
5.Sampaguita, a Spanish term, comes from the Pilipino words "sumpa kita," which means "I promise you." It is a pledge of mutual love. In early days, a young couple exchanged sampaguita necklaces much like a bride and groom exchange wedding rings nowadays. To this day, garlands of sampaguita are offered to dignitaries and special guests.
6. It was said that a Chinese emperor of the Sung dynasty (960-1279 AD) had Jasmine in his palace grounds so he could enjoy its fragrance. In the 1400s, Jasmine was planted for kings of Afghanistan, Nepal and Persia.
7. In India some varieties are used as religious offerings symbolizing divine hope. The Hindus string the flowers together as neck garlands for honoured guests. The flowers of one of the double varieties ("Belle of India") are held sacred to Vishnu and are used as votive offerings in Hindu religious ceremonies.
Jasmin sambac/Arabian jasmine/Pikake/Sampaguita in literature
The flower markets blaze with many-coloured roses, tons of gardenias and a wealth of white heavy-scented flowers, such as tuberoses and Arabian jasmine. All the spices of the East, in fact, seem breathing from these mounds of blossom, as well as from gums and essences distilled from them in archaic fashion. Transparent sachets, filled with the scented petals of ylang-ylang, fill the air with intoxicating sweetness, and outside the busy passer, a frangipanni-tree, the native sumboya or "flower of the dead," just opening a white crowd of golden-hearted blossoms to the sun, adds another wave of perfume to the floral incense, steaming from earth to sky with prodigal exuberance.Through the Malay Archipelago, by Emily Richings
Court within court, garden beyond garden, reception halls, private
apartments, slaves' quarters, sunny prophets' chambers on the roofs and
baths in vaulted crypts, the labyrinth of passages and rooms stretches
away over several acres of ground. A long court enclosed in pale-green
trellis-work, where pigeons plume themselves about a great tank and the
dripping tiles glitter with refracted sunlight, leads to the fresh gloom
of a cypress garden, or under jasmine tunnels bordered with running
water; and these again open on arcaded apartments faced with tiles and
stucco-work, where, in a languid twilight, the hours drift by to the
ceaseless music of the fountains.
In Morocco, by Edith Wharton
They halted at a ruined palace in the desert. The Arabs led him through the various rooms, explaining that each was scented with a different perfume. Although Lawrence could smell nothing, they claimed that one room had the odor of ambergris—another of roses—and a third of jasmine;—at length they came to a large and particularly ruinous room. "This," they said, "has the finest scent of all—the smell of the wind and the sun." I last saw Colonel Lawrence in Paris, whither he had brought the son of the King of the Hedjaz to attend the Peace Conference.
War in the Garden of Eden, by Kermit Roosevelt
Links to Jasminum sambac/Sampaguita/Pikake
Varieties of Jasmin sambac and growing in the home
Book on Jasminum sambac
Floral volatiles of Jasminum sambac
Jasmin sambac in Indian medicine
Jasmin sambac in Chinese Tea
Wednesday, June 10, 2009
Supercritical fluids:How it works
Images of Allspice/Pimenta berry
Olfactory properties of Allspice(Pimenta diocia) CO2 total extract/Jamaica organic
The co2 total extract of Allspice berries is a olive green liquid displaying a fresh, warm, complex, rich, sweet, powdery-spicy bouquet with a delicate dry, woody undertone. As it settles into the dry-out phase a slightly fruity, sweet balsamic body note appears which has good tenacity.
It is important to note that the total extract of aromatic plants has a highly variable consistency. A total extract removes all the removable components of the plant being extracted including fatty acids, resins, tannins, waxes etc that are present in the starting material-not just the volatile constituents which are responsible for the aroma. In the case of allspice berries the precentage of volatile oil is quite high so the aroma is very strong and pleasant but if the starting material is something like lemonbalm, marigold flowers, arnica flowers, etc then the aroma while present is much reduced as compared to a select extract of the same.
