White Champa CO2 select extract

White Champa/Michelia alba

The essence of White Champa CO2 select extract which is obtained from the flowers of the small to medium sized tree Michelia alba is not well known in the West but is deeply appreciated in the Far East where the trees grow in abundance in the warm subtropical and tropical climates. It is mainly grown in China for extraction. There is also not a lot of literature on the flower and its uses but a few notes are presented here which should help in giving some idea of its place in the life of the people living in areas where it grows.

"My own first encounter with Michelia alba was during Chinese New Year in Taipei in the early 1980s. A Taiwanese friend and his family took me to the Lung Ching Temple in the oldest part of the city on New Year's Day. There we bought teardrop-shaped, waxy-looking ivory flowers with the most incredible perfume I'd ever smelled. Each had a small thread looped through the short stem for hanging on wire racks next to the altar. My friend explained that the scent was so wonderful, it would "rise up to Heaven and get the gods' attention" as we asked them for good fortune in the coming year.

Later, when I lived in Thailand, I'd get up at dawn for my morning walks and buy several bags of Michelia alba buds ("chom-pii" in Thai) from the flower garland sellers outside the Erawan Shrine in Bangkok. When I got back home, I'd float them in bowls so the scent permeated every room in the house. In Java, where M. alba is known as "cempaka putih," the flowers are ritually offered at temple ceremonies to mark holidays, births, or deaths."

The Jampee tree is small to medium-sized (15-14 feet high). It can be cultivated as a garden plant. The flowers are long and narrow, white in color, and strongly fragrant. They are used as religious offerings or in garlands. The sweet, pungent, alluring fragrance makes them an ideal ingredient for perfumes. A single blossom or a packet can be bought from street sellers or at a flower market. Young Thai women can often be seen carrying a blossom in their hand to sniff while strolling, sitting with friends, or wearing as a temporary string necklace. Its botanical name is Magnoliaceae Michelia Alba DC.

Heat & humidity definitely bring out the fragrance. My M. alba is in bloom right now & the wafting fragrance can be smelled from afar on a warm day but can hardly be detected on a cool day.
Here's a story to illustrate my point:
Once I took a M. alba plant on a crowded bus without air conditioning on a Hong Kong summer day which is notorious for its high humidity, all the passengers turned their heads & wanted to know what I got in my arms. For all of a sudden the stuffiness & the smell of many sweating bodies sardined together was swept away by this fragrance from heaven. The remarkable thing was there were only a couple of blossoms on the plant but that's all it took.

Olfactory Properties of White Champa CO2 select extract/China

After placing a few drops on the AromaStone the most volatile of the aromatic molecules present in the essence became activated within a few seconds presenting a first impression of a suave, sweet, floral-herbaceous bouquet with a slight fruity tinge. The aroma matures in the atmosphere in a measured way indicating a fine heart note essence.
Within a few minutes the fruity/floral bouquet becomes stronger-the floral note being of a heavy, sultry tropical character reminding one of the hot, humid air accompanying the monsoon season.(which I have enjoyed in India many times in my life) The fruity note has a peachy character to it.
A little further into the evaporation of the co2 extract in the range of 10-15 minutes a green, herbaceous note emerges with greater clarity and distinction. The overall effect of the radiated essence is one of great complexity, yet smooth, velvety, mysterious and alluring.
Very deep into the dryout, the fine, sweet, soft fruity, herbaceous aroma comes into the ascendant and remains throughout the aromatic life of the extract(for many hours)
To me this essence represents the monsoon season very beautifully with its initial heavy oriental bouquet which captures the feeling of the intense humidity and heat proceeding the downfall of refreshing, enlivening rain. The sweet, delicate herbaceous note that remains late in the dry out capturing the feeling of relief, relaxation and refreshment one experiences when the rain finally arrives.

Blends well with agalaia odorata abs; ambrette seed eo, co2 and abs; amyris eo; bakul abs; beeswax abs; benzoin abs; bergamot eo; boronia abs; broom abs; cassie abs; cananga eo; cabreuva eo; chamomile,english eo and co2; chamomile, blue eo and co2; copaiba balsam eo; coriander eo and co2; elderflower eo and abs; fir balsam abs; flouve abs; frangipani abs; guaicwood eo; gurjun balsam eo; hay abs; helichyrsum eo and abs; henna flower attar; jasmim grandiflorum abs; jasmin sambac abs; lime eo; lime essence eo; litsea cubeba eo; melissa eo, co2 and abs; magnolia lily co2; orange blossom abs; orris root eo, co2 and abs; peru balsam eo and abs; rosa damascena eo and abs; rose de mai abs; rosa bourbonia eo and abs; sandalwood eo, co2 and abs; siamwood eo; tuberose abs and attar; verbena eo and abs; violet leaf abs; ylang eo and abs; saffron co2

