Virginia cedarwood(Juniperus virginiana) essential oil/USA wild harvest

Images of Virginia cedarwood/Juniperus virginiana)

Olfactory Properties of Virginia cedarwood(Juniperus virginiana) essential oil/USA wild harvest
The mobile dark orange mobile liquid of Virginia cedarwood essential oil presents a rich, dry, precious-woody aroma with a delicate balsamic, sweet undertone. As the dry out deepens the aroma becomes dryer, more precious woods-like with a hint of punguent spiciness to it. There is a unique aroma that is part of the bouquet which reminds one of the aroma that springs forth when rain touches dry earth. The radiance and tenacity of the oil are very good

Blends well with angelica root and seed eo and co2; ambrette seed eo, co2 and abs; auracaria eo; bois de rose eo; benzoin resinoid and abs; birch tar eo; birch sweet eo; cade eo; calamus eo, co2 and abs; cananga eo; caraway eo and co2; cardamon eo, co2 and abs; cedrela eo; cedarwood eo's and abs; cedarleaf eo; carrot seed eo, co2 and abs; cassia bark eo and co2; cinnamon bark eo, co2 and abs; choya loban; choya ral; cistus eo and abs; citronella eo; clary sage eo and abs; copaiba balsam eo; coriander seed eo, co2 and abs; costus eo and co2; cypress eo and abs; elecampagne eo and abs; fir eo's and abs; frankincense eo, co2 and abs; ginger root eo, co2 and abs; guaiacwood eo; gurjun balsam eo; juniperberry eo, co2 and abs; labdanum eo and abs; lavindin eo and abs; lavender eo, co2 and abs; musk, black attar; oakmoss abs; opoponax eo and abs; oregano eo and co2; orris root eo, co2 and abs; pine eo's and abs; patchouli eo, co2 and abs; rosemary eo, co2 and abs; sage eo and co2; sandalwood eo, co2 and abs; spikenard eo and abs; spruce eo's and abs; tonka bean abs; valarian eo, co2 and abs; vetiver eo, co2 and abs

In natural perfumery the oil is valuable in incense creations; sacred perfumes, forest notes; amber bases, earth accords, new mown hay creations; russian leather notes; musk accords

Interesting facts about Eastern Red Cedar/Virginia cedar/Juniperus virginiana

1. Because of its rot resistance the wood is used for fence posts
2. Because the aromatic wood is avoided by moths it is in demand as lining for clothes chests and closets, often referred to as cedar closets and cedar chests.
3. If correctly prepared, it makes excellent English longbows, flatbows, and Native American sinew-backed bows.
4. Inner bark strips are pealed from the tree. Strips may be split into fine lacings and ties. Cedar strips were also used to weave storage bags and finely twined mats. Cedar strips also make a red dye. Cedar wood was splint into planks for use in lining birch bark canoes. Chippewa used cedar bows for bedding material.
5.Red cedar and other junipers are important to wildlife throughout the country. Their twigs and foliage are eaten extensively by hoofed browsers, but the chief attraction to wildlife is the bluish-black berry-like fruit. The cedar waxwing is one of the principal users of red cedar berries, but numerous other birds and mammals, both large and small, make these fruits an important part of their diet. In addition to their wildlife food value, cedars provide important protective and nesting cover. Chipping sparrows, robins, song sparrows, and mockingbirds use these trees as one of their favorite nesting sites. Juncos, myrtle warblers, sparrows of various kinds, and other birds use the dense foliage as roosting cover. In winter, their dense protective shelter is especially valuable.
6. Flutes made from red cedar wood were highly regarded by the Cheyenne.

Links for Virginia cedar/Eastern RedCedar/Juniperus virginiana

Wikipedia on Virginia cedarwood
NativeTech: Native American Technology and Art Indigenous Plants & Native Uses in the Northeast
Plants for a Future Database
Collections of the Nebraska State Historical Society By Nebraska State Historical Society
Native American ethnobotany By Daniel E. Moerman
Red cedar chests as protectors against moth damage By Ernest Adna Back
Eastern Redcedar

Lime(Citus aurantifolia) essential oil(cold pressed)/South Africa non-sprayed

Images of Citrus aurantifolia/Lime

Olfactory Properties of Lime(Citrus aurantifolia) essential oil(cold pressed)/South Africa non-sprayed
The light green colored oil of Lime from South Africa displays a fresh, sweet, tangy, ethereal fruity-floral aroma with a punguent, peel-like undertone. In the dry out phase a fine sweet balsamic, herbaceous, spicy bouquet appears which is unusual for its complexity and tenacity for a citrus oil

Blends well with amyris wood eo; citrus oils; bois de rose eo; caraway eo and co2; clary sage eo and abs; coriander seed eo and co2; galbanum eo, co2 and abs; geranium eo and abs; hay abs; helichrysum eo and abs; lavindin eo and abs; lavender eo, co2 and abs; lemongrass eo; lemon verbena eo and abs; litsea cubeba; melissa eo and co2; neroli eo; orange blossom abs; petitgrain eo's(mandarin,lemon, bergamot, bigarade); rosemary eo, co2 and abs; sage eo and co2; tonka bean abs; vanilla abs

Outstanding as a top note and modifier in many high class floral perfumes, colognes, chypres, amber bases, culinary perfumes. Because of the effects of the lime oil can be felt in both the top note and heart note phases of compositions in which it is used

Uses for Lime
1. In cooking, lime is valued both for the acidity of its juice and the floral aroma of its zest. It is a very common ingredient in authentic Mexican, Southwestern United States, Vietnamese, and Thai dishes. It is also used for its pickling properties in ceviche. Additionally, the leaves of lime are used in southeast Asian cuisine. The use of dried limes (called black lime or loomi) as a flavouring is typical of Persian cuisine and Iraqi cuisine, as well as in Gulf-style baharat (a spice mixture that is also called kabsa or kebsa). Limes are also an essential element in Tamil cuisine.
2. Juice: In the West Indies, the juice has been used in the process of dyeing leather. On the island of St. Johns, a cosmetic manufacturer produces a bottled Lime Moisture Lotion as a skin-conditioner.
3. Twigs: In tropical Africa, lime twigs are popular chewsticks.
4. In Malaya, the juice is taken as a tonic and to relieve stomach ailments. Mixed with oil, it is given as a vermifuge. The pickled fruit, with other substances, is poulticed on the head to allay neuralgia. In India, the pickled fruit is eaten to relieve indigestion. The juice of the Mexican lime is regarded as an antiseptic, tonic, an antiscorbutic, an astringent, and as a diuretic in liver ailments, a digestive stimulant, a remedy for intestinal hemorrhage and hemorrhoids, heart palpitations, headache, convulsive cough, rheumatism, arthritis, falling hair, bad breath, and as a disinfectant for all kinds of ulcers when applied in a poultice.
5. In order to prevent scurvy during the 19th century, British sailors were issued a daily allowance of citrus such as lime (presumably Citrus aurantifolia)[citation needed], which led in time to the nickname "limey" for all Britons. It was later discovered that this beneficial effect derived from the quantities of Vitamin C the fruit contains.

Lime in Literature
There is a beautiful stream meandering through the open fields. Its waters are clear and cool. They are the melted snows of Orizava. Upon its banks grow clumps of the cocoa-palm and the majestic plantain. There are gardens upon its banks, and orchards filled with the fruit-trees of the tropics. I see the orange with its golden globes, the sweet lime, the shaddock, and the guava-tree. I ride under the shade of the aguacate (Laurus Persea), and pluck the luscious fruits of the cherimolla. The breeze blowing over fields carries on its wings the aroma of the coffee-tree, the indigo-plant, the vanilla bean, or the wholesome cacao (Theobroma Cacao); and, far as the eye can reach, I see glancing gaily in the sun the green spears and golden tassels of the sugar-cane.
The Rifle Rangers, by Captain Mayne Reid

Hark! A gentle tapping at the blue window that looks out on the garden!
What is it? Nothing; a bough of hawthorn that has come to see what we
are doing in the cool kitchen. Trees are inquisitive and often excited;
but they do not count, one has nothing to say to them, they are
irresponsible, they obey the wind, which has no principles.... But what
is that? I hear steps!... Up, ears open; nose on the alert!... It is the
baker coming up to the rails, while the postman is opening a little gate
in the hedge of lime-trees. They are friends; it is well; they bring
something: you can greet them and wag your tail discreetly twice or
thrice, with a patronizing smile....
Our Friend the Dog, by Maurice Maeterlinck

Then Greg did a fire dance with two sparklers. He dances rather
well,--not real one-steps and waltzes, but weird things he makes up
himself. This one lasted as long as the sparklers burned, and it was
quite gorgeous. After that we had a candle-light procession around
the garden, and the grown people said that the candles looked very
mysterious bobbing in and out between the trees. We felt more like
high priests than patriots, but it was very festive and wonderful,
and when we ended by having cakes and lime-juice on the porch at
half-past nine, everybody agreed that it had been a real celebration
and quite different.
Us and the Bottleman, by Edith Ballinger
“What are those yellow things in that glass jar?” Maida asked.