Regarding the aroma of co2 extracts they tend to have a smoother, softer, rounder bouquet as compared with the essential oil distilled from the same aromatic raw material. The heat of extraction is very low as compared to the high heat of distillation so the volatile constituents tend to remain the same as in the plant material itself and are not converted in to other chemicals or totally lost as sometimes happens in steam distillation. The longer the distillation period(as is very common with roots and spices) the more changes a distilled oil undergoes. It is not
Blends well with agarwood/oud eo and co2; amberi attar; amyris wood eo; anise seed eo; angelica root eo, co2 and abs; angelica seed eo; bay leaf oil; beeswax abs; benzoin abs; calamus eo and co2; cananga eo; cardamon eo, co2 and abs; cistus eo and abs; caraway eo and co2; cinnamon leaf eo; cinnamon bark eo and co2; cassia eo and co2; clove bud eo, co2 and abs; clove leaf eo; costus eo and co2; fennel eo and co2; frankincense eo, co2 and abs; geranium eo and abs; guaicwood eo; ginger root eo, co2 and abs; labdanum eo and abs; laurel leaf eo and abs; lavender eo, co2 and abs; lavindin eo and abs; lovage root eo and co2; musk, black attar; myrtle eo; nagarmotha eo and co2; nutmeg eo, co2 and abs; opoponax eo and abs; orris root eo, co2 and abs; patchouli eo, co2 and abs; shamamma attar; rose absolutes and eo's; sandalwood eo, co2 and abs; siamwood eo; spearmint eo and co2; tonka bean abs; vanilla abs and co2; vetiver eo, co2 and abs; ylang eo and abs
In perfumery is used in culinary perfumes, colognes, chypres, oriental bases, rose bases, spice accords. incense bouquets
Interesting facts about Pimento berry/Allspice/Pimenta dioica
1. The trees grow most prolifically in Jamaica and will continue to bear fruit for up to 100 years
2. The berries are harvested while green and dried in the sun or artificially
3. The early Central American civilizations used allspice for flavoring chocolate
4. Berries were used in the religious practices of the Maya
5. The pimento tree is indigenous to the Caribbean Islands.
It was found growing in Jamaica by early Spanish explorers who were quite impressed with the taste and aroma of the berries and the leaves. Pimento trees were later discovered in Cuba and were presumed to have been taken there by migratory birds which had eaten the berries. They have also been found in Mexico, but it is Jamaica that has the longest history, having been in continuous production since the tree was identified in about the year 1509.
6. The name Pimento originated from the Spanish word "pimienta" (pepper or peppercorn). To most English speaking people the tree is called "pimento" and the berries "allspice". The name allspice originated from the popular notion that the pimento berry contains the characteristic flavour and aroma of cloves, nutmeg, cinnamon and pepper, all combined in one spice.
Allspice/Pimento in Literature
Her repentance was not proof against Uncle Whittier when
she stopped in at his grocery for salt and a package of
safety matches. Uncle Whittier, in a shirt collarless and soaked
with sweat in a brown streak down his back, was whining
at a clerk, "Come on now, get a hustle on and lug that pound
cake up to Mis' Cass's. Some folks in this town think a
storekeeper ain't got nothing to do but chase out 'phone-
orders. . . . Hello, Carrie. That dress you got on looks
kind of low in the neck to me. May be decent and modest--
I suppose I'm old-fashioned--but I never thought much of
showing the whole town a woman's bust! Hee, hee, hee!
. . . . Afternoon, Mrs. Hicks. Sage? Just out of it.
Lemme sell you some other spices. Heh?" Uncle Whittier was
nasally indignant "CERTAINLY! Got PLENTY other spices jus'
good as sage for any purp'se whatever! What's the matter
with--well, with allspice?" When Mrs. Hicks had gone, he
raged, "Some folks don't know what they want!"
by Sinclair Lewis
And then follows a long description of the wonderful climate, "like May in Andalusia," the noble rivers, and gorgeous scenery, the trees and fruits and flowers and singing birds; the spices and the cotton; and chief of all, the vast stores of gold and pearls of which the Admiral had brought home specimens. At various stages in his narrative he produces illustrations; now a root of rhubarb or allspice; now a raw nugget of gold; now a piece of gold laboured into a mask or belt; now a native decorated with the barbaric ornaments that were the fashion in Espanola. These things, says Columbus, are mere first-fruits of the harvest that is to come; the things which he, like the dove that had flown across the sea from the Ark and brought back an olive leaf in its mouth, has brought back across the stormy seas to that Ark of civilisation from which he had flown forth.
CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS AND THE NEW WORLD OF HIS DISCOVERY
By Filson Young (1906)
Meanwhile the old lady, who had hailed our advent with the hospitality of her country, set about preparing our entertainment. Tradition says of the puritans, the pilgrims of New England, that when they first stood on Plymouth Rock, on their first arrival from Europe, they bore the bible under one arm and a cookery book under the other. Now, as to their descendants, the refugees, I am not exactly sure if, when they pilgrimised to New Brunswick, they were so careful of the bible, but I am certain they retain the precepts of the cookery book, and love to embody them when they may. Soon as a guest comes within ken of a blue nose, the delightful operations commence. The poorer class shifting with Johnny-cake and pumpkin, while, with the better off, the airy phantoms of custard and curls, which flit through their brains, are called into tangible existence. The air is impregnated with allspice and nutmeg -- apple "sarce" and cranberry "persarves" become visible, while sal-a-ratus and molasses are evidently in the ascendant.
Sketches And Tales Illustrative Of Life In The Backwoods Of New Brunswick
by Mrs. F. Beavan
"This is my lady-friend, Rose Fortune," said Henrietta as she drained the coffee-pot, and nodding first to the visitor, then to myself; "my gentleman-friend, brother Mason."
Brother Mason had risen and tiptoed forward, his hands thrust into the bulging pockets of his overcoat, whence he proceeded gravely to draw forth and deposit upon the barrel-top a heterogeneous love-offering, as follows: two oranges; a box of mustard; a small sack of nutmegs; a box of ground pepper; a package of allspice; a box containing three dozen bouillon capsules; a bottle of the exact size and label as the innumerable empty vessels on the mantel; a package of tea done up in fancy red-and-gold paper; and, last, a large paper sack of pulverized coffee.
Henrietta now handed a cup to the donor of these gifts, which he accepted meekly and carried on tiptoe back to his place on the edge of the bed.
The long day
the story of a New York working girl (1905)
by "Dorothy Richardson"
"I'll tell you another thing I like about a farmer's life," said
I, "that's the smell in the house in the summer when there are
preserves, or sweet pickles, or jam, or whatever it is, simmering
on the stove. No matter where you are, up in the garret or down
cellar, it's cinnamon, and allspice, and cloves, and every sort
of sugary odour. Now, that gets me where I live!"
The Friendly Road; New Adventures in
Contentment by David Grayson (pseudonym of Ray Stannard Baker)
In the fair, white, green-shuttered house, pleasantly set amid fragrant pimento trees and other aromatic shrubs, Captain Easterling was received with dignified friendliness by the slight, elegant Frenchman who brought to the wilds of Tortuga a faint perfume of the elegancies of Versailles. Coming from the white glare outside into the cool spacious room, to which was admitted only such light as filtered between the slats of the closed shutters, the Captain found himself almost in darkness until his eyes had adjusted themselves.
The Chronicles of Captain Blood
Links for Allspice berry/Pimenta dioica
Wikipedia article on Allspice
Gernot Katzer's monograph on Allspice
Allspice in cooking
Chemical composition of allspice oil of different origins obtained by steam distillation and co2 extraction
Monograph on Pimento berry
Historic photos of Jamaica
Tuesday, June 2, 2009
Images of Honeybush/Cyclopia spp.
Olfactory Properties of Honeybush(Cyclopia spp.) CO2/Alcohol select extract
The honeybush co2 is a clear liquid with a delicious deep honey/floral sweet aroma with a coumarinic-fruity-herbacous undertone. It maintains its peak of fragrance for over an hour and then the entire bouquet gradually softens while maintaining the above mentioned characteristics
Blends well with aglaia odorata abs; auracaria eo; bakul abs and attar; beeswax abs; boronia abs; broom abs; cananga eo; cassie abs; chamomile, english eo; chamomile, blue eo and abs; chamomile, morocco eo and abs; champa, golden attar and abs; champa, white flower co2; clary sage eo and abs; copaiba balsam eo; erigeron eo; fir balsam abs; frangipani abs gurjun balsam eo; frangipani abs; hay abs helichrysum eo and abs;henna flower attar and abs; jasmin sambac abs; jasmin grandiflorum abs; jasmin auriculatum abs; lavindin eo and abs; lavender eo, co2 and abs magnolia lily co2; mimosa abs; neroli eo; osanthus absolute; rosa damascena abs and otto; rosa bourbonia abs; rose de mai abs; rosa odorata eo; rosa rugosa eo; ruh kewda; ruh motia; ruh khus; saffron co2; tonka bean abs; tuberose abs and attar; vetiver eo, co2 and abs; violet leaf abs; ylang abs and eo
In perfumery can be used in roseacous bases; new mown hay bases; culinary perfumes; colognes; amber bases; geographical perfumes; herbaceous bouquets
Interesting facts about Honeybush(Cyclopia spp.)