In perfumery would be excellent in oriental bouquets, seasonal compositions, sacred perfumes, tropical fragrances, liquid incense creations, geographical perfumes, garland compositions

Further perfumery notes-

With each passing day spent in this type of olfactory exploration of individual oils(at least one hour morning and evening with each oil) the awareness deepens that over the course of the years I have not paid proper attention to this subject. There is so many amazing aromas concealed within each oil and even the time now being spent is but an entry level study. Yet it has convinced me that with a little bit of concentrated attention one's whole experience of the beauty of each oil can be awakened at a much deeper level. Even if one were go no further with the study than to get to know each oil intimately, that time would be counted as a remarkably special event because in order to interact with any essence in a more profound way, it is necessary to slow down and simplify the life so that the time can be found to engage in that work. In this face paced modern world this can take a bit of discipline but the subject natural essences is so interesting and the benefits of finding time for that study so rewarding that it becomes a pleasure to rearrange the daily schedule for that endeavor.


Fenaroli's handbook of flavor ingredients monograph on White Champa
Volatile constituents of Michelia alba
Images of Michelia alba

Balsam Fir Essential Oil/Canada(wild harvest

Wisdom of Chief Seattle

Olfactory Properties of Fir Balsam/Abies balsamea(wild harvested)

The fragrance of conifers in general has strong appeal to me as in my childhood we lived in the high desert of Carlsbad, New Mexico and occasionally we use to go up into the southern part of the Rockies to a small town named Cloudcroft where pines and firs grew in abundance. Ascending from the desert into the fragrant conifer forests was a magical experience. Later I was in a similar situation when I worked in the Sacramento Valley in Davis, California as well as helped develop my mom and I's flower farm in the Sierra Nevada mountains near Downieville. Coming out of the hot Sacramento Valley into the cooler higher elevations amidst the regal splendor of the conifer forests that surrounded our homestead and breathing in the rich aromas radiated by these grand trees was again something very special in the life.

When a few drops of Fir Balsam essential oil are placed on the AromaStone, the fragrance of this green, rich, sweet balsamic quickly spreads into the room and within 15 minutes one is in the midst of a redolent conifer forest. The aromas of the different conifer oils have many similarities but each has its own unique characteristics as well but finding a language to demarcate their unique attributes may not be so easy. One will need to find some means or other to register these subtle differences in their internal olfactory memory perfume laboratory.
One special part of the Fir Balsam olfactory life span comes after the strength of the sweet, resinous, green coniferous bouquet begins to recede which is after 60 minutes.
Then a very delicate ethereal sweet slightly minty note remains that is very delicoius and delightful. That quiet note remains in the atmosphere for several hours and breathing it takes one deep into the heart of a high altitude forest where only the quiet breezes, the chirping of birds and the filtered sunlight are one's companions. That aroma has a natural quiet, repose and serenity in it that is a joy to partake of.

Abies balsamea Links

Wikipedia article on Balsam Fir
Monograph on Balsam Fir including description, plants and animals with which it coexists etc
Images of Balsam Fir
Native American Ethnobotany of Balsam Fir
Typical gc of Balsam Fir
Great monograph on Abies balsamea including uses folk medicine
Ethnobotanical uses amongst Native People
Fenaroli's handbook of Flavor Ingredients monograph

Balsam Fir in Literature

The early morning breeze was still blowing, and the warm, sunshiny air was of some ethereal northern sort, with a cool freshness as it came over new-fallen snow. The world was filled with a fragrance of fir-balsam and the faintest flavor of seaweed from the ledges, bare and brown at low tide in the little harbor.
The Country of the Pointed Firs
Sarah Orne Jewett

"Give me of your balm, O Fir-tree!
Of your balsam and your resin,
So to close the seams together
That the water may not enter,
That the river may not wet me!"
And the Fir-tree, tall and sombre,
Sobbed through all its robes of darkness,
Rattled like a shore with pebbles,
Answered wailing, answered weeping,
"Take my balm, O Hiawatha!"
And he took the tears of balsam,
Took the resin of the Fir-tree,
Smeared therewith each seam and fissure,
Made each crevice safe from water.
Poetry of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
The Song of Hiawatha

Dainty old pieces of china, rare bits of bric-a-brac, the very broad and old-time fireplaces filled with cut boughs of the spicy fir balsam, and various antique pieces of furniture lend to the inner atmosphere of Quillcote a fine artistic and colonial effect, while not a stone's throw away, at the foot of a precipitous bank, flows--in a very irregular channel--the picturesque Saco River.
Polly Oliver's Problem, by Kate Douglas Smith Wiggin