“Pickled limes,” Dr. Pierce responded promptly. “How I used to love

“Oh, father, buy me a pickled lime,” Maida pleaded. “I never had one
in my life and I’ve been crazy to taste one ever since I read
‘Little Women.’”

“All right,” Mr. Westabrook said. “Let’s come in and treat Maida to
a pickled lime.”
Maida's Little Shop, by Inez Haynes Irwin

I paused on the bank a few moments observing the current, in
order to ascertain the direction of its source, towards which, I
proceeded, travelling on the bank until noon, when I entered a
beautiful lime grove, the fruit of which, completely strewed the
ground. After I had devoured as many of these, rind and all, as
satisfied the cravings of hunger, I filled my jacket pockets,
fearing I might not again meet with such a timely supply.
Narrative of the shipwreck of the brig
Betsey, of Wiscasset, Maine, and murder of five of her crew, by pirates,, by Daniel CollinsMountains shimmered in the distance like visions seen in dreams, mountains like towering emeralds springing from a sapphire sea! We passed tiny hamlets, half-hidden in lime orchards, and cocoa-groves with yellow patches of cane gleaming here and there against a background of forest. As we drew nearer we could see white torrents dashing tempestuously down through green valleys, for Dominica has a too plenteous water-supply, since in some districts three hundred inches a year is the average rainfall. It rained seven times in the three hours that we passed on shore, but the showers were gentle ones, and we found generous shelter in the wonderful Botanical Garden, where we spent most of our time.
Ladies-In-Waiting, by Kate Douglas Wiggin

Links to Citrus aurantifolia/Lime
Wikepedia on Lime
Purdue University on Lime
Gernot Katzers Spice Pages
The Great Citrus Book: A Guide with Recipes By Allen Susser
Dictionary of Flavors By Dolf De Rovira
Herbal Delights By C. F. Leyel
The Encyclopedia of Healing Foods By Michael T. Murray
Volatile compounds in foods and beverages By H. Maarse
The Complete Technology Book of Essential Oils (Aromatic Chemicals)By Niir Board

Sugandha kokila(Cinnamomum glaucescens, syn. C.cecidodaphne) essential oil/Nepal organic

Olfactory Properties of Sugandh kokila(Cinnamomum glaucescens, syn. C.cecidodaphne) essential oil/Nepal organic
The clear mobile liquid distilled from the berries of Cinnamomum glaucescens) displays a rich, sweet, penetrating, spicy-wood-resinous bouquet with a warm, radiant herbaceous camphoraceous undertone with good tenacity. In the deep dry out phase(after 12 hours there remains a sweet, delicate, spicy herbaceous aroma on the perfumers strip.

Blends well with agarwood eo and co2; amberi attar; araucaria eo; artemisia eo's; anise seed and anise star eo and co2; basil eo's, co2 and abs; bay leaf eo ad abs; benzoin abs and resinoid; birch, sweet eo; birch tar eo; black currant abs; cade eo; cajuput eo; calamus eo and co2; camphor white eo; carob bean abs; carrot seed eo, co2 and abs; cascarilla bark eo; cedarwood eo's and abs; cinnamon bark eo; cinnamon leaf eo; cistus eo and abs; clove bud eo, co2 and abs; clove leaf eo; costus eo and co2; davana eo and co2; eucalyptus eo's; fennel eo and co2; gingergrass eo; guaiacwood eo; hop eo and co2; hyssop eo and co2; labdanum eo and abs; laurel leaf eo and abs; lawang eo; mace eo and co2; marjoram, sweet eo; myrtle eo; nagarmotha eo and co2; niaouli eo; palmarosa eo; poplar bud eo and abs; sage eo and co2; shamama attar; spikenard eo and co2; tarragon eo and abs; vetiver eo and co2;

The oil can be used in incense compositions, spicy accords, precious woods bouquets, oriental compositions, forest notes

Uses of Sugandha kokila

1. The wood is used in cabinet making
2. Used in traditional medicine as a demulcent and stimulant. A paste of the seeds is used in muscular swelling
3. The oil and wood are used in incense making

Links for Sugandh kokila
Analysis of the eo of Sugandh kokila
Plants and People of Nepal
Cinnamon and cassia: the genus Cinnamomum By P. N. Ravindran, K. Nirmal Babu, M. Shylaja

Sage(Salvia officinalis) essential oil/Bulgaria organic

Images of Sage/Salvia officinalis

Olfactory Properties of Sage(Salvia officinalis) essential oil/Organic Hungary
Sage oil is a pale yellow to white mobile liquid displaying a fresh, sharp, green-herbaceous, slightly punguent spicy bouquet. In the dry out phase the bouquet takes on a delicate spicy, sweet herbaceous dimension which is very delightful.

Blends well with amyris eo; anise star eo and co2; aromoise eo; basil eo, co2 and abs; bay leaf eo and abs; benzoin resinoid and abs; bergamot eo; birch sweet eo; bois de rose eo; black currant abs; cajuput eo; caraway seed eo and co2; cardamon eo, co2 and abs; cascarilla eo; cassia bark eo and co2; cedarleaf oils; cedarwood oils and abs; chamomile eo's, co2's and abs;cistus eo and abs; clary sage eo and abs; clove bud eo, co2 and abs; coriander seed eo and co2; davan eo, co2 and abs; eucalyptus oils and abs; fennel seed eo and co2; fir balsam eo and abs; frankincense eo, co2 and abs; guaiacwood eo; gurjun balsam eo; hay absolute; helichrysum eo and abs; hyssop eo and co2; hops eo and co2; juniperberry eo, co2 and abs; labdanum eo and abs; lavender eo, co2 and abs; lavindin eo and abs; lavender spike eo; lavender seville abs; mace eo and co2; marjoram eo and co2; musk black attar; myrrh eo, co2 and abs; niaouli eo; nutmeg eo, co2 and abs; patchouli eo, co2 and abs; pepper black eo and co2; pepper pink eo and co2; pennyroyal eo; petitgrain oils; popular bud eo and abs; rosemary eo, co2 and abs; spruce eo and abs; stryax eo and abs; tansy, blue eo; tarragon eo and abs; thyme eo, co2 and abs; tonka bean abs; vanilla abs and co2; yarrow eo; wintergreen eo

In perfumery can be used very effectively in sacred perfumes, culinary creations, fougeres, chypres, colognes, forest notes, herbal bouquets, literary perfumes, geographical perfumes

Sage in Literature

And even yet, in the midst of a luxury and a comfort which anticipated every want and gratified every taste, he often looked longingly back upon the life he had left, until his nose inhaled again the scent of the sage-brush and his eyes smarted with alkali dust.
The Bread-winners, by John Hay

The coyote voices lifted to him
and Breed read them as the call of kind; for although he had spent the
past ten months with the wolf tribe of his father his first friendships
had been formed among his mother's people on the open range. The acrid
spice of the sage drifted to his nostrils and combined with the coyote
voices to fill him with a homesick urge to revisit the land of his
The Yellow Horde, by Hal G. Evarts

It was only a slight breeze, but it came directly against the lurking
three; and moreover the scent of the sage was particularly keen at this
time of the day, and quite sufficient to blur the scent of man even in
the keen nostrils of Black Bart. Only for a second or so he stood there
sniffing the wind, a huge animal, larger than any wolf the three had
ever seen; his face wise in a certain bear-like fashion from the three
gray marks in the center of his forehead. Now he trotted ahead, and the
stallion broke into a gallop behind.
The Seventh Man, by Max Brand

The road was almost invisible, the plain unsubstantial, though the far-off mountain ranges showed plainly cut, with a curious trick of seeming always to shift back as the observer advanced. Little winds blew in their faces, cool and sweet from the desert, charged with spice of sage.
Rimrock Trail, by J. Allan Dunn

They drove out of the sleepy little village on which had been grafted showy samples of the Company's progress. The day was beautiful with sunshine, with the mellow calls of meadow larks, with warmth and sweet odours. As the surrey took its zigzag way through the brush, as the quail paced away to right and left, as the delicate aroma of the sage rose to his nostrils, Bob began to be very glad he had come. Here and there the brush had been cleared, small shacks built, fences of wire strung, and the land ploughed over. At such places the surrey paused while Selwyn held forth to his two stolid "prospects" on how long these newcomers had been there and how well they were getting on. The country rose in a gradual slope to the slate-blue mountains. Ditches ran here and there. Everywhere were small square stakes painted white, indicating the boundaries of tracts yet unsold.
The Rules of the Game, by Stewart Edward White

A thin coating of frost crackled on his bed when he awakened; and out from under the shelter of the cedar all the ground was hoar-white. As he slipped from his blankets the same strong smell of black sage and juniper smote him, almost like a blow. His nostrils seemed glued together by some rich piny pitch; and when he opened his lips to breathe a sudden pain, as of a knife-thrust, pierced his lungs.
The Heritage of the Desert, by Zane Grey

When we moved forward once more, it was along paths of short zigzags
between cliffs, so that our procession was constantly broken into small
pieces. At length we lost sight of the Ghor and the Dead Sea; and after
some time traversing miles of red and white cistus, red everlasting, and
fragrant thyme and sage, with occasional terebinth-trees festooned with
honeysuckle, we came upon a district covered with millions, or billions,
or probably trillions, of locusts, not fully grown, and only taking short
flights; but they greatly annoyed our horses. My choice Arab, being at
that time ridden by my servant, fairly bolted away with fright for a
considerable distance.
Byeways in Palestine, by James Finn

"It's a fairy tale, and you won't believe it—of a Blount," was the laughing reply. "I left Boston Monday, and should have reached the capital last night. But my train was laid out by a yard wreck at Twin Buttes just before dark, and I left it and took to the hills—horseback. Don't ask me why I did such a thing as that; I can only say that the smell of the sage-brush got into my blood and I simply had to do it."
The Honorable Senator Sage-Brush, by Francis Lynde
"I never will," she stated positively. "It's always been my home. I've been away and had a good time; three winters in school and enjoying every second; but there always comes a time when I'm sick to get back, when I know I can't stay away from the Three Bar, when I want to smell the sage and throw my leg across a horse—and ride!"