1. Honeybush flowers emit distinct “honey” scent.
In order to produce the sweetest flavor, Honeybush plant is harvested during flowering season
2. International interest in honeybush is traced back to the tea trade of the Dutch and the British. A settlement, which eventually became Cape Town, was established in 1652 as a supply base for the Dutch East India Company that was trading in Indian tea and Southeast Asian spices. Botanists began cataloguing the rich flora of the cape soon after; the honeybush plant was noted in botanical literature by 1705. Though there are no published reports at that time of its use as a tea by the native populations (the San and Khoi-Khoi tribes, known today as KhoiSan or Bushmen), it was soon recognized by the colonists as a suitable substitute for ordinary tea, probably based on observing native practices.
3.Production of honeybush tea is similar to normal and rooibos tea. The plant is harvested, dried and oxidised (‘fermented'). For the oxidizing step two typical methods are used; oxidizing in a curing heap or at elevated temperatures in a preheated "baking-oven". Contrary to normal tea oxidation, the process takes a much longer time.
The traditional method of honeybush tea ‘fermentation' is the use of curing heap, especially when large quantities of tea are produced. A round oval shaped heap of approximately four to five meters in diameter and two meters high requires 1.5 – 2.5 ton of green honeybush material. The heap is packed firmly and left for three days to allow spontaneous heat generation and fermentation. Temperature build-up is quick since the heap is already warm when the final material is packed into heap.
During the fermentation period, the material changes from green to dark-brown and develops a sweet aroma. From the third day onwards the heap is turned every twelve hours to ensure that outer, cooler regions, are mixed with the rest of the material and to prevent oxygen depletion in the heap. The heap is therefore inspected after three to five days of fermentation, depending on the species used. If a sweet, honey-like aroma is present and the material has a dark-brown colour, the heap is spread open in a thin layer on canvas and allowed to dry in the sun.
The use of a preheated oven gives a product of better and more consistent quality since better control over the temperature of the fermentation process is possible and shorter fermentation periods (24-36 h) are needed to obtain fully fermented tea, either to inhibit mould growth.
4. Money beetles are attracted to the sweet smelling flowers at the tip of the branches. They are responsible for most of the pollination. The brown seeds are formed in small pods that turn brown. The pods dry and split open within a few weeks as the seed ripens.
5. Most of the species have very limited distribution ranges and special habitat preferences. Some are restricted to mountain peaks (Cyclopia burtonii, Cyclopia glabra, Cyclopia aurescens, Cyclopia bolusii, Cyclopia alpina), others to perennial streams (Cyclopia maculata, Cyclopia longifolia) or to marshy areas (Cyclopia pubescens), shalebands (Cyclopia plicata, Cyclopia alopecuroides) and wet southern slopes (Cyclopia bowieana, Cyclopia squamosa). Over the years only Cyclopia intermedia ("bergtee") and Cyclopia subternata ("vleitee") have found limited commercial application, but it is known that the Cyclopia maculata, Cyclopia genistoides and Cyclopia sessiliflora ("Heidelbergtee") species have been used for home consumption. These species, including Cyclopia meyeriana, Cyclopia pubescens, Cyclopia dregeana and Cyclopia buxifolia, are currently being evaluated for future commercialization.
Links for Honeybush Tea/Cyclopia spp.
Wikipedia article on Honeybush
Honeybush History and Use
Plants of Africa monograph on Honeybush
Active ingredients in Honeybush
Honeybush Research Program