For I warn you perfectly frankly that I am distinctly pro-dog and distinctly pro-Christmas, and would like to bring to this little story whatever whiff of fir-balsam I can cajole from the make-believe forest in my typewriter, and every glitter of tinsel, smudge of toy candle, crackle of wrapping paper, that my particular[2] brand of brain and ink can conjure up on a single keyboard! And very large-sized dogs shall romp through every page! And the mercury shiver perpetually in the vicinity of zero! And every foot of earth be crust
and bare with no white snow at all till the very last moment when you'd just about given up hope! And all the heart of the story is very,—oh very young!
Peace on Earth,
Good-Will to Dogs
Eleanor Hallowell Abbottrown

Beauty was all around them. Unsuspected tintings glimmered in the dark demesnes of the woods and glowed in their alluring by-ways. The spring sunshine sifted through the young green leaves. Gay trills of song were everywhere. There were little hollows where you felt as if you were bathing in a pool of liquid gold. At every turn some fresh spring scent struck their faces . . . spice ferns . . . fir balsam . . . the wholesome odour of newly ploughed fields. There was a lane curtained with wild-cherry blossoms . . . a grassy old field full of tiny spruce trees just starting in life and looking like elvish things that had squatted down among the grasses . . . brooks not yet "too broad for leaping" . . . star-flowers under the firs . . . sheets of curly young ferns . . . and a birch tree whence some vandal had torn away the white-skin wrapper in several places, exposing the tints of the bark below. Anne looked at it so long that Diana wondered. She did not see what Anne did
. . . tints ranging from purest creamy white, through exquisite golden tones, growing deeper and deeper until the inmost layer revealed the deepest richest brown as if to tell that all birches, so maiden-like and cool exteriorly, had yet warm-hued feelings.
Anne of Ingleside
L. M. Montgomery

She loved the spruce barrens, away at the further end of the long, sloping pasture. That was a place where magic was made. She came more fully into her fairy birthright there than in any other place. Nobody who saw Emily skimming over the bare field would have envied her. She was little and pale and poorly clad; sometimes she shivered in her thin jacket; yet a queen might have gladly given a crown for her visions--her dreams of wonder. The brown, frosted grasses under her feet were velvet piles. The old mossy, gnarled half-dead spruce-tree, under which she paused for a moment to look up into the sky, was a marble column in a palace of the gods; the far dusky hills were the ramparts of a city of wonder. And for companions she had all the fairies of the country-side--for she could believe in them here--the fairies of the white clover and satin catkins, the little green folk of the grass, the elves of the young fir-trees, sprites of wind and wild fern and thistledown. Anything might happen there--everything might come true.
Emily of New Moon (1923)
Montgomery, L. M. (Lucy Maud), 1874-1942.

Plant Wisdom Links
As we have gone on exploring the relationship between humans and plants the subject concerning the way in which people in all cultures and places have interacted with plants in order to become receptive to their knowledge or plant wisdom that the denizens of the plant world wish to share has come up. These links are concerned with this type of Plant Wisdom. At the core of this type of knowledge is developing the humilty and modesty to realize that there is much more to life than appears on the surface and by becoming attuned with the beauty of the natural world through kindness, appreciation and respect for all life forms our own lives become richer.
A book on Sacred Plant Wisdom of the Native American People
Plant Wisdom: Discovering Phytochemicals
How to communicate with plants
Speaking the language of plants: Communicating with your garden
The Secret Life of Plant-1st in a 7 part series

Cinnamon Bark Essential Oil

Animal Crackers
Animal crackers and cocoa to drink,
That is the finest of suppers I think;
When I'm grown up and can have what I please
I think I shall always insist upon these.
What do YOU choose when you're offered a treat?
When Mother says, "What would you like best to eat?"
Is it waffles and syrup, or cinnamon toast?
It's cocoa and animals that I love most!

The kitchen's the cosiest place that I know;
The kettle is singing, the stove is aglow,
And there in the twilight, how jolly to see
The cocoa and animals waiting for me.

Daddy and Mother dine later in state,
With Mary to cook for them, Susan to wait;
But they don't have nearly as much fun as I
Who eat in the kitchen with Nurse standing by;
And Daddy once said, he would like to be me
Having cocoa and animals once more for tea.
by Christopher Morley

Map of Sri Lanka

Olfactory properties of organic Cinnamon bark(Cinnamomum zeylanicum) essential oil/Sri Lanka

The volatile aromatic molecules contained in cinnamon bark are extremely powerful. Within a few seconds of being placed on the AromaStone they rapidly spread in the room giving off their warm, sweet, powdery, aromatic-spicy aroma which one can without hesitation proclaim as "cinnamon-like" as the spice is commonly encountered throughout the life. The aroma creates a very stimulating, clear, purifying and exhalting atmosphere. Nothing can withstand the advent of cinnamon aroma. It quickly takes over and dominates the area in which it exists.
As one accustoms themselves to these potent top notes, one also begins to perceive a very delicate, balsamic, precious dry-woody, vanilla-like chord on which they rest.
This very potent aroma maintains a uniform intensity and radiation for many hours after being placed on the AromaStone. There is an exquiste sweetness that floats on the top of it as one goes deeper and deeper into the dryout.