"I know, Billie," he said softly. "I was raised here, up until I was eight. My feeling is likely less acute than yours but I've always hankered to get back to where the sage and pine trees run together. I mentioned a while back that I was tied up peculiar and stood to lose considerable if I failed to put in two years out here—which wouldn't have been of any particular consequence only that I found out that the Three Bar was going under unless some one put a stop to what's going on. I'll pull it out of the hole, maybe, and hand it back to you."
The Settling of the Sage, by Hal G. Evarts

The sunshine wrapped itself in its old fine gilded gossamer
haze and drowsed upon the verdant slopes; the green jewelled "Juny-bugs"
whirred in the soft air; the mould was as richly brown as in Joel
Quimbey's own enclosure; the flag-lilies bloomed beside the onion bed;
and the woolly green leaves of the sage wore their old delicate tint and
gave out a familiar odor.
His "Day In Court", by
Charles Egbert Craddock (AKA Mary Noailles Murfree)

Links to Sage/Saliva officinalis
Wikipedia article on Sage
Whats Cooking America
Origins of Sage
Plants for a Future
Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Salvia officinalis L. Oil from Two Culture Sites in Tunisia
Encyclopedia of food and color additives, Volume 3 By George A. Burdoc

Guaiacwood(Bulnesia sarmientoi) essential oil/Paraquay wild harvest

Olfactory properties of Guaiacwoood(Bulnesia sarmienti) essential oil/Paraquay wild harvest
The essential oil of Guaiacwood is a solid golden-brown waxy mass at room temperature. It requires gentle heating to become a flowable liquid and when mixed with other essential oils will remain in a liquid state. It is quite common for guaiacwood to be mixed with gurjun balsam essential oil in a 50/50 proportion so it will remain in a liquid form. This interesting material presents a delicate sweet, woody, creamy- balsamic slightly roseaceous/smoky odor which has a uniform odor profile from beginning to end.

It blends well with a wide variety of materials due to its mild, sweet, creamy aroma provides excellent fixative properties at very low cost. It can be used in rather large percentage without adversely effecting the bouquet of the compositions in which it is included. Blends well with agarwood eo and co2; ambrette seed eo, co2 and abs; amyris eo; angelica root eo, co2 and abs; angelica seed eo, co2 and abs; anise, star eo and co2; anise seed eo; fennel seed eo and co2; aromoise eo; atractlylis root eo and co2; bay leaf eo and abs; beeswax abs; cabreuva eo; cananga eo; caraway seed eo and co2; cassie abs; carrot seed eo, co2 and abs; cascarilla bark eo; cassia eo; chamomile eo's and abs; champaca abs and attar; cinnamon bark eo, co2 and abs; cinnamon leaf eo; cistus eo and abs; clary sage eo and abs; clove bud eo, co2 and abs; copaiba balsam eo; costus root eo, co2 and abs; cypress eo and abs; davana eo, co2 and abs; elemi eo and abs; fir balsam eo and abs; frankincense eo, co2 and abs; galangal root eo; galbanum eo, co2 and abs; ginger root eo, co2 and abs; gurjun balsam eo; hay abs; juniper berry eo, co2 and abs; labdanum eo and abs; mace eo and co2; mimosa abs; myrrh eo, co2 and abs; oakmoss abs; opoponax eo and abs; orris root eo, co2 and abs; palmarosa eo; patchouli eo, co2 and abs; pimento berry eo, co2 and abs; rose abs and eo; sandalwood eo, co2 and abs; spikenard eo and co2; spruce eo and abs; tansy flower eo; tonka bean abs; valerian root eo, co2 and abs; vanilla abs and co2; vetiver eo, co2 and abs

In natural perfumery this fine oil can be used in spicy bouquets; amber bases; musk accords; new mown hay accords; incense perfumes, oriental accords; rose bases. It is an excellent fixative, modifier and blender and can be used in everything from inexpensive soap perfumes to high class floral perfumes

Links for Guaiacwood

Natural sources of flavourings, Issue 3 By Council of Europe
Common fragrance and flavor materials: preparation, properties and uses By Horst Surburg
Fenaroli's handbook of flavor ingredients: George A. Burdock By George A. Burdock
The new perfume handbook By Nigel Groom
Leungs Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients: By Ikhlas A. Khan, Ehab A. Abourashed

Orris root(Iris pallida) CO2 select extract/Albania

Olfactory Properties of Orris Root(Iris pallida) CO2 Select Extract/Albania

Even though the Orris root co2 is considered a select extract, it is a waxy solid beige mass at room temperature that with gentle heat becomes a flowable transparent liquid at which point it can be blended with carrier oils etc and will remain in its liquid state.
The co2 extract displays a delicate, warm, sweet-violet floral, precious woods-rooty, powdery odor with a lovely fruity undertone with good tenacity and radiant power.

Blends well with aglaia odorata abs; ambrette seed abs, co2 and eo; amyris wood eo; angelica root eo, co2 and abs; cedarwood oils; citrus oils; beeswax abs; benzoin abs; bois de rose/rosewood eo; boronia abs; carrot seed eo, co2 and abs; cassie abs; clary sage eo and abs; cocoa co2 and abs; currant black abs and co2; coconut abs; davana eo, co2 and abs; fir balsam abs; geranium eo, co2 and abs; guiacwood eo; juniberry eo, co2 and abs; mango leaf abs; nagarmotha eo and co2; mimosa abs; musk black attar; neroli eo; oakmoss abs; osmanthus abs; pepper black eo, co2 and abs; patchouli eo, co2 and abs; peru balsam eo and abs; rose otto and abs; sandalwood eo, co2 and abs; tonka bean abs; vanilla co2 and abs; vetiver eo, co2 and abs; violet leaf abs; ylang eo, co2 and abs

In natural perfumery is used in amber bases chypre, fougere; forest bases, oriental accords, colognes, in natural re-creations of freesia, orchid, cyclamen, violet, lilac perfumes

Orris in Literature

Although I had spent several springs in the
neighbourhood of Florence, this was my first
upon that side of the country, and I was there-
fore unaware that it was the district where
most of the irises for the famous Florentine
orris root was grown. Had I known this, I
should have been prepared and expectant ; as
it was I stood breathless, silent, before so won-
derful a sight.

The irises were all in flower. Up the long
slopes and in the rounded hollows of the hills
they stood in millions, close-growing ; a carpet
of pale purple ; an amethystine sea from which
the olive-trees raised their silver foliage and
twisted, moss-grown trunks. Erect upon its
tall stalk each flower stood majestic, springing
proudly from its sword-like leaves.

They broke in purple waves against the very
walls of the little white farmhouses, and, as
the breeze passed over them, it stirred their
surface as the wind might ruffle the surface of
a lake. They crept into the copses among the
young oak-trees. The clusters of stone pines
on their straight, slender stems, the groups of
cypresses like sombre plumes, the thickets of
bay and myrtle breaking the even flow of them,
were but as rocks against which the water
lapped. Even the patches of corn, usually
supreme in a landscape, seemed as a mere em-
broidery upon this royal robe of purple, or
as "the Islands of the Blessed" set in an
enchanted sea.