Blends well with agarwood eo and co2; amberi attar; amyris wood eo; benzoin abs; blood orange eo; bois de rose eo; canella bark eo; caraway seed eo and co2; cassia bark eo and co2; cassia leaf eo; cedarwood oils; cinnamon co2 and abs; cinnamon leaf eo; cistus eo and abs; clove bud eo, co2 and abs; copaiba balsam eo; coriander seed eo and co2; frankincense eo, co2 and abs; elemi eo, co2 and abs; fir balsam abs; guiacwood eo; juniperberry eo, co2 and abs; labdanum eo; labdanum abs; musk,black eo; opoponax eo and abs; orris root eo, co2 and abs; palmarosa eo; patchouli eo, co2 and abs; peppermint eo, co2 and abs; rosemary eo, co2 and abs; sandalwood eo, co2 and abs; shamama attar; tonka bean abs; vanilla co2 and abs

In perfumery
it is used in oriental bouquets(it forms a classic oriental accord with frankincense and vanilla abs) incense perfumes, culinary creations, geographical perfumes, symbolic essences, amber bases; holiday accords; forest compositions. Very tiny amounts of this precious essence can have a fine effect on a balanced perfume creation.


Wikipedia profile of Cinnnamon bark
Excellent monograph on Cinnamon bark
The Spice of Life: Cinnamon and Ceylon
Pictoral essay on cinnamon bark
Cinnamon zeylanicum images
Typical gc for cinnamon bark
Cinnamon recipes

Cinnamon in Literature
On board the boat were also every kind of lanterns representing such designs as are used on flower-pots, pearl-laden portieres, embroidered curtains, oars of cinnamon wood, and paddles of magnolia, which need not of course be minutely described.
Cao Xueqin
Hung Lou Meng

Ovid tells the story of the Phoenix as follows: “Most beings spring from other individuals; but there is a certain kind which reproduces itself. The Assyrians call it the Phoenix. It does not live on fruit or flowers, but on frankincense and odoriferous gums. When it has lived five hundred years, it builds itself a nest in the branches of an oak, or on the top of a palm tree. In this it collects cinnamon, and spikenard, and myrrh, and of these ‘materials builds a pile on which it deposits itself, and dying, breathes out its last breath amidst odours. From the body of the parent bird, a young Phoenix issues forth, destined to live as long a life as its predecessor. When this has grown up and gained sufficient strength, it lifts its nest from the tree (its own cradle and its parent’s sepulchre), and carries it to the city of Heliopolis in Egypt, and deposits it in the temple of the Sun.”
Thomas Bulfinch
Bulfinch's Mythology: The Age of Fable; or Stories of Gods and Heroes

While supper was preparing orders were given to show them the city, where they saw public structures that reared their lofty heads to the clouds; the market-places decorated with a thousand columns; fountains of spring water, besides others of rose water, and of liquors drawn from the sugarcane, incessantly flowing in the great squares; which were paved with a kind of precious stones that emitted an odor like that of cloves and cinnamon.

# Thy plants are an orchard of pomegranates, with pleasant fruits; camphire, with spikenard,
# Spikenard and saffron; calamus and cinnamon, with all trees of frankincense; myrrh and aloes, with all the chief spices:
# A fountain of gardens, a well of living waters, and streams from Lebanon.
The Bible
Book 22: Song of Solomon

When he entered her chamber, he was met by the pungent odour of cinnamon burning in a porphyry vase and the perfume of powders, unguents, cloud-like gauzes and embroideries light as feathers, filled the air with fragrance.
Gustave Flaubert

Tidemand entered the warehouse. A cool and tart smell of tropical products, of coffee and oils and wines, filled the atmosphere. Tall piles of tea-boxes, bundles of cinnamon sewn in bast, fruits, rice, spices, mountains of flour-sacks—everything had its designated place, from floor to roof. In one of the corners a stairway led to the cellar, where venerable hogsheads of wine with copper bands could be glimpsed in the half-light and where enormous metal tanks rested in massive repose.
Knut Hamsun
Shallow Soil