It was a fit hour for such a vision, for all
this loveliness lay outstretched beneath a pale
blue sky, in the clear quiet air of early morn-
ing. This mystical world of lilac and pale
silver, beautiful at any time, possessed a more
indescribable charm, a more ethereal and ap-
pealing loveliness, in the austere light of the
unsullied day.
Tuscan feasts and Tuscan friends‎
Dorothy Nevile Lees

"Just think," the canon would say to Birotteau, "that for twelve
consecutive years nothing has ever been amiss,--linen in perfect
order, bands, albs, surplices; I find everything in its place, always
in sufficient quantity, and smelling of orris-root.
The Vicar of Tours, by Honore de Balzac

There was a violent ring at the bell, a jarring of wheels on the
asphalt. The door flew open and the prettiest little woman imaginable,
all fluffy ends and scarlet flowers and orris scent, rushed toward him.
In The Valley Of The Shadow, by Josephine Daskam

As each article received its last touch, and came from the laundry white
and immaculate, it was folded to perfection, tied with a narrow blue or
pale rose-colored ribbon, and laid aside in a sacred receptacle known as
"The Wedding Bureau." The handkerchiefs, grouped in dozens, were strewn
with dried violets and rose-leaves to make them sweet. Lavender-bags and
sachets of orris lay among the linen; and perfumes as of Araby were
discernible whenever a drawer in the bureau was pulled out.
Clover, by Susan Coolidge, Illustrated by
Jessie McDermot

Miss Susan Ingram, an old friend of Poe, and one of the party at Old
Point, tells of a visit he made at her home in Norfolk following the
day at Point Comfort. Noting the odor of orris root, he said that he
liked it because it recalled to him his boyhood, when his adopted
mother kept orris root in her bureau drawers, and whenever they were
opened the fragrance would fill the room.
Literary Hearthstones of Dixie
by La Salle Corbell Pickett

Or perhaps it is an old bow-legged high-boy—its club-feet slippered on easy rollers—the kind with deep drawers kept awake by rattling brass handles, its outside veneer so highly polished that you are quite sure it must have been brought up in some distinguished family. The scent of old lavender and spiced rose leaves, and a stick or two of white orris root, haunt this relic: my lady's laces must be kept fresh, and so must my lady's long white mitts—they reach from her dainty knuckles quite to her elbow. And so must her cobwebbed silk stockings and the filmy kerchief she folds across her bosom:
The Little Gray Lady, by F. Hopkinson Smith

And it was impossible to avoid noticing that the opening of the carved
oaken presses, smelling sweet and benignly of orris root and lavender,
acted on John almost as a physical pleasure, and also that his hands
seemed nervous with delight as he unfolded the jewelled embroideries,
and smoothed out the fine linen of the under vestments; and his voice,
too, seemed to gain a sharp tenderness and emotive force, as he told how
these were the gold vestments worn by the bishop, and only on certain
great feast-days, and that these were the white vestments worn on days
especially commemorative of the Virgin. The consideration of the
censers, candlesticks, chalices, and albs took some time, and John was a
little aggressive in his explanation of Catholic ceremonial, and its
grace and comeliness compared with the stiffness and materialism of the
Protestant service
A Mere Accident, by George Moore

"Why no--not at all," said my Mother. "Why--Why I think it's rather
interesting! Why--Why--Though I must admit," she laughed out suddenly,
"that I never quite thought of things in just that way before!" She
looked out the window. She looked in the fire-place. She looked at my
Father. She looked at Carol. She looked at me. She began to clap her
hands. "I've got it!" she said. "I know what I'd choose! A White Iris!
In all the world there's no perfume that can compare with the perfume of
a White Iris!--Orris root they call it. Orris--"

"Humph! What's the matter with Tulips?" said my Father.

"Oh but Tulips don't have any smell at all," said my Mother. "Except
just the nice earthy smell of Spring winds and Spring rains and Spring
sunbeams!--Oh of course they _look_ as though they were going to smell
tremendously sweet!" she acknowledged very politely. "But they're just
so busy being _gay_ I suppose that--"
Fairy Prince and Other Stories, by
Eleanor Hallowell Abbott

Orris/Iris pallida/Iris florentina/Iris germanica Links

Cultivation of Orris with images
Orris cultivation in Italy
King's American dispensatory, Volume 2 By John King
Current topics in flavours and fragrances: towards a new millennium of discovery By Karl A. D. Swift
The new perfume handbook By Nigel Groom
A modern herbal: By Maud Grieve
Odorographia: Volume 1 By John Charles Sawer

Vanilla(Vanilla planifolia) CO2 Total Extract/Madagascar

Images of Vanilla orchid
Images of Vanilla Beans

Olfactory Properties of Vanilla CO2 Total Extract/Madagascar(12% natural vanillin content)
First of all it is important to distinguish between total and select co2 extracts. A total co2 extract is one in which all the extractable phytochemicals in the plant that can be extracted by co2 are extracted. It means that not only the volatile aromatic constituents of vanilla extracted of which there are over 200, but the resins, fixed oil, etc are also extracted. The total extract therefore tends to be a opaque waxy-oily mass that in cool conditions is non-pourable which is brown to light beige in color. Over time vanillin crystals appear on the surface of the cooled extract.
The vanilla co2 total extract displays a fine rich, complex, sweet balsamic, precious woods, soft-spicy bouquet. As the dry out note develops the rich deep balsamic slightly animalic body note blooms. Vanillin the main aromatic component of vanilla is easily synthesized but is very one dimensional in olfactory impact as compared to the complexity of a true co2 extract. Even a high quality genuine absolute which is rich and redolent in the vanilla heart notes and stronger in its olfactory impact cannot match the co2 for complexity.

Blends well with allspice eo, co2 and abs; ambrette seed eo, co2 and abs; amyris eo;
anise, star eo and co2; anise eo and co2; arnica abs; aruacaria eo; bakul attar; beeswax abs; benzoin abs; broom abs; carrot seed eo, co2 and abs; cassia bark eo, co2 and abs; chamomile eo's, abs and co2's; cinnamon bark eo, co2 and abs; clove bud eo, co2 and abs; cocoa co2, oleoresin and abs; fir needle abs; frangipani abs; gardenia absolute; guiacwood eo; hay abs; helichrysum abs and eo; magnolia lily co2; black musk attar; orris root eo, co2 and abs; peru balsam eo and abs; rose otto's and abs; sandalwood eo, co2 and abs; tonka bean abs; tuberose abs; white ginger lily abs; ylang eo and abs

In perfumery excels in oriental bouquets; tropical blends, incense creations, amber bases, culinary perfumes, new mown hay accords

Interesting facts about vanilla
1.The vanilla bean is the fruit of a tropical American species of orchid. It is the one of the few orchids which produce anything edible and there are more than 20,000 orchid varieties.
2. Vanilla workers, usually women and children who are quick with their hands, pollinate from 1,000 to 2,000 vanilla orchid flowers per day.
3. The first use of vanilla dates back to Mexico, where the Aztecs used it to create a drink called Xoco-lall, made from cocoa and vanilla beans.
4. Thomas Jefferson is credited with introducing vanilla to the United States in the late 1700s. history of vanillaWhile serving as Ambassador to King Louis XVI of France, he became familiar with vanilla beans, and brought 200 vanilla beans back with him when he returned to the United States.
5. The United States consumption of vanilla beans is approximately 1,200 tons per year!
6. For 300 years Mexico maintained its monopoly of vanillabean production despite constant efforts of theEuropeans to induce vanilla vines to bear beans elsewhere in the world. It wasn’t until 1836 when Charles Morren, a French botanist, finally discovered the secret of growing vanilla. His careful examination of the anatomy of the bean led to his discovery of the difficulty of pollination. He then performed the pollination by hand. Thus beans were produced outside of Mexico. Knowledge of theartificial pollination spread to European nations who had colonized tropical regions with climates suitable for growing orchids. These areas began planting vanilla especially the French on the Island of Bourbon (Reunion) and the Dutch in the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia).
7. Vanilla is a very labour-intensive agricultural crop where the yearly production of a healthy plant is 1.5 to 2Kg of Green Vanilla. It takes five to six kilos of Green Vanilla pods to produce 1Kg of cured vanilla.
8. It will take up to three years after the vines are planted before the first flowers appear. The pods resemble big green beans and must remain on the vine for nine months in order to completely develop their signature aroma. However, when the beans or pods are harvested, they have neither flavour nor fragrance. They develop these distinctive properties during the curing process.

Vanilla in Literature

"What about a vanilla ice at the Pâtisserie Delarue, old bean?" said he
to Percival.
And, unnoticed by the happy couple, they stole silently away.
Punch, or the London Charivari, Vol. 156, June 25, 1919

There is a beautiful stream meandering through the open fields. Its waters are clear and cool. They are the melted snows of Orizava. Upon its banks grow clumps of the cocoa-palm and the majestic plantain. There are gardens upon its banks, and orchards filled with the fruit-trees of the tropics. I see the orange with its golden globes, the sweet lime, the shaddock, and the guava-tree. I ride under the shade of the aguacate (Laurus Persea), and pluck the luscious fruits of the cherimolla. The breeze blowing over fields carries on its wings the aroma of the coffee-tree, the indigo-plant, the vanilla bean, or the wholesome cacao (Theobroma Cacao); and, far as the eye can reach, I see glancing gaily in the sun the green spears and golden tassels of the sugar-cane.
The Rifle Rangers, by Captain Mayne Reid

Around him grew castanha trees with nuts in shells like cannon-balls that hung high over his head; palms with 206leaves so enormous that one could shelter an entire encampment; and birds of species he had never seen before fluttered among the branches. The air was saturated with the heavy though not unpleasant odor of vanilla beans. It was indeed a strange land but Oomah was too ill to take much heed of his surroundings.
The Black Phantom, by Leo Edward Miller

Uncounted, delicious odors filled the air, distilled from the wild flowers, the vanilla, orchids, and the forests of oranges, which, though not of Tahiti, were already venerable in their many decades of residence.
Mystic Isles of the South Seas, by Frederick O’Brien

Links for Vanilla planifolia
Wikipedia article on Vanilla
Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages
History of Vanilla
Animals and plants of the ancient Maya: a guide By Victoria Schlesinger
Vanilla: Travels in Search of the Ice Cream Orchid By Tim Ecott
Vanilla: The Green Gold By A. Anandan
Simply Vanilla: Recipes for Everyday Use By Patty Elsberry, Matt Bolus
Vanilla curing
Vanilla the edible orchid
Vanilla in Perfumery
The art of perfumery and the methods of obtaining the odours of plants By George William Septimus Piesse

Narcissus-"Des Plaines"(Narcissus poeticus) Absolute/France

Images of Narcssis poeticus

Narcissus "Des Plaines" Absolute(Narcissus poeticus)/France
There are two types of Narcissus absolute. The first is Des Plains which comes from the cultivated Narcissus and the second is "Des Montagnes" which is from wild harvested Narcissus. The odor of the cultivated and the wild harvested absolutes are very different. I have only done the olfactory evaluation of the cultivated Narcissus absolute.
The Des Plaines Narcissus absolute is a dark amber colored viscous liquid has a mild, rich, sweet, floral bouquet with a delicate green herbaceous, honeyed-balsamic undertone with good tenacity. Deeper into the dry out a lovely sweet hay-like, fruity note nestles amidst the other notes. Also as the initial notes disperse into the air the absolute begins to develop a warm, soft but quiet radiance. In the beginning the aroma seems to stay close to its core notes but with time extends deeper into the environment

Blends well with beeswax absolute; bakul attar; broom abs; boronia absolute; cabreuva eo; cassie absolute; clove bud absolute; champa, golden abs; elderflower abs; hay absolute; helichrysum abs and eo; henna flower attar; honey absolute; frangipani absolute jonquil abs; kadam attar; mimosa abs; neroli eo night queen abs; orange flower absolute; osmanthus absolute parijata attar; rosa bourbonia abs; rose de mai absolute; saffron co2 and abs; sandalwood eo, co2 and abs; tuberose absolute and attar; vanilla abs; violet leaf absolute; ylang absolute

In perfumery can be used in literary perfumes; mythological perfumes; high class florals

Narcissus in Literature
Never as long as they lived would the children forget the scene before them! The budding trees, the singing of the birds, and the sweet scents that came to them were only part of the great surprise that awaited them. Golden sheets of daffodil and white narcissus bordered the dark evergreen shrubberies; edging the old lawn were clumps of violets and primroses. Hyacinths, tulips, and other bulbs were making the flower beds a mass of bright colour, and the lilac and laburnum trees seemed overweighted with their bloom.
Bulbs and Blossoms, by Amy Le Feuvre


Narcissus, I like to watch you grow
When snow is shining
Beyond the crystal glass.
A coat of snow covers the hills far.
The sun is setting;
And you stretch out flowers of palest white
In the pink of the sun.
Poems By a Little Girl, by Hilda Conkling

Siberia is no doubt as a rule somewhat severe and inhospitable, but M. Patrin mentions with enthusiasm how one day descending from the frozen summits of the Altai, he came suddenly on a view of the plain of the[Pg 29] Obi—the most beautiful spectacle, he says, which he had ever witnessed. Behind him were barren rocks and the snows of winter, in front a great plain, not indeed entirely green, or green only in places, and for the rest covered by three flowers, the purple Siberian Iris, the golden Hemerocallis, and the silvery Narcissus—green, purple, gold, and white, as far as the eye could reach.
The Beauties of Nature, by Sir John Lubbock

"Go out, in the spring time, among the meadows that slope from the shores of the Swiss lakes to the roots of their lower mountains. There, mingled with the taller gentians and the white narcissus, the grass grows deep and free, and as you follow the winding mountain paths, beneath arching boughs all veiled and dim with blossom,—paths, that for ever droop and rise over the green banks and mounds sweeping down in scented undulation, steep to the blue water, studded here and there with new mown heaps, filling all the air with fainter sweetness,—look up towards the higher hills, where the waves of everlasting green roll silently into their long inlets among the shadows of the pines; and we may, perhaps, at last know the meaning of those quiet words of the 147th Psalm, 'He maketh the grass to grow upon the mountains.'"
The Beauties of Nature, by Sir John Lubbock

Links to Narcissus poeticus
The book of flowers By Sarah Josepha Buell Hale
Poems of the inner life By Calla L. Harcourt
The Gardens of Emily Dickinson By Louise Carter
The new perfume handbook By Nigel Groom
Wikipedia article on Narcissus
Paghats Garden-Narcissus

Mitti(Baked Earth) Attar/India

Images for Mitti Attar
Article on Mitti Attar

"The real significance of the mitti attar was only revealed to me though when we were in Rajasthan as it had been many years since I was in India during the monsoon season. Seeing the sun baked earth upturned and waiting to receive the rains and feeling the longing of the people for the return of the monsoon connected me once again to the"reason" behind the existence of the attar. This odor was for the people a reminder of one of the most sacred and important events of their lives. Ramakant also explained to me that from the scientific level when the earth becomes depleted of moisture the soil organisms, numbering 10 million to the teaspoon, become inactive but as soon as the soil receives the rain they are activated again and this activity is most likely the cause for the sublime aroma that is dear to those who love the earth. This exquisite rich, deep, mysterious smell created by the activity of the micro-organisms, invisibly charges the air with its positive influence and one can easily imagine that the earth is in turn thanking the clouds and rain for showering their cooling draughts so that life can return to the land and all nature can rejoice."
Mitti Attar/White Lotus Aromatics

Olfactory Properties of Mitti(baked earth) Attar

The attar of Mitti displays a fine, dry, earthy, punguent aroma that has a delicate, sweet, rooty-spicy undertone with good tenacity.

Mitti Attar is such a special and unique aroma that I would hesitate to add anything to it but certainly for the adventurous perfumer one could add trace amounts of agarwood/oud eo, attar and co2; allspice eo, co2 and abs; angelica root eo, co2 and abs; carrot seed eo, co2 and abs; cedarwood, western red heartwood eo; cedarwood, virginia eo; cinnamon bark co2, eo and abs; cypress eo and abs; elecampange eo and abs; galangal eo; oakmoss abs; patchouli eo, co2 and abs pepper, pink eo and co2; kewda attar and ruh; siamwood eo; turmeric eo and co2; vetiver eo, co2 and abs;

In perfume blending could be used in sacred perfumes, chypres, fougeres, monsoon blends, oriental bases, amber notes, precious woods blends, ayurvedic perfumes

Scent of the Earth in Literature

"You speak like the very spirit of earth, imbued with a scent of freshly turned soil," exclaimed my friend.
The Hall of Fantasy, by Nathaniel Hawthorne

Then rain, and after, moonshine cold and fair,
And scent of earth, sweet with the evening rain,
And slow soft speech beneath the rain-washed trees,
Ah, that such things should never come again!
All Round the Year, by
Edith Nesbit and Saretta Nesbit

April! April! April!
With a mist of green on the trees--
And a scent of the warm brown broken earth
On every wandering breeze;
What, though thou be changeful,
Though thy gold turns to grey again,
There's a robin out yonder singing,
Singing in the rain.
The Miracle and Other Poems, by Virna Sheard

The coyote is your true water-witch, one who snuffs and paws, snuffs and
paws again at the smallest spot of moisture-scented earth until he has
freed the blind water from the soil. Many water-holes are no more than
this detected by the lean hobo of the hills in localities where not even
an Indian would look for it.
The Land of Little Rain, by Mary Austin

Meanwhile, toward the west, a vast marine picture, like a panorama on wheels, was accompanying us all the way. Sometimes at our feet, beneath the seamy fissures of a hillside, or far removed by sweep of meadow, lay the fluctuant mass we call the sea. It was all a glassy yellow surface now; into the liquid mirror the polychrome sails sent down long lines of color. The sun had sunk beyond the Havre hills, but the flame of his mantle still swept the sky. And into this twilight there crept up from the earth a subtle, delicious scent and smell—the smell and perfume of spring—of the ardent, vigorous, unspent Normandy spring.
In and Out of Three Normady Inns by Anna Bowman Dodd

"For it is clean dirt," she laughingly said, when Miss Dorothy playfully scolded her for it. "This kind of dirt is healthful, and it isn't going to hurt me if a few dusty twigs or a bit of dried grass or weeds should cling to my gown. You must remember, Sister Dorothy, there are different kinds of dirt. I haven't any respect for grease spots or for clothes soiled from wearing them too long. I don't like that kind of dirt, but to get close to dear old mother earth, and have a scent of her fresh soil once in a while is what I enjoy. It is delightful. I like nature too well to stand on ceremony with her."
Dickey Downy, by Virginia Sharpe Patterson

Above all there came to his nostrils the scent of summer, the smell of flowers mingled, and the odour of the woods, of cool shaded places, deep in the green depths, drawn forth by the sun's heat; and the scent of the good earth, lying as it were with arms stretched forth, and smiling lips, overpowered all. His fancies made him wander, as he had wandered long ago, from the fields into the wood, tracking a little path between the shining undergrowth of beech-trees; and the trickle of water dropping from the limestone rock sounded as a clear melody in the dream.
The Great God Pan, by Arthur Machen

Kadam(Anthocephalus cadamba) Attar/India wild harvest

Images of Kadam/Kadamba/Anthocephalus cadamba

olfactory properties of Kadam(Anthocephalus cadamba) Attar/India wild harvest

The sandalwood based attar of Kadam displays a wonderful rich, sweet, heavy, honeyed, powdery-floral bouquet which due to the presence of sandalwood(into which the flowers are distilled over a period of 10-15 days) maintains its aromatic profile in a consistent manner over many hours(24 hours later the
As with all sandalwood based attars, the overall bouquet has soft precious woods radiance subtly manifesting itself as an undertone , helping harmonize and exalt all the flowers rich beauty.
All true traditonal attars, in my opinion are perfect perfumes in themselves and can be enjoyed as such. They are a treasure to explore through all stages of their aromatic life, revealing quiet facets of beauty as one concentrates on the volatile molecules as they release into the air in a measured way(again due to the true fixative effect of sandalwood)
Kadam attar was once regularly distilled in North India but nowadays it is rarely done although we are doing our small part to keep this precious attar on the aromatic palette of one of our colleagues who is dedicated to this ancient art and craft.The high cost of legally traded sandalwood within India has resulted in a steep decline in the production of traditional attars and many of the delightful aromatic treasures that were once produced from Indian flowers are no longer produced.