The Grocers’! oh, the Grocers’! nearly closed, with perhaps two shutters down, or one; but through those gaps such glimpses! It was not alone that the scales descending on the counter made a merry sound, or that the twine and roller parted company so briskly, or that the canisters were rattled up and down like juggling tricks, or even that the blended scents of tea and coffee were so grateful to the nose, or even that the raisins were so plentiful and rare, the almonds so extremely white, the sticks of cinnamon so long and straight, the other spices so delicious, the candied fruits so caked and spotted with molten sugar as to make the coldest lookers–on feel faint and subsequently bilious. Nor was it that the figs were moist and pulpy, or that the French plums blushed in modest tartness from their highly–decorated boxes, or that everything was good to eat and in its Christmas dress; but the customers were all so hurried and so eager in the hopeful promise of the day, that they tumbled up against each other at the door, crashing their wicker baskets wildly, and left their purchases upon the counter, and came running back to fetch them, and committed hundreds of the like mistakes, in the best humour possible; while the Grocer and his people were so frank and fresh that the polished hearts with which they fastened their aprons behind might have been their own, worn outside for general inspection, and for Christmas daws to peck at if they chose.
Charles Dickens
A Christmas Carol

This section continues the study of subjects related to aromatic plants. The study of the life cycle of plants is intimately linked up with the explorations of folks interested in natural aromatic essences. It is the plants that give us their rare botanical gifts so that our our lives may be enhanced on every level. Since human beings first appeared on the earth, the study of the natural world has been of primary importance. In indigenous cultures in all countries of the world the people had a profound relationship with nature because from her generous bounty all the materials that they needed for their well-being had to be gathered. All the senses had to be keenly alive to their immediate surrounding which they lived and it is safe to say that the so-called "primitive human beings" had a far keener sense of smell than we now have. Through this sublimest of senses they received reports from the environment they lived in, faster than through any of the other senses.
Amongst the indigenous people there were those rare individuals who developed an even greater sensory awareness than others with whom they lived and to them some of the deeper mysteries of nature were revealed. In the hearts of such people the awareness of the oneness of all life became evident and they learned through practical experience that the plant world had its own unique intelligence and if one approached it with humility and gratitude the plants themselves would impart to them a special time of wisdom that would be useful in helping others to a healthy and wholesome life.
With this heightened awareness, they also became aware that the aromas of plants had a special role to play in the well-being of others. At the source of the human life was "breath" and aromas of flowers, herbs, roots, etc acted directly on the breathing process, through the respiratory system and olfactory preceptors they came to understand how valuable these natural essences were in correcting imbalances in the system.
With the passage of time, human beings became more and more sophisticated and e disconnected from their environment with the result that the nose and the innate knowledge of the world gathered through it became of far less importance than it was earlier time. In fact the environments of modern times became so imbalanced with the odors created by man-created goods, that to protect oneself one often has to shut down perceptions received through the sense of smell. It has become severly atrophied as a result.
The nifty thing is that one can reawaken this ancient knowledge and reconnect with men and women in all parts of the world and in all cultures through carefully studying the odors of natural essences. Wonderfully today, we have access to a range of botanical essence's that has seldom been seen in any other time in world history. If a person very patiently and quietly enters this type of study, the knowledge that plants wish to share with other beings can once again get awakened which has a very good effect on ones own well being. Then one comes to know in a sweet way how human beings and other forms of life are part of some grand mystery that is linked together through chords of sympathy, appreciation, respect and reverence for life.

Plant Photosyntheis and Respiration

Wonderful video on Phytosynthesis for Children

Respiratory System of Human Beings

Cypress Essential Oil

A sage was asked: ‘Of so many notable, high and fertile trees which God the most high has created, not one is called free, except the cypress, which bears no fruit. What is the reason of this?’ He replied: ‘Every tree has its appropriate season of fruit, so that it is sometimes flourishing therewith, and looks sometimes withered by its absence; with the cypress, however, neither is the case, it being fresh at all times, and this is the quality of those who are free.’
Sheikh Muslih-uddin Sa'di Shirazi
The Gulistan of Sa'di

Interactive Map of Morocco

Olfactory evaluation of Cypress(Cupressus sempervirens) from Morocco

As soon as one places a few drops on the AromaStone the aromatic molecules begin to rapidly disperse into the surrounding atmosphere. The initial notes are delightfully fresh, green, resinous with a slight pungency. It is a gently invigorating aroma conveying to the heart the beauty of being in the vicinity of coniferous trees on a warm day when the are dispensing into the air their refreshing aromas and one is naturally inclined to drink in their aromatic elixir in gentle deep breaths. The atmosphere of the room continues to be charged with the soothing, comforting aroma of the oil and reaches its natural peak at around 30 minutes. At that point one also perceives a gentle sweet ethereal note arising out of the green, resinous bouquet.
After this peak which last for another 30 minutes the aroma begins to recede into the background quite noticeably although one may still detect traces of this fine aroma after 5 or 6 hours but one can certainly say it is not a dominant presence as one finds in a number of oils.
From this observation it can readily be seen that this oil could be used to great advantage as a top note/heart note in the compositions in which is incorporation would be suitable.