One can of course use the attars in blending if one feels so inclined. One needs to proceed with great caution though as small additions of natural essences are all that is required to create the changes one desires. In general these absolutes, essential oils and co2 extracts can be added to kadam attar to create wonderful perfumes- araucaria eo; beeswax abs; boronia abs; broom abs; cabreuva eo; cananga eo; carrot seed, eo, co2 and abs; cedarwood eo and abs; champaca, golden abs; champaca, white co2; Cassie abs; hay abs; coriander eo, co2 and abs; frangipani abs; helichrysum eo and abs; honey/miel abs; jasmine absolutes(grandifloroum, sambac and auriculatum); karo karounde abs; magnolia lily co2 mimosa absolute; neroil eo; orange blossom abs; orris eo, co2 and abs; rose otto and abs(centifolia, bourbonia, and damascena); siamwood eo; tuberose abs; ylang abs

In perfumery can be used in garland perfumes; sacred perfumes, high class florals

Kadam/Kadamba Tree in Literature
It is evening. The rain is pouring in lance-like showers. Our lane is under knee-deep water. The tank has overflown into the garden, and the bushy tops of the Bael trees are seen standing out over the waters. Our whole being, on this delightful rainy evening, is radiating rapture like the Kadamba flower its fragrant spikes. The time for the arrival of our tutor is over by just a few minutes. Yet there is no certainty...! We are41 sitting on the verandah overlooking the lane[12] watching and watching with a piteous gaze. All of a sudden, with a great big thump, our hearts seem to fall in a swoon. The familiar black umbrella has turned the corner undefeated even by such weather! Could it not be somebody else? It certainly could not! In the wide wide world there might be found another, his equal in pertinacity, but never in this little lane of ours.
My Reminiscences, by Rabindranath Tagore

Near the unwalled city, the priest sat down before the pandit, Ratna
Ram, whose seat was under the kadamba tree by the temple of Maha Dev.
Ratna Ram was learned in the signs of different languages and could
write them with a reed, so that those who had knowledge could decipher
his writing, even after many days and at a great distance: Ratna Ram,
to whom the gods had given that greatest of all kinds of wisdom,
whereby he could hold secretly any knowledge and not speak of it till
the thing should be accomplished. (The pandit was well known to Skag
who studied Hindi before him for an hour or more, on certain days.)
Son of Power, by Will Levington Comfort and
Zamin Ki Dost

Ritûsamhâra is clearly a work of Kâlidâsa's immaturity. The youthful love-song in it does not reach the sublime reticence which is in Shakuntalâ and Kumâra-Sambhava. But the tune of these voluptuous outbreaks is set to the varied harmony of Nature's symphony. The moonbeams of the summer evening, resonant with the flow of fountains, acknowledge it as a part of its own melody. In its rhythm sways the Kadamba forest, glistening in the first cool rain of the season; and the south breezes, carrying the scent of the mango blossoms, temper it with their murmur.
Creative Unity, by Rabindranath Tagore
Close by on a mud-flat stood a large Kadamba tree in full flower. My
lord, the baby, looked at it with greedy eyes, and Raicharan knew his
meaning. Only a short time before he had made, out of these very
flower balls, a small go-cart; and the child had been so entirely happy
dragging it about with a string, that for the whole day Raicharan was
not made to put on the reins at all. He was promoted from a horse into a
The Hungry Stones And Other Stories, by
Rabindranath Tagore

In the middle of the sea of nectar,
In the isle of precious gems,
Which is surrounded by wish giving Kalpaga trees,
In the garden Kadamba trees,
In the house of the gem of thought,
On the all holy seat of the lap of the great God Shiva,
Sits she who is like a tide
In the sea of happiness of ultimate truth,
And is worshipped by only by few select holy men.
Adi Sankaracharya's
Soundarya Lahari
Translated bY P. R. Ramachander

After the rain a gentle breeze springs up
while the sky is overlaid with clouds;
one sees the horizon suddenly in a flash of lightning;
moon and stars and planets are asleep;
a heady scent is borne from kadambas wet with rain
and the sound of frogs spreads out in utter darkness.
How can the lonely lover spend these nights ?
Page 1
from Vidjäkara's "Treasury" TRANSLATED BY

As the temperatures had cooled down considerably Naveen suggested we visit a place which he knew had some Kadam trees. This is very important from our fragrance research viewpoint as Kadam flowers are greatly valued for the wonderful fragrance they impart to attars. Outside the city we came to a tiny village where we asked an elderly farmer if he knew how we could find the place where Naveen had heard their was Kadam trees. The farmer told us that he would be happy to guide us there himself so he got in the car and off we went on another fragrant adventure. After a few miles we left the tarred road and followed a dirt one until it ended in a small ravine at the gate of an ancient temple. Once again I felt we had entered a forgotten world where anything and everything was possible. The kind and gentle soul which had guided us to this serene spot told us that many centuries before a great sage had settled here and became absorbed in meditation. In India it is believed that nature blesses that place where meditation is being done and so, in this case, a grove of Kadam trees began to grow up around his hermitage. They became so thick that it created a canopy of foliage above the place where he was sitting. The flowers when in bloom gave off their delicious aroma from 3-6 AM the time considered most auspicious for spiritual practice. Many old Kadam trees still surrounded the temple and we wandered about in search of some that were in bloom. This is the season in which they flower but their full crop usually appears only when the monsoon rains begin. A beautiful grouping of old and gnarled trees surrounded a stone lined well and the elderly farmer told us that this was a sacred place where Sita use to do her daily ablutions when she and Rama stayed here on their way to Ayodhya from Sri Lanka. Their story is recounted in the Ramayana one of the most famous epics in India. As we walked up the ravine we found more and more Kadam trees but none seemed in bloom. We came upon a forest department nursery tucked neatly away in the ravine that served as a propagation station for neem and other trees that were known to do well in this location. Thousands of tiny saplings were growing there in the shade of mature neem and peepul trees. We asked the watchman if he knew of any Kadam trees in bloom and he directed us to spot to the side of the road upon which we had come. We were overjoyed to find several trees with both mature flowers and new buds emerging. At the time of our discovery a number of village children appeared on the scene. They were asked to collect some flowers from the higher reaches of the tree in a flash they were scrambling up the trunk and onto the limbs. Laughing and chattering merrily they nimbly collected flowers while I took pictures of them. They were delighted to render this service and we were delighted to see their absolute spontaneity, innocence and purity. Their eyes sparkled with joy and happiness and there voices were like the melodious chirping of birds. They collected a small bundle of flowers and returned to the ground with their treasure in hand. And what a treasure it was. The fragrance of Kadam is rich, mellow, and delicious.
Kadam Newsletter

Links to Kadam/Kadamba/Anthocephalus cadamba
Human Flower Project-Pom-Pom of the Monsoon
Kadam Flower Article
Kadamba Tree-Wikipedia Article
A dictionary of the economic products of India, Volume 1 By George Watt
Indian herbal remedies By C. P. Khare
Plant lore, legends, and lyrics By Richard Folkard

Ruh Gulab/Rose otto(Rosa damascena) essential oil/Himalayas, India organic

Images of Rosa damascena
Roses in India

Ruh Gulab/Rose otto(Rosa damascena) essential oil/Himalayas, India organic
The distilled essence of organically grown Rosa damascena flowers in the Himalayan mountains of India is a rare and precious aromatic treat. Currently only a few innovative farmers are engaged in growing in distilling Rosa damascena in several remote areas but the oil that they produce is of a remarkably lovely quality.
This precious essential rose oil, like Rosa damascena otto distilled in several other countries like Bulgaria, South Africa and Turkey, is a clear, transparent liquid when temperatures are warmer but as soon as cooler temperatures prevail becomes a solid or semi solid waxy mass due to the presence of steroptenes-floral waxes that come over in the process of distillation. These floral waxes play in an important role in stablizing the oil and giving it good radiant strength over a long period of time. The are a natural fixative for the highly volatile aromatic constituents of the oil.
The essential oil displays an incredibly rich, ethereal, sweet, deep, warm, full floral bouquet with a slightly spicy-honeyed undertone. As it ages the harmony of the different aromatic molecules that compose the total oil become more and more harmonious and integrated creating an aura of perfect floral beauty.
The radiation of Ruh Gulab is unique an surprising. It grows from a quiet aromatic center and spreads silently into the atmosphere but suddenly one is engulfed in its magnetic sphere. If one goes out of the room in which a small dr0p of oil is suffusing itself in to the environment and then returns after a few minutes then they will receive a unique type of invisible aromatic bath that it is immensely refreshing and satisfying.