Blends well with armoise eo; bergamot eo; blood orange eo; camphor, white eo; cardamon eo, co2 and abs; cassia bark eo and co2; cedarwood eo's; citronella eo, clary sage eo and abs; coriander seed eo, co2 and abs; cypress abs; eucalyptus oils; fennel seed eo and co2; frankincense eo, co2 and abs; galbanum eo, co2 and abs; ginger root eo, co2 and abs; grapefruit eo; ho leaf and ho wood eo; juniper berry eo, co2 and abs; lavender eo, co2 and abs; lavindin eo and abs; lemon eo; lemon essence eo; lemongrass eo; lime eo; lime essence eo; litsea cubeba eo; orange, sweet eo; orange essence eo; orange bitter eo; pepper, black eo and co2; pepper, pink eo and co2, peppermint eo, co2 and abs; petitgrain eo; petitgrain, lemon eo; petitgrain, mandarin eo; petitgrain, bergamot eo; petitgrain, combava eo; pine needle eo and abs; spruce, black eo; spruce, white eo; tea tree eo, tea tree, lemon eo; verbena eo and abs

In perfumery would serve very well in forest bases, amber bases, colognes, fougeres, chypres, geographical perfumes, mythological or symbolic bouquets

Further perfume notes-
It is vitally important to realize that an essential oil from the same genus and species but from different origins(for example, cypress essential oil is distilled in France, Spain, Sicily, Portugal, Corsica, etc may have different aromatic characteristics. It will definitely share much of the general bouquet but will have some differences in aroma depending on the distilling technique, season of harvest, soil type in which the plant is growing, age of the oil, and many many other factors.
So that is why it proves beneficial to make some notes about the oil one is doing the olfactory exploration of. Aside from the difference that exist between the essential oil that is coming from different locations, etc. there are even greater differences between the essence of the same plant extracted by other means such as co2 or hexane/alcohol(for the concrete/absolute) There is no perfect method of distillation or extraction technique for any aromatic plant so one needs to gradually acquaint themselves with these differences and use each fine essence in a way that will bring forth its special qualities.

Cypress in Morocco-

Their interior disposition greatly resembles that of Spanish houses-the doors are of carved cypress wood, the rooms long and narrow, with scarcely any furniture except for a few mats, carpets and rugs.
A dictionary, geographical, statistical, and historical, of the various countries, places and principal natural objects in the world
By J. R. McCulloch

The road leading thereto was through lanes and spaces bounded by walls built of tabia, these enclosing gardens filled with trees of various kinds, such as the lemon, citron, olive, date-palm, walnut, mulberry, almond, pomegranate, apple, pear, peach and other fruits. Evergreens grew in great luxuriance, and included the cypress, cedar and myrtle...
Morocco and the Moors
By Arthur Leared

The Kutubiya Tower is the pride of Marakish. Its height must be considerable, and it stands in a large walled enclosure, its base surrounded with tapering cypress trees and olives.
A Ride in Morocco among Believers and Traders by Agnes Fraser

Their burial grounds are enclosed by cypress and other lofty dark trees, the lower parts of which are interwoven with odoriferous shrubs and creeping plants, forming an almost impenetrable hedge...
Travels through the empire of Morocco
By John Buffa

Between these avenues, as at the Agidal Palace, are groves of fruit trees, for the most part oranges and lemons, which at the time we were there were not only in fruit, but also in blossom. Here and there, above the heads of the oranges, rises a tall cypress, a pillar of stately dark green...
The Land of the African Sultan-Travels in Morocco by Walter Burton Harris

Wikipedia article on the Cypress/Cupressus species
Images of Cypress trees
Description, history, etc of Cypress
Cypress monograph
Diaspora of the Cypress Tree and its uses
Nice monograph on Cypress

Cypress in Literature
The garden of Maumal was famous among the Moors for its rivulets, its fountains, its flowers, and above all, its cypresses. It had its name from a vizier of Abdallah, grandson of Aben Habuz, and Sultan of Granada. Under the administration of this vizier many of the noblest public works were executed. He constructed an aqueduct by which water was brought from the mountains of Alfacar to irrigate the hills and orchards north of the city. He planted a public walk with cypress-trees, and “made delicious gardens for the solace of the melancholy Moors.” “The name of Maumal,” says Alcantara, “ought to be preserved in Granada in letters of gold.” Perhaps it is as well preserved by being associated with the garden he planted; and by being mentioned in the verses of Hafsah. How often does a casual word from a poet confer immortality!
Washington Irving
The Alhambra

A sage was asked: ‘Of so many notable, high and fertile trees which God the most high has created, not one is called free, except the cypress, which bears no fruit. What is the reason of this?’ He replied: ‘Every tree has its appropriate season of fruit, so that it is sometimes flourishing therewith, and looks sometimes withered by its absence; with the cypress, however, neither is the case, it being fresh at all times, and this is the quality of those who are free.’

Place not thy heart on what passes away; for the Tigris
Will flow after the Khalifs have passed away in Baghdad.
If thou art able, be liberal like the date tree,
And if thy hand cannot afford it, be liberal like the cypress.
The motionless waves shone around Carthage, for the moon was spreading her light at once upon the mountain-circled gulf and upon the lake of Tunis, where flamingoes formed long rose-coloured lines amid the banks of sand, while further on beneath the catacombs the great salt lagoon shimmered like a piece of silver. The blue vault of heaven sank on the horizon in one direction into the dustiness of the plains, and in the other into the mists of the sea, and on the summit of the Acropolis, the pyramidal cypress trees, fringing the temple of Eschmoun, swayed murmuring like the regular waves that beat slowly along the mole beneath the ramparts.
Gustave Flaubert

The garden looked charming in the moonlight, with the black, dense cypress trees standing up against the sky, and the great fountain splashing cool and silvery. There was a heavily-foliaged oak by the gate, and she strolled down the path, and stood under it in the shadow, listening to the whisper and rustle of its multitudinous leaves. It is curious the unearthly glamour which moonlight seems to throw over everything, and though Madge knew every flower, tree, and shrub in the garden, yet they all looked weird and fantastical in the cold, white light.
Fergus Hume
The Mystery of a Hansom Cab

Nov. 3.—For the past week, the heat was very oppressive during the day, whilst, at night, it was often exceedingly cold; for two or three hours before dawn, and for an hour after sunset, it was generally delightful, particularly within the influence of a cheerful cypress–pine fire, which perfumes the air with the sweet scent of the burning resin.
Ludwig Leichhardt
Journal of an overland expedition in Australia, from Moreton Bay to Port Essington, a distance of upwards of 3000 miles, during the years 1844-1845

Araucaria Essential Oil

Virtual Map of New Caledonia Islands

Description of New Caledonia Islands where Araucaria/Neocallitropis pancheri trees grow

The islands of New Caledonia contain some of the most distinctive plants in the world, with a large number of species, endemics, and an ancient character to much of the flora. The New Caledonia Rain Forests [AA0113] are the richest part of the French territory, but they have suffered large losses of native habitat.
New Caledonia is located in the southwest Pacific Ocean about 1,200 km east of Australia and 1,500 km northeast of New Zealand. The main island of Grande Terre runs in a north-south orientation and is 16,372 km2. Unlike the much smaller neighboring islands, which are volcanic and relatively recent in origin, Grand Terre is an original piece of Gondwanaland. It separated from Australia 85 million years ago and has maintained its current isolation from other landmasses for more than 55 million years (Kroenke 1996). Isolation and an ancient source of plant life are major factors leading to its diverse flora, but they are not the only factors. Grand Terre has an extremely diverse soil substrate, with ultramafics forming about one-third of the island. It is also diverse topographically and climatically. Grand Terre is the only high island of New Caledonia, with a mountain chain running down the center of the island and five peaks exceeding 1,500 m. Many smaller ranges and valleys run counter to the island's north-south orientation. The soils of the Loyalty Islands to the east and Iles des Pines to the south of Grand Terre are largely from limestone substrates that resulted from the volcanic uplifting of corals when the islands were formed (Mueller-Dombois 1998).

Description of Tree

Neocallitropsis pancheri is a plant species of the family Cupressaceae and the sole species of the genus Neocallitropsis. It is endemic to New Caledonia, where it occurs in small, scattered population along rivers.

It is an evergreen coniferous tree growing to 2-10 m tall. The leaves are awl-shaped, 1 cm long, arranged in eight rows in alternating whorls of four; in overall appearance, the foliage is superficially similar to some species of Araucaria, though they are only very distantly related. Neocallitropsis is dioecious, with separate male and female trees; the seed cones are 1.5-2 cm long, with eight woody scales arranged in two whorls of four.


The heartwood which is distilled for the essential oil is procured from legally harvested mature trees the sale of which is controlled by the New Caledonia forest department.

Distillaton of the oil from heartwood-

The essential oil of Araucaria essential oil is distilled from the heartwood of Neocallitropsis pancheri which also bears other botanical synonyms of Callitropsis auracariodes. It is important to note that become of the unique configuration of aromatic molecules the oil contains that it is a solid waxy mass at room temperature much like one might find with orris root essential oil, guaicwood essential oil and galangal oil(Kaempferia galanga).