Rose otto can be used with a great variety of natural aromatics including agarwood/oud eo and co2; amberi attar; ambrette seed eo, co2 and abs; auraucaria eo; bakul attar; beeswax absolute, benzoin abs; bois de rose/rosewood eo; boronia abs; citrus oils; carnation abs; cassie abs; clary sage eo and abs; clove bud eo, co2 and abs; fir balsam abs; frangipani abs; frankincense eo, co2 and abs;geranium eo and abs; hay abs; guaicwood eo; hennaflower attar; jasmine abs(grandiflorum, auriculatum and sambac); jonquil abs; lavender eo, co2 and abs; lavindin eo and abs; mimosa abs; musk, black attar; nagarmotha eo and co2; narcissus abs; neroli eo; night queen abs and attar; oakmoss abs; opoponax eo and abs; orange blossom abs; osmanthus abs; patchouli eo, co2 and abs rose oils and abs(damascena, bourbonia, centifolia); ruh kewda and kewda attar; saffron attar and co2; sandalwood eo, co2 and abs; shamama attar; siamwood eo; styrax eo and abs; tonka bean abs; tuberose attar and abs; vanilla abs; vetiver eo, co2 and abs;violet leaf abs; ylang eo, co2 and abs

In perfumery ruh gulab/rose otto is used in Oriental bouquets, high class colognes, high class floral perfumes, literary perfumes, culinary creations, chypres, sacred perfumes, mythological creations

Rosa damascena/Damask Rose in Literature

As they went out of the door, Fanny bent her head down to smell of a
beautiful damask rose that was blooming on a bush near the house. They
walked along without seeing Jack, but he saw them. When they were half
way through the orchard, he came running up behind them, and reaching
out his hand, and touching Fanny, said:

"Won't you take this rose." She turned around, and saw that he had
picked for her the very rose that she had admired so much, and as she
took it from him, he whispered,

"I hope you don't think that I meant to hurt you this noon, when I
threw that stone--I wouldn't hurt you for the world. I only threw it
to make you look around.
of Frank and Fanny, by Mrs. Clara Moreton

If she had been pretty before, she became now ten times prettier; her lovely eyes grew larger with laughter and wonder and joy; her light feet almost danced; her color was like that of a damask rose. Each day brought new innocent happiness to her. When José came home from his work at night, she sat by his side and asked him a thousand questions. Had he seen the palace—had he seen the king or the queen—what were the people doing—were the public gardens beautiful?
The Pretty Sister Of José, by Frances Hodgson Burnett

Over all went the sunbeams, rollicking and playing; and through all went
Hildegarde, her heart filled with a new delight, feeling as if she had
never lived before. She talked to the flowers. She bent and kissed the
damask rose, which was too beautiful to pluck. She put her cheek against
a lily's satin-silver petals, and started when an angry bee flew out and
buzzed against her nose. But where were the currant-bushes? Ah! there
they were,--a row of stout green bushes, forming a hedge at the bottom
of the garden.
Queen Hildegarde, by Laura Elizabeth Howe Richards

Anne went outdoors presently to look around the dear old place. 'Lewis
Hall,' a roomy frame-house built before the Revolution, was on a hill
which sloped gently toward the corn-fields and meadows that bordered the
lazy river beyond which rose the bluffs of Buckingham. Back of the
house, a level space was laid out in a formal garden. The boxwood,
brought from England when that was the mother country, met across the
turf walks. Long-neglected flowers--damask and cabbage roses, zinnias,
cock's-comb, hollyhocks--grew half-wild, making masses of glowing color.
Along the walks, where there had paced, a hundred years before, stately
Lewis ladies in brocade and stately Lewis gentlemen in velvet coats, now
tripped an orphan girl, a stranger in her father's home. But she was a
very happy little maid as she roamed about the spacious old garden on
that sunshiny summer day, gathering hollyhocks and zinnias for ladies to
occupy her playhouse in the gnarled roots of an old oak-tree.
Honey-Sweet, by Edna Turpin

A damask rose opened its single petals, the sweetest-scented of all the roses; there were a few strawberries under the wall of the house; by-and-by the pears above enlarged, and the damsons were coated with the bloom. On the tall plum-trees hung the large purplish-red plums: upon shaking the tree, one or two came down with a thud. The branches of the damsons depended so low, looking, as it were, right into the court and pressing the fruit against your very face as you entered, that you could not choose but take some when it was ripe. A blue-painted barrel-churn stood by the door; young Aaron turned it in the morning, while the finches called in the plum-trees, but now and then not all the strength of his sturdy shoulders nor patient hours of turning could 'fetch' the butter, for a witch had been busy.
Round About a Great Estate, by Richard Jefferies

The disappointed candidates consoled themselves by the size of the bouquets which they threw to the heroine at the close of the third act. One was of white roses and red carnations; the other was of pink roses and lilies of the valley. The flowers that she carried when she answered the final curtain-call, curiously enough, were damask roses and mignonette. A minute observer would have noticed that there was a fine damask rose-bush growing in the Cutter's back garden.
Days Off, by Henry Van Dyke

The sweet-brier under the window-sill,
Which the early birds made glad,
And the damask rose by the garden fence
Were all the flowers we had.
I've looked at many a flower since then,
Exotics rich and rare,
That to other eyes were lovelier,
But not to me so fair;
O those roses bright, O those roses bright!
I have twined them with my sister's locks,
That are hid in the dust from sight!
Phoebe Gary

Zdravetz(GERANIUM MACRORRHIZUM) essential oil/Bulgaria wild harvest

Olfactory Properties of Zdravetz(Geraniium macrorrhizum) essential oil/Bulgaria wild harvest
This excellent essential oil has been little explored in natural oil partly because of its somewhat restricted availability and partly because of its relatively high cost.
But it is an oil possessing excellent fixative properties and an aroma that melds well with a wide range of materials-both excellent virtues for folks engaged in natural perfumery.

First of all Zdravetz is one of a set of unique essential oils which is a solid waxy/crystalline mass at room temperature-much like aruacaria and guaicwood.
The waxes and crystals that are part of the makeup of the oil make a valuable contribution in the fixative properties of the oil. More volatile constituents of other essential oils that are blended with Zdravetz oil intermingle with the waxes and crystals and their evaporation rate is slowed down so that they disperse their aromatic benedictions over a longer period of time.
In its pure congealed form, the Zdravetz is a waxy green mass and its delicate olfactory properties are muted until it is gently heated and becomes a flowable liquid.
Once it becomes a liquid one can discern a rich, green-herbaceous, earthy, sweet-woody aromatic profile with a radiant warm roseaceous-woody undertone which is both delicate and tenacious. The balanced nature of its overall aromatic profile- mellow, subtle yet rich and radiant is what makes it a perfect crucible in which a diverse range of other aromatic essences can unite.
If one wishes to create a easily useable liquid fixative base with Zdravetz, then it can be blended 50-50 with rosewood. Similarly one can mix in a guiacwood and gurjun balsam in a 50-50 blend and arucaria with cabreva in a 50-50 blend.

Zdravetz blends beautifully with beeswax abs; bergamot mint eo; cananga eo; champaca, golden abs and attar; champa, white eo and co2; chamomile eo's and abs(moroccan, english and blue) cistus eo and abs; citrus oils; clary sage eo and abs; fir balsam abs; frangipani abs;frankincense eo, co2 and abs; geranium eo and abs; hay abs; helichrysum eo and abs; henna leaf abs and co2; jasmin absolutes; labadanum eo and abs; lavender eo, co2 and abs; magnolia lily co2; neroli eo; oakmoss abs; petitgrain oils(mandarin, bergamot, lemon); rose eo's and abs(centifolia, burboniana, damascena) saffron attar and co2; sandalwood eo, co2 and abs; tea, black abs; tea green abs; tonka bean abs; tuberose abs and attar; ylang abs, co2 and eo

In perfumery its excellent fixative effect and subtle aromatic qualities can be used to great advantage in chypres, fougeres, Oriental bases, colognes, rose bases, precious woods notes, herbal perfumes, geographical perfumes

Interesting facts about Zdravetz/Geranium macrorrhizum

1. Geranium macrorrhizum L., an aromatic plant, and wild geranium, Geranium maculatum, are members of the Geraneaceae family and should not be confused with the scented geraniums(Pelargonium species). Although used in flavoring and perfumery, East Indian geranium is actually Cymbopogon martini Stapf., of the Poaceae family.
2.Zdravetz means health and the herb is used in traditional Bulgarian medicine
3. One of the most popular herbal plants in Bulgaria with highly aromatic leaeves. It grows wild all over Bulgaria especially in forests and near streams-also cultivated in gardens.
4. A bunch of Zdravetz or even a single leaf is thought to confer protection and good fortune on those embarking on a journey or some important undertaking
5.The custom of presenting zdravets as a symbol of goodwill and good wishes is still alive in Bulgaria today.
6.Zdravets contains up to 0.15% essential oil. The plant also contains flavonoids, phenolic acids, pigments, vitamins, mineral salts and others. The main component of the essential oil is sesquiterpene ketone germacrone (50-65%). At room temperature the oil is a mixture of liquid and crystalline matter. The aromatic substances are contained in the liquid part, while the purified solid part is odorless.
7.Macrorrhizum is made up of the Greek macro-(large, long) and rhrhiz(root) components meaning "large-rooted or with large root stock.