Olfactory evaluation of the oil-

The most volatile of the aromatic molecules contained in the oil are slow to release their fragrance in the atmosphere due to the thick consistency of the essential oil After about 15 seconds one begins to be aware of a very subtle, suave, sweet balsmic, precious woods odor arrising from the AromaStone. Even after 15 minutes the aura of the oil remains very close to the AromaStone but one does begin to detect a distinct
balsamic-resinous note which bears some similarity to notes found in Elemi absolute. This combined with the suave precious woods and the slow rate of evaporation are a good preliminary indication that this oil should have very good fixative properties as well as have almost universal application in fine perfumery for that purpose as the notes it displays are quiet and subtle and of a type that blend well with most materials. My feeling is that it might be used in situations similar to sandalwood abs, essential oil and absolute.
It requires almost 60 minutes for the aroma of Araucaria to fully disperse into the small room which is the aromatic exploration lab in which these evaluations are being made. At that point the atmosphere is fully redolent with the soft, suave, soothing sweet balsamic/resinous, precious woods bouquet. At this point one can also detect a very delicate floral note arising out of the heart of the bouquet, giving a gentle lift to the oil.
This evaluation has been a unique one to participate in because of the length of time it has required for the surrounding atmosphere to fully register its aromatic presence. Once established though, one experiences its unique, staying power. It is a true "foundation" upon which some very elegant compostions could come up. It would be like the soil in which aromatic plants might root, grow and come into full fragrant fruition.
The difference between the initial notes one detected on first smelling the oil and
its fully matured presence are very slight-the difference being in that with the passage of time the atmosphere in which it distributes its aromatic wealth becomes increasingly charged with its odor and once established goes on giving off its soft radiation for many hours as evidenced by the fact that when I re-entered the room the following morning for the second exploration, the room was fully alive with its presence.

Blends well with a wide range of materials including amyris eo; copaiba balsam eo; guaicwood eo; gurjun balsam eo; bois de rose eo; ho wood eo; cabreuva eo; sanalwood eo; siamwood eo, cedarwood atlas eo, cedarwood himalaya eo; muhuhu eo; cedarwood virginia eo. With the above mentioned oils it can be blended to create a very stable base note with slightly different accents which can act as a excellent fixative for high class floral absolutes

In perfumery it can be used in chypres, fougeres, precious woods bases, incense bouquets, high class floral perfumes, spicy accords, etc

Additional perfumery notes

When engaging in the olfactory exploration of any one essence, I feel it might prove valuable to note the year one obtained it, the country of origin, the place one purchased etc and along with the notes save a small sample out for re-examining down the line. Each oil has it own unique aromatic evolution and they do change albeit subtly from day-to-day, week-to-week, month-to-month and year-to-year. The life span of each is different but often longer than one might expect if properly stored in dark glass bottles, in a cool place and with minimum air-space between the lid of the bottle and the level of the oil in the bottle.
Some oils absolutely thrive on aging and after 5, 10 and 15 years become ever more mellow and delectable as one discovers with myrrh, sandalwood, vetiver, cabreuva, patchouli etc. Many heartnote oils and absolutes become noticeably more delightful in the 3-5 year range. Even citrus oils which are purported to maintain there vitality from 1-2 years may still display wonderful fragrant virtues after that period of time if well stored.
In short keeping small samples of oils that one is sniffing with notes on its origin, year procured etc may be of great value to the aspiring perfumer or fragrance enthusiast. It should also be noted that aside from the evolution of the oil, the person involved in olfactory analysis also evolves as his sense of smell becomes more developed. One is able to progressly enjoy the subtle dimensions of an oil as the power of focused concentration on the each essence increases.

Chemical composition of Neo callitropsis pancheri

The chemical composition of the heartwood oil of Neocallitropsis pancheri (Cupressaceae) obtained by steam distillation, has been established using GC/MS, GC/FTIR, Kovats indices and NMR data. The major components were found to be alpha-eudesmol (13.26%), beta-eudesmol (25.92%), gamma-eudesmol (19.04%), guaiol (3.02%) elemol (4.99%), beta-bisabolenol (4.93%) and bulnesol (3.69%). Almost 40 compounds have been identified, 32 of which, including three new sesquiterpenoids (beta-bisabolenal, beta-bisabolenol and beta-acoradienol), are reported for the first time in this oil. Isolation of a concentrate of the volatiles from N. pancheri using different solvents, and steam distillation produced concentrates of different yields (6.96-12.9%) and chemical composition. Some components were found to be subject to quantitative variation in the different wood concretes


Description and Range of Araucaria in New Caledonia
Images of Araucaria

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