Geranium(Pelergonium graveolens)/Himalayas, India(organic)

Olfactory qualities of Geranium(Pelargonium graveolens)/Himalayas, India(organic)

The study of the fragrance of the essences distilled or extracted from different species of the same genus is a delightful one. In the world of natural aromatics there is an increasing number of such essential oils, absolutes, co2 extracts, hydrosols, enfleurage and attars available. In the ten years since we started our modest business and began interacting with distillers and extractors in different parts of the world, we have seen quite a number of unique essences appear that either had never been available before or were restricted to the palette of famous perfume houses. Due to world wide internet availability, better means of transporting goods via international courier, better extraction and distillation techniques and a deep interest in the aromatic treasures of the botanical world, the aspiring natural perfumer can draw upon a great variety of resources to create essences of rare and unusual beauty.

In the case of Geranium one find essential oils and absolutes of Pelargonium graveolens, Pelargonium asperum roseum, Pelargonium asperum roseum var.bourbon,etc.
It is not that there are just different species and varieties available but also distillations from the very same genus and species can present unique aromatic characteristics depending on the region which it is grown, the method of distillation and extraction, the time of harvest, etc. The olfactory explorations of these subtle and sometimes not so subtle differences is what makes the world of natural perfumery a true delight to participate in.

In the past 10 years there has been a genuine aromatic revolution within India. When I first traveled there for the purpose of exploring the countries ancient and modern aromatic traditions in the company of Ramakant Harlalka, who kindly took me to many places in that vast land where distillation and extraction was taking place, there were just a few major oils being distilled like palmarosa, lemongrass, sandalwood, peppermint, basil, cedarwood, jasmin grandiflorum, etc were being produced on a commercial scale. Many oils were being distilled in a minor way for local industry but lack of proper equipment, quality plant material, horticultural expertise etc were holding the industry back. But in the span of a decade that whole scenario changed in a dramatic way. Now there are well over a hundred essences being distilled or extracted both for commercial consumption and export.

At the time of my first explorations with Ramakant, a small quantity of high quality geranium oil was being produced in the Nilgri and Palani Hills of South India and on one of our early explorations I had a chance to visit a government field stations where such work was going on. It was a lovely experience to stand in the cool mountain atmosphere near Kodikanal and see healthy geranium plants growing, being harvested and distilled all in one place. The expertise which they developed in that field station(which eventually was closed) did not die out but was preserved and now has been transferred to the lovely rural mountain areas of Uttaranchal-a state in North India which encompasses pristine mountain valleys where farmers are growing geranium and several other aromatic crops organically. Ramakant,being the natural pioneer that he is, was instrumental in helping setting up these early projects with geranium, designing the distilling equipment appropriate for the local area and teaching the farmers how to distill their geranium crop properly under optimum conditions.

The geranium oil from the Himalayas has a sprightly fresh, sweet, green, herbaceous-minty top-note, very complex and full. Underneath it sits a delicate spicy- bouquet. In the heat-note phase the scintillating sweet minty, complex herbaceous bouquet comes to the forefront. It is this note which clearly distinguishes the rose geranium from South Africa(which is also a great favorite of mine) As Rose Geranium goes into the heart-note phase the roseaceous/herbaceous note predominates. Deep in the dry-out phase of the Himalayan Geranium, a delicate floral note emerges amidst the minty-herbaceous accord, interplaying nicely with them. The radiance and tenacity of both oils is very good. It is a real joy to sit and smell both oils side by side through the different stages of their aromatic lives.

Blends well with ambrette seed co2, eo and abs; anise, star eo and co2; artemisia oils; basil eo, co2 and abs; bergamot eo; birch, sweet eo; caraway eo and co2; cardamon eo, co2 and abs; carrot seed eo, co2 and abs; cassia bark eo and co2; cistus eo and abs; clary sage eo and abs; clove bud eo, co2 and abs; cubeb eo; cumin seed eo and abs; currant, black abs; davana eo and co2; fennel, sweet eo and co2; frankincense eo, co2 and abs; hop eo and co2; hyssop eo and abs; jasmin sambac abs; jasmin auriculatum abs; jasmin grandiflorum abs; labdanum eo and abs; lavender eo, co2 and abs; marigold eo and abs; neroli eo; orange, blood eo; orange, sweet eo; orange essence eo; orange flower abs; orange flower water abs; patchouli eo, co2 and abs; petitgrain oils; rosa damascena eo and abs; rosa centifolia abs; rosa bourbonia abs; rosa rugosa eo; rosa odorata eo; rose leaf abs; rosewood eo; tagetes eo and abs; thyme eo, co2 and abs, tuberose abs and attar; vanilla abs

In perfumery is can be used in colognes, chypres, rose bases, amber bases, herbal bouquets, high class florals, forest blends, culinary perfumes, literary perfumes

Yuzu(Citrus junos) essential oil/Japan

Olfactory Properties of Yuzu(Citus junos)/Japan

The light green oil of the yuzu fruit displays a unique green, dry, bitter, yet sweet, juicy citrus odor which has some punguent/bitter grapefruit-like characteristics coupled with the sweeter aroma of the green mandarin peel oil. The combination of sweet, dry, bitter and juicy is what gives to yuzu its unique and distinct aromatic profile amongst citrus fruits. Even though yuzu is considered a top-note oil it has a finely balanced bitter/sweet dry-out that lasts for almost an hour.

Blends well with allspice eo, co2 and abs; anise, star eo; anise, sweet eo; artemisia annua eo; basil eo's co2 and abs; bay leaf eo; benzoin abs; birch sweet eo; bucchuu leaf eo and abs; cananga eo; cardamon eo, co2 and abs; carnation abs; champaca, golden abs and attar; cistus eo; citrus oils; coriander eo and co2; davana eo; fir oils; frangipani abs; frankincense eo, co2 and abs; galangal eo; geranium eo and abs; ginger eo, co2 and abs; jasmin absolutes; jonquil abs; juniper berry eo, co2 and abs; labdanum eo and abs; laurel leaf eo and abs; lavender eo, co2 and abs; lemongrass eo; litsea cubeba eo; melissa/lemonbalm eo, co2 and abs; magnolia lily co2; marjoram, sweet eo; narcissus abs; night queen abs; orange flower abs; pennyroyal eo; peppermint eo, co2 and abs; osmanthus abs; pine oils, petitgrain oils, neroli eo; ruh kewda; sage, clary eo and abs; spearmine eo; styrax eo and abs; tagetes eo and attar(genada); verbena, lemon eo and abs; violet leaf abs; wintergreen eo; ylang eo, co2 and abs

In perfumery would serve well in geographical/historical perfume, colognes, high class florals, culinary perfumes, winter season perfume, sacred perfumes

Interesting facts about Yuzu(Citrus Juno)

1. Yuzu (Citrus junos) is a highly prized citrus favored by the Japanese. It is about the size of a Mandarin orange, yellow and quite sour with a very fragrant rind, which is the part used in cooking.
2. The Yuzu tree was introduced to Japan from China over 1000 years ago
3. t is unusual among citrus fruits in being relatively frost-hardy, due to its cold-hardy C. ichangensis ancestry, and can be grown in regions with winters as low as -5°C where more sensitive citrus would not thrive. In Japan, an ornamental version of yuzu called hana yuzu (花ゆず, 花柚子?) "flower yuzu" is also grown for its flowers rather than its fruit.
4. The fruit looks like a bulgy tangerine and the leaf is interestingly compound, the larger leaflet being connected to the stem by a smaller one. Yuzu fruits are normally harvested in autumn while still green, although the fruits eventually turn into an orange yellow colour. Their aroma is clearly different from those of other citrus fruits - a characteristic tart, dry aroma reminiscent of green grapefruit with definite overtones of mandarin orange.
5.A traditional hot bath is enjoyed in Japan in which many whole fruits, most often wrapped in cheesecloth, float in the water. This "yuzu-yu", or yuzu bath is taken on the evening of the winter solstice. One of the most popular fruits in Japan, this citrus scent is said to inspire optimism and promote a sense of well-being.
6.This sour fruit is used almost exclusively for its aromatic rind and snappy zest. Use as a decorative garnish for clear soups. Add small slivers to a variety of dishes to enhance flavor. Simmered dishes love the presence of its shredded peel. Its astringent juice makes a very tasty contribution when used in sauces, beverages, confections and vinegar. Offering many subtle tropical flavors, this fruit creates a complex taste when sweetened to make a fruit flavored drink. Dried yuzu is sometimes combined with other spices. Its striking tree makes a lovely garden ornamental.
7. The body of the taepyeongso, a Korean traditional oboe, is often made from yuzu wood.